Fiscal Year 2000 Performance Report and
Fiscal Year 2002 Performance Plan

STRATEGIC GOAL FIVE:
Protect American Society by Providing for the Safe, Humane, and Secure Confinement of Persons in Federal Custody

Department of Justice Seal


DOJ is responsible for the confinement of persons convicted of federal crimes and sentenced to terms of incarceration, and those charged with federal offenses and detained while awaiting trial or sentencing, a hearing on their immigration status, or deportation. Three of DOJ's components, the Bureau of Prisons (BOP), the United States Marshals Service (USMS), and the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), engage in activities related to this function.

BOP's primary responsibility consists of maintaining secure, safe and humane correctional institutions for sentenced offenders placed in its custody. BOP develops and operates correctional programs that seek a balanced application of the concepts of punishment, deterrence, and incapacitation with opportunities to prepare the offender for successful reintegration into society. Through the National Institute of Corrections, BOP provides assistance to international, federal, state, and local correctional agencies.

BOP conducts its incarceration function using a range of BOP operated institutions of varying security levels, as well as the use of privately operated facilities, including half-way houses, and facilities provided through Intergovernmental Agreements. While BOP deals with the special problems which accompany the long-term custody and care of sentenced federal prisoners, BOP is also a major provider of detention bed space. BOP operates several metropolitan detention centers in cities where detention beds from non-federal providers are insufficient.

Over the next few years, BOP faces significant challenges. During FY 2001, the total inmate population is expected to increase by approximately 13,230, to 158,355, a nine percent increase over FY 2000. Despite an ambitious expansion program, the continued growth in the inmate population is affecting the overcrowding rate. From FY 1990 to FY 1997, the overcrowding rate decreased each year, to a low of 22 percent in FY 1997. Overcrowding has crept up and is expected to reach 34 percent overcrowding system-wide by the end of FY 2001.

The National Capital and Self-Government Revitalization Act of 1997, transferring the state function of operating prisons from the District of Columbia Department of Corrections (DCDOC) to BOP, will result in BOP assuming the responsibility of housing all D.C. adult felons sentenced to a term of confinement. The Revitalization Act mandates that the prison complex in Lorton, Virginia be closed by December 31, 2000, and the prisoners be transferred to BOP. As of April 1, 2001, there were almost 3,000 inmates in BOP custody.

The closure of the Lorton complex and the federalizing of the prisoners incarcerated there will also have significant impact upon the USMS District Court and D.C. Superior Court district offices. Formerly, parolees routinely suffered no consequences for parole violations because DCDOC lacked the staff and record keeping to monitor parolees and their violations. Since May 5, 2000, parolees have been subject to federal standards for parole violations. USMS intends to enforce every parole violation and, therefore, anticipates a rise in arrests after the Lorton prisoners come under federal supervision. D.C. Superior Court estimates an increase of 2,000 parole violation warrants and detainers due to the elimination of the DCDOC Warrant Squad. Another expected impact is the increased resources required to transport prisoners to and from jails in southern and southwestern Virginia.

In addition, BOP is planning additional federal bedspace for higher-security, long-term INS detainees who cannot be repatriated to their homeland. BOP has requested additional construction funding for this purpose in FY 2002.

Pre-sentenced inmates, persons charged with federal offenses awaiting trial, and persons detained while awaiting trial are primarily the responsibility of USMS. USMS does not operate any detention centers; rather it obtains the beds it needs to house this population from state and local jails and detention centers, BOP, INS and private facilities. USMS is responsible for ensuring that detainees make their scheduled court appearances, thereby contributing to the orderly work of the Federal Courts.

INS likewise detains persons who are charged with violating immigration law, have entered the U.S. illegally, or have been ordered deported. INS houses its detainees in its own detention facilities (Service Processing Centers), contract facilities, state and local jails, and BOP facilities.

MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES

The Department has two material weaknesses in this area:

Prison Overcrowding - This has been a departmental material weakness since 1985. We anticipate that it will continue to be an issue given the federal laws (mandatory minimum sentences for example) increased resources for law enforcement and prosecutorial agencies, and a stronger emphasis on prosecution of gun-related crimes. New prison construction cannot keep up the growth in sentenced offenders.

Detention Space and Infrastructure - This has been a management challenge since 1989. Both the USMS and the INS are experiencing rapid growth in their need for detention space. The USMS is experiencing a shortage of detention space near Federal court cities, due to the same reasons listed above for prison overcrowding; the INS, under the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, is required to detain certain aliens until removal. These expanding needs for detention space place increasingly heavy demands on the USMS and INS infrastructure, including transportation, buildings, communications equipment, and staff.

The DOJ Office of Inspector General (OIG) includes both of these issues in its December 2000 list of the ten most serious management challenges facing the DOJ.

Performance measures related to these material weaknesses are noted.

PROGRAM EVALUATIONS

In FY 2000, as a pilot program, BOP assumed responsibility for delivery of health care to USMS prisoners housed in three BOP detention facilities (Metropolitan Correctional Center in New York; Federal Detention Center in Miami; and Federal Transfer Center in Oklahoma City). This pilot program continues. All medical referral centers were added to the pilot by the fourth quarter of FY 2000. Cost data will continue to be collected and analyzed to provide additional data for assessment and possible expansion of the program.

USMS is tasked with the custody and care of pretrial detainees and is responsible for the medical care and associated costs for federal prisoners housed in state and local jails. In the conference report accompanying the fiscal year 2000 Appropriations Act for the Departments of Commerce, Justice and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies Appropriation Act (P.L. 106-113), Congress adopted the Senate report language and directed the USMS to submit quarterly reports on cost savings initiatives in the Federal Prisoner Detention Appropriation. In Addition, Congress included a general provision in P.L. 106-113 that authorizes the USMS to base prisoner medical costs on the Medicare/Medicaid cost structure. The first report was submitted with findings that the USMS had been able to achieve significant savings for the federal government from the implementation of the medicare rate structure. The USMS Prisoner Medical Care Program has proven its ability to avoid costs by applying Medicare rates to prisoner medical bills. As a result of the New York City Managed Care Network (an interagency agreement between USMS, BOP and the Veterans Administration, executed in January 1998) and the medical claims assistance provided to district offices, the USMS avoided paying approximately $39 million from FY 1995 through FY 2000, thereby slowing the growth of the Federal Prisoner Detention Appropriation.

Because of the size and distribution of this detention population in any given day, over 45,000 INS and USMS detainees are housed in non-federal jails and prisons nationwide. The Department is responsible for ensuring these detainees are housed in humane and safe environments. To ensure detainees are being protected, the Department is conducting Conditions of Confinement Reviews (CCRs) of a sampling of non-federal facilities housing federal detainees. In addition, the CCR process is to result in an improved methodology for the inspection of non-federal detention facilities by DOJ inspection teams in the future. The CCRs, which began in November 2000, and are scheduled to be completed by March 1, 2002, will cover the 40 largest use non-federal detention facilities utilized by the INS and USMS. These 40 facilities house approximately 30 percent of the combined INS and USMS detention population.

In FY 2001, INS plans to continue projects to use alternatives to detention based on an evaluation on the results of the Appearance Assistance Program (AAP) demonstration project. The evaluation will address the impact of AAP on improving alien appearance at hearings and compliance with Immigration Judge final orders as a means to reduce use of detention space for appropriate categories of aliens.

Regular review of Detention and Removals Program management is conducted through the INS Program for Excellence and Comprehensive Tracking (INSpect). The scope of the review includes high-risk areas, including facility issues; security and control; detainee conduct and detainee services; transportation and escort; and docket control.

STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 5.1: DETENTION
Provide for the safe, secure and humane confinement of persons who are detained while awaiting trial or sentencing, a hearing on their immigration status, or deportation.

Annual Goal 5.1: Ensure adequate, cost effective detention capacity and efficiently operate the Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation System (JPATS)

STRATEGIES
  • Acquire needed bedspace capacity through a multi-pronged approach of state and local agreements, contracts with private vendors, construction and operation of federal detention facilities, and where appropriate, the use of alternatives.
  • Improve management of detention resources through more accurate forecasting of detention needs, better coordination, strengthened oversight and other means.
  • Operate the Justice Prisoner Alien Transportation System (JPATS) efficiently and effectively.

DOJ's performance plan includes goals to provide sufficient bedspace for the expected increase in the detention populations of both USMS and INS. INS anticipates its population will continue to increase as a result of additional enforcement staffing and continued implementation of immigration legislation. The USMS pre-trial and pre-sentenced population is also expected to continue to increase as a result of growth in enforcement and prosecutorial personnel over the past several years. The success of DOJ's investigators and prosecutors at solving crimes, arresting suspects and trying cases places increasing workload demands on both INS and USMS detention activities.

The Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation System (JPATS), created in 1995, is a partnership between USMS, INS, and BOP. It was formed to transport prisoners and aliens more safely, efficiently, and cost effectively than previously possible. Prior to the establishment of JPATS, movement of detained aliens (for transfer between institutions and for deportation) was managed solely by INS, while transportation of other federal prisoners was the responsibility of USMS.

In FY 1999, JPATS began operating as a revolving fund activity with operating costs reimbursed by customer agencies. The scheduling and movement of detainees, prisoners, and deportable aliens are accomplished on a cost-per-seat charge paid by the customer agencies through reimbursable agreements. By combining the equipment and personnel resources of the three agencies, and consolidating the movement of alien prisoners with other prisoners, flight and bus seats are more efficiently utilized.

MEANS - Annual Goal 5.1

Dollars/FTE

Appropriation

FY 2000
Obligated

FY 2001
Enacted

FY 2002
Requested

$ mil

FTE

$ mil

FTE

$ mil

FTE

Detention Trustee

0

0

0

0

2

6

U.S. Marshals Salaries and Expenses

40

87

40

87

45

87

JPATS

0

113

13

183

0

183

Federal Prisoner Detention

558

0

596

0

725

0

Enforcement and Border Affairs

0

0

856

3569

905

3734

Federal Prison System Salaries & Expenses

374

3798

402

4155

416

4374

Federal Prison System Buildings & Facilities

10

3

201

12

153

0

Immigration User Fee

77

165

83

166

90

174

Breached Bond/Detention Fund

69

40

78

44

119

44

TOTAL

1128

4206

2269

8216

2455

8602

Skills

Deputy U.S. Marshals must be knowledgeable of regulations regarding restraining, feeding, clothing and housing federal prisoners, and must ensure that prisoner rights are not violated while in custody of the USMS. In addition, they must be able to establish and maintain coordination with personnel from other law enforcement agencies at the federal, state, and local levels. Skills needed for the INS Detention and Deportation Program include: those held by Deportation Officers, Detention Enforcement Officers, docket clerks, Institutional Removal Program Directors, attorneys and legal technicians, Procurement Officers, and support staff.

Information Technology

USMS is in the process of developing one centralized application, the Justice Detainee Information System (JDIS), from its five offender-based applications. The following systems are in place to accomplish this goal: the Warrant Information Network, the Prisoner Tracking System, the Automated Prisoner Scheduling System, the Automated Booking Station, and the Prisoner Medical Tracking system. JDIS will allow the USMS to manage prisoners and track them through the entire judicial process. INS systems utilized to collect detention data are the Deportable Alien Control (DACS) and Criminal Alien Information System (CAIS). Ultimately, the data will be captured in ENFORCE.

PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT - Annual Goal 5.1

5.1A Ensure Adequate, Cost Effective Detention Capacity (Management Challenge)

Background/ Program Objectives:

USMS administers the Federal Prisoner Detention (FPD) program for the federal government using funding appropriated specifically for the care of prisoners in the U.S. The FPD appropriation provides financial support for the housing, subsistence, medical care, and medical guard service for federal detainees remanded to USMS custody. The responsibility begins when a prisoner is initially brought into USMS custody, continues through the trial process, and ends when a prisoner is acquitted or arrives at a designated BOP facility to serve a sentence. The USMS pre-trial population is generated by public policy and multi-component investigative and prosecutorial efforts within the DOJ or other federal law enforcement agencies. Since USMS, like BOP, is at the receiving end of the federal law enforcement initiatives and efforts, USMS has no control over the number of detainees remanded to its custody and has no option other than to house and care for the detainees.

USMS
Data Collection and Storage: Detainee population data is captured using the USM-268 form and is entered from the report into the Prison Tracking System. The daily costs are collected using the jail utilization reports and are entered into a database.

Data Validation and Verification: The USM-268 report validates the detainee population. The jail utilization report validates jail rates. The USMS Status of Funds report from STARS also validates cost information. Missing data are resolved manually at HQ.

Data Limitations: None known at this time.

INS
Data Collection and Storage: Detention utilization is collected in the Deportable Alien Control System (DACS). DACS provides specific data about the detention stay of individual aliens. INS collects data on the average daily alien population in custody through manual tracking validated against DACS. The field consolidates statistics for each INS location and state and local jails used by INS on a weekly basis. Headquarters consolidates the data into a report that contains aggregate population counts for specific categories of detainees.

Data Validation and Verification: The statistics are corroborated through submission audits and contact with field offices for missing information. DACS data validation and verification is described in the Interior Enforcement section of Strategic Goal Four.

Data Limitations: None known at this time.

USMS depends on state and local governments and BOP to house detainees. Detention bedspace for federal detainees is acquired at the lowest cost to the government through: 1) Intergovernmental Agreements (IGAs), where a daily rate is paid; 2) Cooperative Agreements with state and local governments, where capital investment funding is provided in exchange for a guarantee of a certain number of bed spaces, for which a daily rate is paid when these bed spaces are used; 3) federal detention facilities, where the government must pay for construction and operation of the facility; and 4) private jail facilities.

Under the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 and other immigration laws, INS is authorized and sometimes required to detain illegal aliens to help facilitate their removal from the United States. The INS detention requirement is therefore proportional to the increase in the number of alien removals.

FY 2000 Actual Performance:

Performance Measure: Average Daily Population in Custody [USMS]

Target: 35,102 Actual: 34,528

Discussion: The USMS projects the target level based on historical population trend.

Public Benefit: USMS continues to successfully house an ever-growing detainee population nationwide. Between 1996 and 2000, the USMS average detainee population grew 48 percent (from 23,374 to 34,528). During the same period, the Southwest Border districts (District of Arizona, District of New Mexico, Southern District of Texas, Western District of Texas, and Southern District of California) average population has collectively grown 114 percent (from 4,925 to 10,537 detainees). Most of the growth in the Southwest Border districts is a result of illegal immigration activity. Successfully housing a detainee population of this magnitude, both nationwide and specifically in the Southwest Border districts, is challenging. By obtaining this space and managing the prisoner population, detainees who are flight risks or potential dangers to the public were safely and securely detained for the length of their involvement with the judicial process.

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: Based upon program performance in FY 2000, we expect to achieve the corresponding FY 2001goal.

Performance Measure: Average Daily Population in Custody [INS]

Target: 19,000 Actual: 18,518

Discussion: Since FY 1995, as INS enforcement activities have risen markedly due to an infusion of resources, the need for detention space has similarly grown. INS funded bed space has increased steadily to keep pace with a growing detention population. In FY 2000, approximately 97% of INS' detention beds were devoted to the detention of mandatory detainees required by the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act. However, the program must continue to increase the number of available beds to detain increasing numbers of mandatory, as well as non-mandatory cases currently not detained.

Public Benefit: INS maintains adequate capacity to detain persons in Federal custody in cost-effective, safe, secure and humane facilities, while awaiting trial, a hearing, or deportation.

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: Based upon program performance in FY 2000, we expect to achieve the corresponding FY 2001goal.

Data Collection and Storage: Same as previous chart.
Data Validation and Verification: Same as previous chart.
Data Limitations: Same as previous chart.

Performance Measure: Jail Day Costs [USMS]

Target: $56 Actual: $57 ($56.57)

Discussion: USMS missed the target slightly. As state and local detention facilities exhausted available space for federal detainees, USMS had to increase the use of private detention facilities. The jail daily rates at these private facilities are significantly higher than the national average.

Public Benefit: USMS acquires detention space at the lowest possible cost to the government through the use of Inter-Governmental Agreements (IGAs), cooperative agreements with State and local governments, private jail facilities, and federal detention facilities. By obtaining this space and managing the prisoner population, detainees who are flight risks or potential dangers to the public were safely and securely detained for the length of their involvement with the Judicial process.

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: Based upon program performance in FY 2000, we expect to achieve the corresponding FY 2001 target.

Performance Measure: Per Capita Costs [INS]

Target: $72 Actual: $72

Discussion: We achieved our target for per capita costs in FY2000.

Public Benefit: INS maintains adequate capacity to detain persons in Federal custody in cost-effective, safe, secure and humane facilities, while awaiting trial, a hearing, or deportation.

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: Based upon program performance in FY 2000, we expect to achieve the corresponding FY 2001 target.

Strategies and Initiatives to Achieve the FY 2002 Goal:

In FY 2002, DOJ will work cooperatively with the private sector and state and local governments to establish and maintain adequate capacity to detain persons in federal custody in cost-effective, safe, secure and humane facilities, while awaiting trial, a hearing, or deportation. Specifically, we will obtain sufficient detention space for an estimated average daily population of 43,700 persons in the custody of USMS.

In addition, BOP will continue to support USMS requirements by housing a significant number, approximately one third of federal pretrial detainees, in BOP facilities, and will open a detention center in FY 2001 in Honolulu, Hawaii (this data is included in the section addressing overcrowding (5.2)). The remainder will be housed in non-federal facilities (e.g., state and local jails, private facilities). In total, we will provide 19,655 detention beds for persons in INS custody by the end of FY 2001.

In FY 2002, INS will continue to work with the USMS, BOP, the private sector, and state and local governments to obtain adequate bedspace to support a population of 21,262 detainees safely, securely, and humanely. Additionally, INS will work closely with USMS to ensure cost-efficiency.

Crosscutting Activities:

DOJ works cooperatively with the private sector and state and local governments to establish and maintain adequate capacity to detain persons in federal custody in cost-effective, safe, secure, and humane facilities. The Cooperative Agreement Program and Intergovernmental Agreements are two vehicles used to obtain guaranteed bed space for federal prisoners in state and local detention facilities.

5.1B Efficiently Operate the Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation System (JPATS)

Background/ Program Objectives:

The Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation System (JPATS) transports federal prisoners and detainees via aircraft in a cost-effective manner without sacrificing the safety of the public, JPATS employees, or those in custody. Detainees and prisoners include pretrial, sentenced, and deportable aliens, whether in USMS, BOP or INS custody. JPATS also provides prisoner transportation to the Department of Defense (DOD) and state and local law enforcement on a space available cost-reimbursable basis. Transportation arrangements are coordinated from one centralized location in Kansas City, Missouri. Over the past two years, the JPATS air fleet has been enhanced by: 1) acquiring an excess DC-9 aircraft from the Department of Energy; 2) acquiring a third B727; 3) leasing newer commercial aircraft to replace aging government-owned aircraft; and 4) entering into reimbursable agreements with other federal agencies, such as Federal Aviation Administration, Federal Bureau of Investigation, and Department of Energy.

FY 2000 Actual Performance:

Data Collection and Storage: Detainee population data is captured using the USM-268 form and is entered from the report into the Prison Tracking System. The daily costs are collected using the jail utilization reports and are entered into a database.

Data Validation and Verification: The USM-268 report validates the detainee population. The jail utilization report validates jail rates. The USMS Status of Funds report from STARS also validates cost information. Missing data are resolved manually at HQ.

Data Limitations: None known at this time.

Performance Measure: Per Prisoner Air Transportation Costs Ė Discontinued Measure (NOTE: The pricing per prisoner air transportation costs will no longer be used as JPATS is in the process of developing a new pricing methodology based on cost per flight hour. This pricing methodology mirrors private sector air transportation pricing modules. A new performance indicator will be developed when this methodology has been completed.)

Target: $491 Actual: $491

Discussion: USMS met the target by creating a centralized Business Management Office. As managers of the revolving fund, the Business Management Office issues contracts, performs cost analyses, develops long-range strategic plans, certifies invoices, and prepares internal financial statements and supports agency financial statements.

Public Benefit: Transporting prisoners and detainees using JPATS reduces dramatically the interaction of potentially dangerous people in custody with the general public, thus greatly enhancing the security of all.

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: Based upon program performance in FY 2000, we expect to achieve the corresponding FY 2001 target.

Performance Measure: Number of Prisoner Air Movements Ė Discontinued Measure

Target: 155,208 Actual: 152,486

Discussion: As the USMS projects the target level based on historical movement trends primarily as an estimate for customer budgeting purposes, this measure will be discontinued as a measure of performance.

Public Benefit: Transporting prisoners and detainees using JPATS reduces dramatically the interaction of potentially dangerous people in custody with the general public, thus greatly enhancing the security of all.

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: Based upon program performance in FY 2000, we expect to achieve the corresponding FY 2001 target.

Strategies and Initiatives to Achieve the FY 2002 Goal:

In FY 2002, DOJ will acquire needed aircraft and provide on-site aircraft maintenance at the Hangar in Oklahoma City to reduce aircraft down times and flight delays and prevent unnecessary maintenance costs. Also, access to the Automated Prisoner Scheduling System has been provided to INS and BOP, as well as enhancements to the system. This will eliminate duplicate data entry and provide near real time access to scheduling.

Crosscutting Activities:

USMS is responsible for the production, transportation, and custody of all federal detainees (except non-returnable aliens). This includes receiving prisoners from the FBI, DEA, and INS; processing them through the cellblock; producing them for court proceedings at the direction of the U.S. Attorneys; and either releasing them or transporting them to a Bureau of Prisons or contract facility.

INS is responsible for the detention and deportation of illegal aliens. INS works closely with USMS on transportation issues, and with USMS and BOP on detention issues. INS also coordinates closely with the Executive Office for Immigration Review, which ensures the fair and impartial review of immigrant applications.

5.1C Operate Facilities that are Safe and Secure

Background/ Program Objectives:

DOJ seeks the safe, secure, and humane treatment of detainees and inmates. The Department has the highest regard for human rights and public safety. Therefore, it strives to maintain facilities that meet the accreditation standards of correctional professions.

FY 2000 Actual Performance:

Data Collection and Storage: ACA accreditation data reported are the findings, certifications, and recommendations of the accrediting agencies. Detention utilization is collected in the Deportable Alien Control System (DACS). Ultimately, the data will be captured in ENFORCE, which will replace the Detention Management System and DACS. DACS provides specific data about the detention stay of individual aliens. INS collects data on the average daily alien population in custody through manual tracking validated against DACS. The field consolidates statistics for each INS location and state and local jails used by INS on a weekly basis. Headquarters consolidates the data into a report that contains aggregate population counts for specific categories of detainees.

Data Validation and Verification: ACA accreditation data results from independent reports and certifications of the accrediting institution. The detention related statistics are corroborated through submission audits and contact with filed offices for missing information. DACS data validation and verification is described in the Interior Enforcement section of Strategic Goal Four.

Data Limitations: None known at this time.

Performance Measure: Percent of INS Facilities with American Correctional Association (ACA) Accreditation (NOTE: All data has been corrected to reflect percentages based on a total of 16 facilities.)

Target: 93% Actual: 63%

Discussion: Several INS Service Processing Centers and Contract Detention Facilities are in the accreditation process and have been reviewed or are making structural changes and improvements to comply with the ACA standards. INS is implementing a comprehensive detention standards program for all INS owned Service Processing Centers, INS Contract Detention Facilities, and state and local jails contracted for detention by INS.

Public Benefit: Accreditation by ACA provides INS with an external assessment of its ability to meet the basics of corrections.

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: Based upon program performance in FY 2000, we expect to achieve the corresponding FY 2001 target.

Strategies and Initiatives to Achieve the FY 2002 Goal:

Accreditation by ACA provides INS with an external assessment of its ability to meet the basics of corrections. INS will continue to seek and maintain ACA accreditation of Service Processing Centers and Contract Detention Facilities.

In FY 2002, INS will continue to implement the additional requirements for its comprehensive detention standards program (in phases) to all INS owned Service Processing Centers, INS Contract Detention Facilities, and state and local jails contracted for detention by INS. These standards meet or exceed many of the ACA standards for confinement.

Crosscutting Activities:

DOJ works cooperatively with the private sector and state and local governments to establish and maintain adequate capacity to detain persons in federal custody in cost effective, safe, secure, and humane facilities.

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STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 5.2: PRISON CAPACITY
Ensure that sufficient prison capacity exists so that violent and other serious criminal offenders are imprisoned to the fullest extent of the law.

Annual Goal 5.2: Reduce prison overcrowding.

STRATEGIES
  • Acquire additional bedspace capacity through a multi-pronged approach of new construction, cooperative arrangements with other units of government, alternatives to traditional confinement, where appropriate, and contracts with private providers of correctional services.

In order to keep pace with inmate population growth and reduce overcrowding, BOP expands bed space capacity each year through construction projects and facility activations. BOP also explores alternatives to traditional confinement.

The National Capital Revitalization and Self-Government Improvement Act of 1997 transfers to BOP the responsibility for housing felons sentenced under the DC Code and to the U.S. Parole Commission (USPC) the responsibility for conducting parole hearings for these felons.

As of February 26, 2001, there were 3,142 D.C. inmates in BOP custody. The Department and BOP do not anticipate that the legal challenges will adversely impact on the closure of D.C.ís Lorton prison complex (December 31, 2001).

BOP tries to accommodate the increasing population in the most cost effective manner, following a policy of adding capacity through the utilization of contract facilities (where the inmate security level is appropriate), expansion of existing facilities, the acquisition and conversion of military and other properties to prison use, and the construction of new prisons. During FY 2000, over 13 percent of the BOP inmate population is housed in privately-managed prisons, contract facilities, and other alternative confinement.

During FY 2001 and FY 2002, BOP anticipates activating over 5,400 critically needed beds, including the two new facilities requested for activation in the FY 2002 request: Petersburg, Virginia and Lee County, Virginia. Further, BOP plans to begin construction of several new facilities during FY 2002 that have already received partial funding. The FY 2002 request will also provide funding for construction of facilities to add nearly 12,000 beds when completed and activated during FY 2004 - FY 2007.

MEANS - Annual Goal 5.2

Dollars/FTE

Appropriation

FY 2000
Obligated

FY 2001
Enacted

FY 2002
Requested

$ mil

FTE

$ mil

FTE

$ mil

FTE

Federal Prison System Salaries & Expenses

310

223

489

290

617

309

Federal Prison System Buildings & Facilities

624

262

201

12

680

370

TOTAL

934

485

690

302

1297

679

Skills

BOP requires a full complement of well trained and educated staff from correctional officers to the warden, project managers to oversee construction projects, contract specialists to negotiate large construction contracts, and innovative program specialists to identify secure and community based alternatives to traditional incarceration for nonviolent offenders.

Information Technology

Inmate data is collected on the BOP on-line system (SENTRY); personnel data is collected on the Human Resource Management Information System (HRMIS); and financial data on the Financial Management Information System (FMIS). BOP also utilizes population forecast modeling in order to plan for future construction and contracting requirements to meet capacity needs. The United States Parole Commission utilizes a parolee database for hearings and status of cases.

PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT - Annual Goal 5.2

5.2A Reduce Prison Overcrowding (Management Challenge)s

Background/ Program Objectives:

BOP facilities are dangerously overcrowded at 32 percent above rated capacity system-wide, and there does not seem to be relief in the near future due to the burgeoning inmate population. While state and local incarceration growth rates have declined in recent years, BOP has experienced record growth: an increase of over 10,000 inmates during FY 1998; over 11,300 in FY 1999; and 11,436 in FY 2000. Given increased resources for law enforcement and prosecutorial agencies, and stronger emphasis on prosecution of gun related crimes, federal inmate growth promises to continue into the future.

BOP constantly monitors facility capacity, population growth, and prisoner overcrowding. As Federal inmate population levels are projected to increase and continue to exceed the capacity of BOP, every possible action is being taken to protect the community, while keeping institutional overcrowding at manageable proportions to ensure that federal inmates continue to serve their sentences in a safe and humane environment.

FY 2000 Actual Performance:

Data Collection and Storage: Data is gathered from several computer systems. Inmate data is collected on the BOP on-line system (SENTRY); personnel data is collected from the National Finance Center (NFC) database, Human Resource Management Information System (HRMIS), and from field locations reporting on a regular bases; and financial data is collected on the Financial Management Information System (FMIS). BOP also utilizes population forecast modeling in order to plan for future construction and contracting requirements to meet capacity needs.

Data Validation and Verification: Within BOP headquarters, staff in different divisions retrieve and verify data on a daily basis, analyze it, and formulate reports and projections.

Data Limitations: Due to the unpredictable environment in prisons and other external factors, there may often be discrepancies between projected and actual numbers contained in the performance graphs. Most plans are developed based on historical data, past experience and joint agency efforts to project for the future.

Performance Measure: % Overcrowding by Security Level

Target: Low:36% Medium: 58% High: 69%

Actual: Low:44% Medium: 50% High: 54%

Discussion: During FY 2000 BOP revised its classification system. The impact of those revisions resulted in a short-term population reduction at the medium and high security levels and an increase at the low security level. In addition, increases of immigration cases have had a substantial impact at the low security level.

Public Benefit: Society is protected by confining offenders in the controlled environments of prisons and community-based facilities that are safe, humane, cost-efficient, appropriately secure, and that provide work and other self-improvement opportunities to assist offenders in becoming law-abiding citizens.

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: Based upon program performance in FY 2000, BOP expects to achieve the corresponding FY 2001 target.

Performance Measure: Number of New Prison Beds and Beds Under Development or Construction

Target: New Beds Activated : 6,695
Actual: 5,346 Beds- Development/Construction: 20,417
Actual: 23,904

Discussion: Some beds were activated ahead of schedule in FY 1999 which resulted in fewer activating during FY 2000; and beds under development increased with the addition of funding for several new facilities.

NOTE: The number of Facilities Under Design indicator has been discontinued - corresponding data is reflected in New Prison Beds indicator above.

Data Collection and Storage: Data is gathered from several computer systems. Inmate data is collected on the BOP on-line system (SENTRY); personnel data is collected from the National Finance Center (NFC) database, Human Resource Management Information System (HRMIS), and from field locations reporting on a regular bases; and financial data is collected on the Financial Management Information System (FMIS). The BOP also utilizes population forecast modeling in order to plan for future construction and contracting requirements to meet capacity needs.

Data Validation and Verification: Within BOP headquarters, staff in different divisions retrieve and verify data on a daily basis, analyze it, and formulate reports and projections.

Data Limitations: Due to the unpredictable environment in prisons and other external factors, there may often be discrepancies between projected and actual numbers contained in the performance graphs. Most plans are developed based on historical data, past experience and joint agency efforts to project for the future.

Public Benefit: Society is protected by confining offenders in the controlled environments of prisons and community-based facilities that are safe, humane, cost-efficient, and appropriately secure, and that provide work and other self-improvement opportunities to assist offenders in becoming law-abiding citizens.

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: Based upon program performance in FY 2000 and current estimates for construction, we expect to fall short of the FY 2001 target by activating 3,609 beds.

Strategies and Initiatives to Achieve the FY 2002 Goal:

The Department will continue implementation of the National Capital Revitalization and Self-Government Improvement Act of 1997. As of February 26, 2001, there were 3,142 D.C. inmates in BOP custody. In consideration of the influx of D.C. sentenced felons, INS Long Term Detainees, as well as other increases in population, DOJ will support BOP's efforts to hold the system-wide overcrowding rate near 34% by the end of FY 2001.

In order to keep pace with overcrowding, BOP currently has approximately 35,000 beds under development or construction that will activate between FY 2001 and FY 2006. These beds will address some of the BOP inmates population increases, add capacity to absorb the D.C. sentenced felons, and increase capacity to house INS long term detainees.

Crosscutting Activities:

DOJ works cooperatively with the private sector and state and local governments to establish and maintain adequate capacity to detain persons in federal custody in cost-effective, safe, secure and humane facilities. In addition, the implementation of the National Capital Revitalization and Self-Government Improvement Act of 1997 is coordinated through the efforts of BOP, United States Parole Commission, the DCDOC, and Detention and Court Services and Offender Supervision Trustees.

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STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 5.3: PRISON OPERATION
Maintain and operate the federal prison system in a safe, secure, humane and efficient manner.

Annual Goal 5.3: Efficiently operate safe, secure, humane facilities that are well maintained.

STRATEGIES
  • Manage Bureau of Prisons' operations efficiently.
  • Ensure that Bureau of Prisons' facilities comply with the standards of the American Correctional Association and all applicable environmental, health and safety codes and regulations.
  • Ensure safety and security.

BOP utilizes Intergovernmental Agreements (IGAs) with state and local governments to obtain additional bedspace, and routinely contracts with private and other entities to obtain contract bedspace. These practices allow BOP flexibility in managing the inmate population by placing inmates in appropriate programs in the least restrictive environments while freeing up valuable BOP bedspace for higher security inmates serving longer sentences.

BOP places inmates in facilities that are appropriately secure and offer programs which provide for constructive use of time and afford an opportunity for positive change. BOP assigns a custody status to offenders which relates to the degree of supervision needed and ensures that offenders are placed in the least restrictive and least expensive correctional environment appropriate to their custody and security level needs. Supervision of inmates is provided throughout the institutions wherever inmates are located or may have access.

Proper maintenance, modernization and repair of BOP institutions are essential for safe and secure operations. Failure to adequately maintain structures and utility systems erodes capital investment and multiplies the costs in future years of accomplishing the required maintenance and repair. BOPís Modernization and Repair (M&R) program provides the resources to undertake essential rehabilitation and renovation or replacement projects at existing institutions to ensure that structures, utilities systems, and other plant facilities are kept in a good state of repair.

In addition to routine scheduled maintenance operations, institutions perform detailed annual inspections to ensure that necessary systems are kept in a state of good repair. These prison facilities are subject to heavier than normal use, since they are used 24 hours a day, and with record overcrowding levels, are experiencing extensive wear and tear which must be addressed to keep these facilities safe and secure for both staff and inmates.

While prevention has an enormous impact on the safety and security of BOP institutions, preparation for actual emergencies is also critical. BOP continues to take a proactive approach to crisis management through training programs for its Special Operations Response Teams, Disturbance Control Teams, and Hostage Negotiation Teams.

MEANS - Annual Goal 5.3

Dollars/FTE

 

Appropriation

FY 2000
Obligated

FY 2001
Enacted

FY 2002
Requested

$ mil

FTE

$ mil

FTE

$ mil

FTE

U.S. Parole Commission

8

78

9

86

11

105

Federal Prison System Salaries & Expenses

1514

17120

1574

18221

1694

19228

TOTAL

1522

17198

1583

18307

1705

19333

Skills

BOP must maintain a staff of project managers and professional engineers/architects to ensure design compliance and monitor construction activities. The staff must have broad knowledge of institution operations and management requirements. Project managers must have a wide variety of construction skills and the ability to supervise large inmate work crews.

Information Technology

BOP utilizes the Physical Plant Review Program to incorporate physical plant and infrastructure issues, repairs, and major equipment replacements. BOP also relies upon the Computerized Maintenance Management System to track preventive maintenance, equipment history, recommended replacement schedules, and costs related to institution maintenance.

PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT - Annual Goal 5.3

5.3A Operate Facilities Efficiently

Background/ Program Objectives:

The BOP Facilities Management Program goal is to ensure existing facilities are maintained in compliance with security, safety, and applicable regulations, building codes, and industry standards. During the past six years, facilities training has been offered to both line staff and managers to develop staff skill levels for present and future facilities operations. The current program was established in 1994 and continues on in its seventh successful year. The training has assisted institutions in lowering operating costs by training staff to perform required testing and maintenance procedures in-house and require less contracting with outside resources.

BOP is currently participating in a joint interagency agreement with the General Services Administration National Utilities Management Program (NUMP). The agreement provides authority to NUMP for negotiation and transportation of natural gas for use by BOP at various institutions. During the first three quarters of FY 1999 with three institutions reporting, BOP avoided over $460,000 in utility costs through this program. During FY 2000 with nine institutions reporting, BOP avoided nearly $465,000 in utility costs through this program.

FY 2000 Actual Performance:

Performance Measure: Per Capita Costs

Data Collection and Storage: The BOP collects and analyzes actual obligation data from the DOJ FMIS. The actual obligation data is compared against the average daily population to determine the per capita costs.

Data Validation and Verification: Data are corroborated through and contact with regional offices and prison facilities.

Data Limitations: Information is limited by program/activity level and location.

Target: $62.47 Actual: $59.02

Discussion: Delays in acquisition of contract beds in conjunction with record levels of overcrowding in BOP facilities resulted in more inmates in BOP facilities and thus, lower per capita costs than anticipated.

Public Benefit: Society benefits by BOPís stewardship in efficient use of taxpayer dollars.

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: Based upon program performance in FY 2000, BOP expects to improve upon the corresponding FY 2001 target with a current projection of $60.79.

Strategies and Initiatives to Achieve the FY 2002 Goal:

BOP maintains an efficient system by placing inmates in the least restrictive and least expensive correctional environment appropriate to their custody and security level needs. More and more BOP facilities are being constructed at existing BOP locations to take advantage of the efficiencies afforded by shared services at prison complexes. In addition, BOP continues to explore new technology in fields such as health care, distance learning, security, etc., which have the potential to contain corrections expenses. The use of telehealth at locations near Veterans Administration hospitals has avoided costs associated with moving inmates in and out of institutions for medical care, as well as costs to have additional medical staff on-site. In an effort to consolidate prisoner medical services, beginning in FY 2000, the Department started a pilot program at three BOP detention centers where BOP assumed responsibility for medical care for United States Marshals Service (USMS) prisoners housed at those locations. Traditionally, BOP has provided healthcare services to USMS prisoners in BOP facilities, while the USMS has been responsible for outside medical care - to transport, maintain custody, and pay for the treatment of USMS prisoners in community hospitals. Under the pilot program, BOP has assumed responsibility for outside medical care for these prisoners, including guard and escort duties. All medical referral centers were added to the pilot by the fourth quarter of FY 2000. Cost data will continue to be collected and analyzed to provide additional data for assessment of the program.

Crosscutting Activities:

BOP must work cooperatively with DOJ agencies, U.S. Courts, U.S. Military, other state and local law enforcement, and numerous private and not for profit organizations to successfully carry out its mission.

5.3B Operate Facilities that are Well Maintained

Background/ Program Objectives:

Each BOP correctional facility has numerous buildings as well as inmate living quarters on the compound. Many require extensive work to maintain them in an adequate state of repair and to assure they meet BOP and American Correctional Association (ACA) standards. Prison facilities are subjected to heavier use than other types of buildings since they are in use twenty-four hours a day. In addition, due to record levels of overcrowding, these facilities are being over utilized, which is causing extensive wear and premature deterioration. This is especially true of the older facilities, which have infrastructures designed for a much smaller inmate population.

BOP utilizes a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS). The CMMS tracks preventive maintenance, equipment history, recommended replacement schedules, and costs related to institution maintenance. BOP Facilities Management uses data from the CMMS and annual equipment reports to justify projects for equipment and infrastructure upgrades. A comprehensive replacement schedule has been developed that identifies and prioritizes equipment to be replaced. As a result of good sound preventive maintenance, BOP is able to operate facilities efficiently, containing operational costs, and planning replacement schedules of equipment for the future.

BOP Physical Plant Review Program (PPRP) is used to incorporate physical plant and infrastructure issues, repairs, and major equipment replacements, as well as proper use of building spaces. The PPRP is a process designed to assist BOP in development of long range master planning for budget purposes and planned physical plant upgrades where buildings and equipment are no longer able to be maintained cost effectively.

FY 2000 Actual Performance:

Performance Measure: % of Total Planned Surveys of Facilities 50+ Years Old Completed

Data Collection and Storage: The data compiled by the BOP is gathered from three main computer systems: inmate data is collected on the BOP on-line system (SENTRY); personnel data is collected from the National Finance Center (NFC) database, the Human Resource Management Information System (HRMIS), and from field locations reporting on a regular basis; and financial data is collected on the Financial Management Information System (FMIS). The BOP relies on an in-house database on Microsoft Access to effectively track and manage modernization and repair projects (dates and costs). All financial information is extracted from the FMIS system and entered into the database.

Data Validation and Verification: Within BOP headquarters, staff in different divisions retrieve and verify data on a daily basis, analyze it, and formulate reports and projections.

Data Limitations: Due to the unpredictable environment in prisons, there may often be discrepancies between projected and actual numbers contained in the performance graphs. Most plans are developed based on historical data, past experience, and joint agency efforts to project for the future.

Target: 45% Actual: 63%

Discussion: The number of institutions over 50 years old has changed since the targets were established. Consequently, the targets for FY 2001 and FY 2002 have been adjusted accordingly. BOP projects a total of 20 surveys to be completed by the end of FY 2001.

Public Benefit: Proper maintenance, modernization and repair of BOP institutions is essential for safe and secure operations. Failure to adequately maintain structures and utility systems erodes capital investment and multiplies the costs in future years of accomplishing the required maintenance and repair. These facilities are experiencing extensive wear and tear which must be addressed to keep these facilities safe and secure for staff, inmates and the community and to protect taxpayer investment.

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: Based upon program performance in FY 2000, we expect to achieve the corresponding FY 2001 target.

Strategies and Initiatives to Achieve the FY 2002 Goal:

During FY 2001 and FY 2002, BOP will continue to repair and renovate facilities as required; identify any hazardous waste that may exist on federal prison property; comply with all requirements of the National Fire Protection Association, 101 Life Safety Code pertaining to penal facilities; bring applicable utilities into compliance with National Electric Code and American Waterworks Standards; and ensure safety and security of facilities.

Approximately 450 Modernization & Repair projects will be completed each year, including 60-65 special projects completed and closed relating to life safety, accessibility, environmental and energy projects. The BOP has been working diligently to complete M&R projects over three years old. By FY 2002, 100 percent of the M&R projects subject to the new guidelines will be completed. In addition, long range master plans will be developed for facilities over 50 years old requiring major renovation. Once a 50+ year old facility has had necessary major renovation, it will be removed from the list for 50+ surveys. A minimum of four long- range master plans will be completed each fiscal year through FY 2003. To date, 15 master plans have been developed.

Crosscutting Activities:

Facilities management involves continuous partnering programs with other non-BOP agencies and organizations such as the Army Corps of Engineers, United States Military, Habitat for Humanities, civic organizations, and local township governments. In fact, from the very beginning stages of development of a new prison, BOP involves the local communities. Other partnerships are a by-product of compliance with the American Standards Institute, National Fire Protection Association, National Plumbing Code, National Electrical Code, Uniform Mechanical Code, National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, and Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Associations.

5.3C Operate Facilities that are Safe and Secure

Data Collection and Storage: The data compiled by the BOP is gathered from three main computer systems: Inmate data is collected on the BOP on-line system (SENTRY); personnel data is collected from the National Finance Center (NFC) database, the Human Resource Management Information System (HRMIS), and from field locations reporting on a regular basis; and financial data is collected on the Financial Management Information System (FMIS). The BOP relies on an in-house database on Microsoft Access to effectively track and manage modernization and repair projects (dates and costs). All financial information is extracted from the FMIS system and entered into the database.

Data Validation and Verification: Within BOP headquarters, staff in different divisions retrieve and verify data on a daily basis, analyze it, and formulate reports and projections.

Data Limitations: Due to the unpredictable environment in prisons, there may often be discrepancies between projected and actual numbers contained in the performance graphs. Most plans are developed based on historical data and past experience to project for the future.

* Effective in FY 2000, ACA accreditation percentages are based on the number of certifications issued. In the past, each BOP facility was accredited separately including facilities at correctional complexes. The goal is to have BOP facilities that are located together accredited as one. The BOP has several correctional complexes that are comprised of two to five individual institutions and these complexes will be accredited as one location.

Background/ Program Objectives:

One of DOJ's most serious objectives is the safe, secure, and humane treatment of detainees and inmates. The Department has the highest regard for human rights and public safety. Therefore, it strives to maintain facilities that meet the accreditation standards of several professional organizations, including health care and correctional professions.

FY 2000 Actual Performance:

Performance Measure: % of BOP Facilities with ACA Accreditations

Target: 82% Actual: 90%

Discussion: During FY 2000, nine facilities received initial accreditation. Two additional facilities received initial accreditation during the January 2001 panel hearings and two facilities are expected to receive initial accreditation during the August 2001 panel hearings. The BOP continues to strive to meet the goal that all institutions will be accredited within two years of activation.

Public Benefit: Institutions receiving accreditation from ACA provides an external assessment of BOPís ability to meet basic correction facility standards and ensure security and safety.

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: Based on program performance in FY 2000, BOP expects to achieve the corresponding FY 2001 target.

PERFORMANCE MEASURE: % Life Safety Discrepancies Completed

Target: 100% Actual: 99%

Discussion: All life safety discrepancies (except USP Atlanta) will be completed by the end of FY 2001. The last four institutions with problems are scheduled to be finished in the next four to six months. USP Atlanta is on indefinite hold until sufficient high security bed space is available to allow renovation of C Cellhouse.

Public Benefit: Proper maintenance, modernization and repair of BOP institutions is essential for safe and secure operations. Failure to adequately maintain structures and utility systems erodes capital investment and multiplies the costs in future years of accomplishing the required maintenance and repair. These facilities experiencing extensive wear and tear which must be addressed to keep these facilities safe and secure for staff, inmates, the community, and protect taxpayer investment.

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: As stated in the discussion, unless USP Atlantaís C Cellhouse can be closed and renovated, BOP will not reach the 100% target in FY 2001. There is insufficient high security bed space to allow closure of the Cellhouse in the foreseeable future.

Data Definition: Assaults includes assaults between inmates and inmates and inmates and staff.

Data Collection and Storage: Data gathered from three main computer systems. Inmate data is collected on the BOP on-line system (SENTRY); Personnel data is collected from the National Finance Center (NFC) database, the Human Resource Management Information System (HRMIS), and from field locations reporting on a regular basis; and Financial data is collected on the Financial Management Information System (FMIS). The BOP relies on an in-house database on Microsoft Access to effectively track and manage modernization and repair projects (dates and costs). All financial information is extracted from the FMIS system and entered into the database.

Data Validation and Verification: Within BOP headquarters, staff in different divisions retrieve and verify data on a daily basis, analyze it, and formulate reports and projections.

Data Limitations: Due to the unpredictable environment in prisons, there may often be discrepancies between projected and actual numbers contained in the performance graphs. Most plans are developed based on historical data and past experience to project for the future.

PERFORMANCE MEASURE: Escapes from Secure Prisons

Target: 0 Actual: 0

Discussion: BOP operates institutions at five security levels (minimum, low, medium, high, and administrative) to meet the various security needs of its diverse inmate population. Inmates are assigned a custody status (maximum, in, out, or community) by BOP which relates to the degree of supervision needed and ensures that offenders are placed in the least restrictive and least expensive environment appropriate to their custody, program, and security needs.

Public Benefit: Society is protected by confining offenders in the controlled environments of prisons and community-based facilities that are safe, humane, cost-efficient, and appropriately secure, and that provide work and other self-improvement opportunities to assist offenders in becoming law-abiding citizens.

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: BOP significantly reduces the possibility of escapes with long-term emphasis on security enhancements, physical plant improvements, enhanced training, and increased emphasis on staff supervision of inmates.

PERFORMANCE MEASURE: Inmate Assaults and Homicides (NOTE: While it is the objective of the Department to eliminate all assaults and homicides, the targets reflect predictions based solely on historical data.)

Projected: Assaults: 2,515 Homicides: 4

Actual: Assaults: 2,541 Homicides: 4

Discussion: There will often be discrepancies between projected and actual numbers with this type of data due to the unpredictable environment in prisons. Plans are developed based on historical data, past experience, population projections, and best faith efforts to project for the future. Increased gang presence in BOP facilities, record inmate population growth, and resulting overcrowding levels serve to heighten the potential for violence.

Public Benefit: BOP offers programs for violent offenders which aim to reduce antisocial attitudes and behaviors, emphasize the values of respect for self and others, the responsibility for personal actions, honesty in relationships, and tolerance. These skills are also vital for successful reintegration into society when offenders are eventually released from prison.

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: BOP attempts to reduce the potential for violence with long-term emphasis on physical plant improvements, enhanced training, and increased emphasis on staff supervision of inmates.

Strategies and Initiatives to Achieve the FY 2002 Goal:

BOP ensures institution security through a combination of physical features, security technology, classification of inmates based upon risk factors, direct staff supervision, and inmate programs. BOP operates institutions at five security levels (minimum, low, medium, high, and administrative) to meet the various security needs of its diverse inmate population. Inmates are assigned a custody status (maximum, in, out, community) which relates to the degree of supervision needed and ensures that offenders are placed in the least restrictive and least expensive environment appropriate to their custody and security needs. BOP utilizes technological advances such as Ion Spectrometry and video surveillance to improve the safety and security of both staff and inmates. Self improvement programs designed to break the cycle of crime such as the Responsibility and Values Enhancement Program, and Wellness Life Skills Building Program, and the New Pathways Program, in addition to faith-based programs have proven to be effective combating behaviors which threaten the security of staff and inmates. The Challenge, Opportunity, and Ethics treatment program for high security inmates which targets the reduction of antisocial attitudes and behaviors, and emphasizes the values of respect for self and others, responsibility for personal actions, honesty in relationships, and tolerance, has significantly reduced misconduct among program participants.

BOP employs a unit management concept at its facilities, focusing on effective communication between staff and inmates. This fosters high morale and promotes a positive atmosphere where offenders can observe and model positive behavior. The opportunity for continuous and open communication enables BOP staff to gather important intelligence informally and become aware of potential problems at a very early stage, avoiding more costly intervention later on.

Accreditation by the American Correctional Association (ACA) provides BOP with an external assessment of its ability to meet the basics of corrections. The BOP goal is to have all institutions or correctional complexes accredited within two years of activation. BOP will continue to prepare all activated facilities for accreditation with ACA.

Crosscutting Activities:

ACA accreditation provides external certification that federal prisons provide decent living conditions, offer adequate programs and services, and accommodate inmate constitutional rights, by ensuring compliance with more than 450 adult correctional standards developed by corrections professionals in the public and private sectors. In addition, BOP's National Institute of Corrections works with state, local, and international corrections officials to improve management and conditions in prisons.

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STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 5.4: INMATE SERVICES
Provide services and other programs to meet basic inmate needs and facilitate their successful reintegration into society, consistent with community expectations and standards.

Annual Goal 5.4: Provide basic inmate services and facilitate reintegration into society

STRATEGIES
  • Provide work and education programs.
  • Make available residential drug treatment programs for eligible inmates with drug problems.
  • Provide quality inmate health care services while controlling costs.

BOP employs a unit management concept at its facilities, focusing on effective communication between staff and inmates. This fosters high morale and promotes a positive atmosphere where offenders can observe and model positive behavior. The opportunity for continuous and open communication enables BOP staff to gather important intelligence informally and become aware of potential problems at a very early stage, avoiding more costly intervention later on.

In FY 2002, all medically fit inmates will continue to work and have the opportunity to participate in general and occupational educational programs, psychological services, religious and fitness activities. FPI will strive to employ twenty-five percent of inmates in secure facilities. BOP will continue to provide residential treatment to 100 percent of eligible inmates.

Inmate care includes: providing adequate medical care; meeting appropriate dietary requirements; providing residential drug treatment program; providing general education and skills-based training, ensuring that all medically fit inmates required to work do so; and affording inmates the opportunity to participate in other productive activities such as Aspecial needs@ programs, worship services, adult education, parenting classes, etc. BOP provides services and programs to address inmate needs, providing productive activities, and facilitating the successful reintegration of inmate into society.

MEANS - Annual Goal 5.4

Dollars/FTE

Appropriation

FY 2000
Obligated

FY 2001
Enacted

FY 2002
Requested

$ mil

FTE

$ mil

FTE

$ mil

FTE

Federal Prison System Salaries & Expenses

970

7866

1007

8438

1104

8993

Federal Prison Industries

0

1696

0

1933

0

2014

Commissary Fund

0

455

0

598

0

619

TOTAL

970

10017

1007

10969

1104

11626

Skills

BOP needs trained educators, program specialists, medical personnel, and industrial experts with appropriate experience and education. The staff must have broad knowledge of institution operations and management, and be skilled in applying, adapting, and imparting their knowledge in carefully controlled, closely directed settings.

Information Technology

BOP relies upon SENTRY computer system and other databases to accurately track inmate medical, education, work and recreation programming needs.

PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT - Annual Goal 5.4

5.4A Provide Work and Education Programs

Background/ Program Objectives:

BOP plays a vital role in federal law enforcement, not only by incarcerating offenders, but also helping to break the cycle of crime. First and foremost, BOP protects public safety by ensuring that federal offenders serve their sentences. Through imprisonment, BOP helps deter criminal activity by showing actual, as well as potential offenders the consequences of crime. To help break the cycle of crime, BOP provides a range of educational and vocational training programs and counseling to assist inmates in successful transition to the community upon release.

BOP provides work and education programs and other self-improvement opportunities to assist offenders in becoming law-abiding citizens. Providing education and other pro-social and employment skills to inmates serves two purposes. BOP Post-Release Employment Study (PREP) demonstrated that these programs can lead to lower recidivism and to improve institutional security by reducing inmate idleness.

FY 2000 Actual Performance:

Data Collection and Storage: The data is gathered from three main computer systems: inmate data is collected on the BOP on-line system (SENTRY); personnel data is collected on the Human Resource Management Information System (HRMIS); and financial data on the Financial Management Information System (FMIS). BOP relies on the BOP inmate tracking system (SENTRY) in order to identify and track inmates in work, education, and recreation programs. Reports on education and other programs are extracted from the SENTRY database, generally on a quarterly basis. One exception to this is the General Education Diploma (GED) program completion reporting which is provided by the American Council on Education, a non-profit agency, through its GED testing services. GED completions are reported to BOP headquarters with copies to institution and regional education personnel.

Data Validation and Verification: Within BOP headquarters, staff in different divisions retrieve and verify data on a daily basis, analyze it, and formulate reports and projections.

Data Limitations: Due to the unpredictable environment in prisons and other external factors, there may often be discrepancies between projected and actual numbers contained in the performance graphs. Most plans are based on historical data, past experience, and joint agency efforts to project for the future.

Performance Measure: % Inmates with a GED/High School Diploma, 7 Months Prior to Release

Target: 75% Actual: 66%

Discussion: Inmates entering BOP in recent years have greater literacy needs overall than those who entered during the early 1990s. Further, 70 percent of non-citizens are now entering BOP without a GED. In past years, Spanish-speaking inmates who didnít speak English made up nearly one-third of all GED completions in BOP. More challenging Spanish-language GED tests have resulted in a dramatic drop in the number of Spanish GED completions.

Public Benefit: Research has shown that inmates who complete education/vocational training programs while in prison are less likely to return to prison than their counterparts who did not participate in programs. Incarcerated adults who participate in training programs and acquire a marketable skill are more successful in obtaining gainful employment upon release. The public benefits on both social and economic levels (individuals provide economic support for families and pay taxes).

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: Based on FY 2000 program performance, we do not expect to achieve the corresponding FY 2001 target. BOP educators anticipate the GED completion rates will continue to drop in the immediate future and have set a target date of FY 2004 to achieve the 75% goal. The FY 2002 target has been adjusted to reflect current experience and FY 2001 is expected to be the same rate (66%). However, with emphasis on GED enrollment and completions, along with 120 additional positions to be distributed in the fourth quarter of FY 2001 and in FY 2002, BOP will continue to work aggressively toward this goal.

Data Collection and Storage: Data is gathered from three main computer systems. Inmate data is collected on the BOP on-line system (SENTRY); personnel data is collected on the Human Resource Management Information System (HRMIS); and financial data on the Financial Management Information System (FMIS). BOP relies on the BOP inmate tracking system (SENTRY) in order to identify and track inmates in work, education, and recreation programs. Reports on education and other programs are extracted from the SENTRY database, generally on a quarterly basis.

Data Validation and Verification: Within BOP headquarters, staff in different divisions retrieve and verify data on a daily basis, analyze it, and formulate reports and projections.

Data Limitations: Due to the unpredictable environment in prisons and other external factors, there may often be discrepancies between projected and actual numbers contained in the performance graphs. Most plans are based on historical data, past experience, and joint agency efforts to project for the future.

PERFORMANCE MEASURE: Number of Inmates Completing at Least One Vocational Program

Target: 7,550 Actual: 8,971

Discussion: Additional equipment, program upgrades, and outside certification for programs in high demand job areas contributed to exceeding the original target.

Public Benefit: Research has shown that inmates who complete education/vocational training programs while in prison are less likely to return to prison than their counterparts who did not participate in programs. Incarcerated adults who participate in training programs and acquire a marketable skill are more successful in obtaining gainful employment upon release. The public benefits on both social and economic levels (individuals provide economic support for families and pay taxes).

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: Based upon program performance in FY 2000, BOP expects to achieve the corresponding FY 2001 target.

Strategies and Initiatives to Achieve the FY 2002 Goal:

In FY 2002, DOJ will support BOP's efforts to provide services and programs to address inmate needs that contribute to successful reintegration into society. During FY 2002, approximately 9,491 inmates are expected to complete at least one vocational training program.

Crosscutting Activities:

BOP actively recruits volunteers to assist with religious and other services, organizes community service projects, and holds mock job fairs through partnerships with community groups, public service organizations, and other agencies in order to raise community awareness, foster community relationships, and prepare inmates for reintegration into the community and family units. During FY 2000, over 14,000 volunteers worked with BOP inmates inside and outside of BOP facilities.

In FY 2002, BOP will establish a multi-faith based, prison pre-release pilot program. The pilot will be hosted at four federal prisons that are geographically diverse, encompass varying levels of security, and include both male and female inmate populations. The goal of the initiative is to reduce the rate that ex-offenders are returned to prison.

5.4B Provide Residential Drug Treatment Programs to Eligible Inmates

Background/ Program Objectives:

In response to the rapid growth in the federal inmate population of those who have drug abuse histories, BOP has developed a comprehensive drug abuse treatment strategy consisting of four components: drug abuse education; non-residential drug abuse treatment programs; residential drug abuse treatment programs; and transitional drug abuse treatment services.

Preliminary research findings suggest that the program is effective in reducing recidivism and substance abuse. The ongoing evaluation, conducted with the funding and assistance from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, reveals that offenders who completed the drug abuse treatment program and had been released to the community for a minimum of six months, were less likely to be re-arrested or to be detected for drug use than were similar inmates who did not participate in the drug abuse treatment program.

The VCCLEA of 1994 requires BOP to provide appropriate substance abuse treatment for 100 percent of "eligible" inmates by the end of FY 1997 and each year thereafter. To be "eligible" the inmate must be: sentenced to BOP custody; determined by BOP to have a substance abuse disorder; residing in a BOP institution; and be within 24 months of release. An estimated 34 percent of the sentenced federal inmate population have a substance abuse disorder and require some type of drug abuse treatment program.

Data Collection and Storage: Data is gathered from three main computer systems. Inmate data is collected on the BOP on-line system (SENTRY); personnel data is collected on the Human Resource Management Information System (HRMIS); and financial data on the financial Management Information System (FMIS). BOP relies on the BOP inmate tracking system (SENTRY) in order to identify and track inmates in work, education, and recreation programs. Reports on education and other programs are extracted from the SENTRY database, generally on a quarterly basis.

Data Validation and Verification: Within BOP headquarters, staff in different divisions retrieve and verify data on a daily basis, analyze it, and formulate reports and projections.

Data Limitations: Due to the unpredictable environment in prisons and other external factors, there may often be discrepancies between projected and actual numbers contained in the performance graphs. Most plans are based on historical data, past experience, and joint agency efforts to project for the future.

FY 2000 Actual Performance:

Performance Measure: 100% of Eligible Inmates Enrolled in Residential Drug Treatment

Target: 12,400 Actual: 12,541

Discussion: In FY 2000 we met our target of enrolling 100% of eligible inmates (12,541) in a residential treatment program. To reduce the number of inmates who return to drug abuse and criminal lifestyles upon release, BOP operates drug treatment programs for inmates who need them. Included are residential programs (where inmates live in housing units devoted to drug treatment activities), a variety of non-residential programs (for inmates in the general population), and aftercare programs.

Public Benefit: Preliminary research findings suggest that the program is effective in reducing recidivism and substance abuse. As stated above, offenders who complete the drug abuse treatment program are less likely to be rearrested or detected for drug use than inmates who do not participate in the drug abuse treatment program.

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: Based upon program performance in FY 2000, and anticipated increases in inmate population, BOP expects to exceed the corresponding FY 2001 target. The current estimate projects that 14,000 inmates will receive residential drug treatment.

Strategies and Initiatives to Achieve the FY 2002 Goal:

In FY 2002, DOJ will support BOP's efforts to provide services and programs to address inmate needs that contribute to successful reintegration into society. BOP will continue to expand residential drug treatment programs in order to accommodate the increasing number of inmates needing residential treatment. The percentage of inmates with a substance abuse disorder has risen from 30.5 percent to 34 percent over the last decade. Since FY 1997, BOP has been providing residential drug treatment to 100 percent of all inmates needing and wanting treatment within 24 months of release. Expansion of the residential drug treatment program will ensure that BOP continues to satisfy the mandate of the VCCLEA of 1994.

Crosscutting Activities:

Eligible residential drug program graduates are referred to halfway houses to be enrolled in community based drug treatment programs which provide aftercare to reinforce what was learned in the residential program setting. BOP works closely with and monitors private sector drug treatment service providers to ensure inmates receive proper aftercare.

5.4C Provide Cost Effective Quality Inmate Health Care

Background/ Program Objectives:

BOP is working to control escalating health care costs. Unfortunately, inmate populations have exhibited high risk behavior such as drug and substance abuse, resulting in infectious diseases. This, coupled with an aging population and longer sentences, has prompted BOP to work diligently at preventing large medical increases normally associated with these chronic conditions.

FY 2000 Actual Performance:

Performance Measure: Daily Per Capita Medical Costs

Data Collection and Storage: Data is gathered from several computer systems. Inmate data is collected on the BOP on-line system (SENTRY); personnel data is collected from the National Finance Center (NFC) database, Human Resource Management Information System (HRMIS), and from field locations reporting on a regular bases; and financial data is collected on the Financial Management Information System (FMIS). BOP also utilizes population forecast modeling in order to plan for future construction and contracting requirements to meet capacity needs.

Data Validation and Verification: Within BOP headquarters, staff in different divisions retrieve and verify data on a daily basis, analyze it, and formulate reports and projections.

Data Limitations: While the data is both timely and reliable, there is little data available for comparison in this area. However, costs appear to reflect effective efforts at control escalating health care costs.

Target: $9.25 Actual: $7.78*

* Effective for FY 2000, the medical per capita was computed in the same manner as the overall BOP average inmate daily per capita rate which includes community correction centers.

Discussion: Strategies to achieve this goal include: continued implementation of medical contracts at all institutions using benchmark Medicare rates for negotiating the price of services; use of a prime vendor contract for pharmaceuticals; emphasis on hiring nurses instead of physicians assistants to perform routine medical care; and emphasis on prevention of illness.

Public Benefit: Containing medical per capita costs benefits the public by ensuring that taxpayer dollars are being used wisely and in a prudent manner. Efforts to control costs in health services while providing a community standard of care to the inmate population shows BOPís commitment to providing a safe and humane environment while preserving government resources.

FY 2001 Performance Plan Evaluation: Based on program performance in FY 2000, BOP expects to meet the FY 2001 target.

Strategies and Initiatives to Achieve the FY 2002 Goal:

In order to provide an efficient and effective plan of health delivery, BOP will utilize a system-wide approach that incorporates innovative strategies such as Telehealth and pre-certification of hospital stays to ensure that they are appropriate. Using Telehealth, a physician views the inmate patient electronically, permitting the physician the ability to provide remote assessment and treatment recommendations for many medical conditions. Additional strategies include: continued implementation of medical contracts at all institutions using benchmark Medicare rates for negotiating the prices; the use of a prime vendor contract for pharmaceuticals; emphasis on hiring nurses instead of physicians assistants to perform routine medical care; and emphasis on the prevention of illness.

Crosscutting Activities:

In order to deliver adequate healthcare to inmates, BOP utilizes Public Health Service employees along with contract healthcare workers in BOP facilities, and contracts with physicians and hospitals in local communities to provide care not readily available inside BOP institutions. In addition, BOP has worked cooperatively with the Department of Veterans Affairs and National Institutes of Justice to implement telehealth technology at many BOP locations. During FY 2000, BOP and USMS conducted a pilot at three BOP facilities where BOP assumed responsibility for USMS prisoners medical care housed in these facilities in an effort to consolidate some detention functions. All medical referral centers were added to the pilot by the fourth quarter of FY 2000. Cost data will continue to be collected and analyzed to provide additional data for assessment of the program.

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  • Table of Contents

  • AG Message
  • Introduction
  • Strategic Goal 1
  • Strategic Goal 2
  • Strategic Goal 3
  • Strategic Goal 4
  • Strategic Goal 5
  • Strategic Goal 6
  • Strategic Goal 7
  • Appendix A
  • Appendix B
  • Appendix C
  • Appendix D
  • Appendix E
  • Appendix F


  • USDOJ Homepage