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Minimal drug production occurs on reservations throughout Indian Country. Drug production on reservations is limited because of the ready supply of drugs that typically is available in cities near reservations and, in the case of reservations adjacent to the U.S.-Mexico and U.S.-Canada borders, the ready supply of illicit drugs from Mexico and Canada. Nonetheless, limited drug production does occur throughout Indian Country. Cannabis is cultivated by traffickers, mainly Mexican DTOs, at remote outdoor grow sites on a number of reservations, particularly those in the Pacific Region. Small methamphetamine laboratories occasionally surface in Indian Country, but they are not common. Most methamphetamine laboratories seized over the past several years were operated by abusers and were capable of producing only personal use quantities of the drug. Limited quantities of crack cocaine are converted from powder cocaine by African American traffickers on some reservations, particularly on those located in the Southeast and Florida/Caribbean Regions.



Native American traffickers transport most illicit drugs available in Native American communities to reservations from major drug markets. Native American traffickers are the primary transporters of illicit drugs to reservations throughout the United States; they principally travel by private vehicle to urban areas near reservations or to reservations located along international borders to obtain illicit drugs from various DTOs, criminal groups, and gangs. In some instances tribal members from remote or isolated reservations travel great distances to obtain drugs for distribution within their communities.

Wholesale drug traffickers frequently smuggle large quantities of illicit drugs from source countries into the United States through reservations. Mexican DTOs smuggle significant quantities of marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin from Mexico into the United States through reservations along the U.S.-Mexico border. Canada-based Asian DTOs, particularly Vietnamese DTOs, and members of outlaw motorcycle gangs smuggle high-potency Canadian marijuana and MDMA onto and through reservations adjacent to the U.S.-Canada border.

Most illicit drugs smuggled by traffickers from Canada and Mexico into and through reservations are destined for major drug markets throughout the United States; however, some are abused on the reservations. High-potency Canadian marijuana and MDMA smuggled by Canada-based traffickers through the reservations near the U.S.-Canada border are often destined for drug markets throughout the United States. Likewise, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine and heroin smuggled by Mexican DTOs through reservations near the U.S.-Mexico border are generally destined for drug markets throughout the country.

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