Index

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INDEX

A
Abdessemed, Tamym 38
Activities
    joint 7, 37, 53-55
        ex ante 7, 8, 37, 53, 54, 56
        SSO 7, 37, 53, 54
    standards development 51, 53
Addamax Corp. v. Open Software Foundation, Inc., 152 F.3d 48 (1st Cir. 1998) 51
Aghion, Philippe 120
Agreements
    bundling 5, 10, 105, 106, 114, 121
    cross-licensing 5, 8, 9, 41, 57-59, 61-63, 66, 67, 85, 91, 92, 96, 98, 100, 116
    naked 50-52, 55, 63, 106, 120
    nonexclusive 62, 69, 89, 91, 92
    patent-licensing 78
    patent-pooling 5, 8, 57, 58, 62, 64, 67, 69
    reach-through 5, 10, 88, 92-97, 99, 101, 116, 117
    reciprocal 84
    royalty 5, 8, 10, 51, 54, 57, 61, 89, 94-97, 101, 116-118
    sham 51, 55, 121
Alchian, Armen A. 35
Allied Tube & Conduit Corp. v. Indian Head, Inc., 486 U.S. 492 (1988) 35, 50
American Society of Mechanical Engineers v. Hydrolevel Corp., 456 U.S. 556 (1982) 35, 50
Andewelt, Roger B. 71, 84
Andrx Pharmaceuticals Inc. v. Kroger Co., 543 U.S. 939 (2004) 91
Antalics, Michael 39, 42, 43
Anticommons 92, 95, 96, 117
Antitrust-IP Guidelines 1-4, 9-13, 21, 22, 58, 59, 62-64, 67, 73, 74, 76, 80, 81, 87, 88, 91-93, 99-102, 109-111, 114-116, 121, 122
Areeda, Phillip E. 18, 19, 26, 118
Aronson v. Quick Point Pencil Co., 440 U.S. 257 (1979) 117
Arora, Ashish 15, 23
Arrangements
    platform 70, 71, 109
    pooling 5, 8, 58, 59, 62, 63, 67, 69, 71, 78, 84, 99, 100
    reach-through 5, 10, 88, 94, 101
Aspen Skiing Co. v. Aspen Highlands Skiing Corp., 472 U.S. 585 (1985) 27, 28
Atari Games Corp. v. Nintendo of America, Inc., 897 F.2d 1572, 1576 (Fed. Cir. 1990) 13

B
Bahr, Robert W. 39
Baker-Cammack Hosiery Mills, Inc. v. Davis Co., 181 F.2d 550 (4th Cir. 1950) 66
Bakos, Yannis 107, 108
Balto, David 34
Barnett, Thomas O. 55
Barr, Robert 60, 61, 65
Barton, John H. 62, 93
Baumol, William J. 46
Bayer AG v. Housey Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 228 F. Supp. 2d 467 (D. Del. 2002) 97, 117
Beeney, Garrard 58, 64, 68, 74-76, 79, 80-85
Bement v. National Harrow Co., 186 U.S. 70 (1902) 29, 66
Besen, Stanley M. 40, 48, 49, 53
Bid rigging 37, 52
Biester, Edward G., III 109
Bilateral
    agreements 57, 59, 69, 89
    licensing solution 57
Biotechnology 59, 60, 65, 66, 93, 95
Blackburn, Robert 59, 93, 95, 96
Blair, Roger D. 51
Blanket license 52, 83
Block booking 11, 106-108
Blocking patents 61, 71, 73, 74, 84, 89, 92, 121
Blue Cross & Blue Shield United v. Marshfield Clinic, 65 F.3d 1406 (7th Cir. 1995) 22
Boggild v. Kenner Products, 776 F.2d 1315 (6th Cir. 1985) 117
Bolton, Patrick 120
Bonardi, Philippe 38
Boyle, Peter M. 26
Bresnahan, Timothy 38
Broadcast Music, Inc. v. Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc., 441 U.S. 1 (1979) 52, 66
Broadcom Corp. v. Qualcomm Inc., No. CIV A 05-3350 MLC, 2006 WL 2528545 (D.N.J. Aug. 31, 2006) 46
Brulotte v. Thys Co., 379 U.S. 29 (1964) 12, 97, 113, 117
Brynolfsson, Eric 107, 108
Bundling 5, 10-12, 63, 103-116, 120-22
    technological 10, 103, 107, 109
    trade secrets 12, 116, 120, 121
Burtis, Michelle M. 18, 58, 94
Business review 9, 67-72, 74, 76-83, 85, 92
    procedure 72
Business Review Letter 68-72, 74, 76-79, 81-83

C
CSU, L.L.C. v. Xerox Corp., 531 U.S. 1143 (2001) 25
In re Cardizem CD Antitrust Litigation, 332 F.3d 896 (2003) 91
Cargill, Carl 33, 38, 39, 41-43, 46, 48, 49
Carlson, Steven C. 63
Carlton, Dennis W. 38, 103, 119
Carpet Seaming Tape Licensing Corp. v. Best Seam Inc., 616 F.2d 1133 (9th Cir. 1980) 66
Carrier, Michael A. 54
Chemical Products Technologies, LLC v. Monsanto Co., No. 4:01-4384-12 (D.S.C. Nov. 13, 2001) 120
Chen, Raymond T. 58
Chicago Board of Trade v. United States, 246 U.S. 231 (1918) 18, 52
Church, Jeffrey 34, 38
Clark, Jeanne 65, 74
Cohen, Wesley M. 96
Cohen, William 58
Cole, Pam 15
Collaborative de jure standards 36
Collaborative standard setting 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53, 55
    and Patents 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53, 55
Competing standards 34, 79
    multiple 34
Competition
    downstream 8, 24, 36, 37, 51, 67, 85, 92, 94-96, 100, 102
    ex ante 8, 36, 37, 50, 52-56
    horizontal 4, 8, 67, 71, 81
Competitive effects 6, 9, 21, 24, 72, 76, 97, 102, 104, 106
Complements 48, 66, 71, 74-77
Conduct
    joint 37, 54
    unilateral 6, 18, 19, 22, 27-31, 36, 54
Congress 26, 27, 50, 99, 110, 113, 115
Consent decrees 60, 74, 121
Consent orders 74
Consortia 34, 43, 46
Consumer
    choice 6, 33, 34, 52
    harm 6, 36, 52, 104
    welfare 1, 6, 33, 104, 108
Continental Ore Co. v. Union Carbide Corp., 370 U.S. 690 (1962) 30
Contracts
    exclusive 12, 116, 119, 120, 122
    long-term 119, 120
Coordination 8, 38, 51, 62, 67, 81, 83, 85, 99, 100
Copperweld Corp. v. Independence Tube Corp., 467 U.S. 752 (1984) 31
Copyright 2, 27, 39, 66, 89, 99, 109-111, 113, 121, 122
    holders 27, 122
    pooling arrangement 66
    protection 27, 121, 122
    regimes 121
Costs
    business 17, 40, 43, 50, 76-78, 95, 111
    manufacturing 4, 49, 65, 75
    potential 7, 8, 10, 34, 35, 43, 50, 60, 79, 89, 95
    reducing 8, 34, 57, 65, 84, 121
    relative 35, 37, 49
    switching 7, 35, 37, 38, 44
    up-front 94, 95
Crawford, Robert G. 35
Cross licensing 5, 8, 9, 19, 41, 57-64, 66, 67, 75, 78, 84, 85, 88, 91, 92, 96, 98, 100, 116
    arrangements 63, 100
Cutter Laboratories, Inc. v. Lyophile-Cryochem Corp., 179 F.2d 80 (9th Cir. 1949) 66

D
Damages 26, 35, 51
Data General Corp. v. Grumman Systems Support Corp., 36 F.3d 1147 (1st Cir. 1994) 27, 29
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 509 U.S. 579 (1993) 113
Dawson Chemical Co. v. Rohm & Haas Co., 448 U.S. 176 (1980) 29
Deadweight loss 12, 97, 118, 122
Dehydrating Process Co. v. A. O. Smith Corp., 292 F.2d 653 (1st Cir. 1961) 106
In re Dell, 121 F.T.C. 616 (1996) 36, 43, 44
Denvir, James P., III 119, 122
Design
    dominant 34
    freedom 60, 61
    patent 59-61, 85, 90, 93, 115
    products 34, 60, 61, 93, 115
Detkin, Peter N. 60
Deutsch, Donald R. 33, 39, 43
Development costs 34, 42, 50, 57, 61, 64, 65, 95, 107
Dick, Rebecca P. 115, 116, 120-122
Disclosure 1, 7, 23, 37, 39, 40, 42-45, 48, 53, 54
    obligations 42, 43
    policies 42-44
    requirements 7, 42, 53
    rules 7, 40, 42, 43, 45, 53
    unilateral 23, 54
Donovan, Richard E. 80
Downstream 8, 24, 36, 37, 46, 51, 63, 67, 75, 81-83, 85, 92-96, 100, 102, 117
Durand, Rodolphe 38
DVD 68-72, 75-79, 81-83, 85
DVD Business Review Letter 68-72, 76-79, 81-83

E
ESS Technology, Inc. v. PC-Tel, Inc., No. C-99-20292 RMW, 2001 WL 1891713 (N.D. Cal. 2001) 46
Earp, David J. 96, 97
Easterbrook, Frank H. 100
Eastern Railroad Presidents Conference v. Noerr Motor Freight, Inc., 365 U.S. 127 (1961) 21, 45
eBay Inc. v. MercExchange, L.L.C., 126 S. Ct. 1837 (2006) 29, 60, 113
Economides, Nicholas 38
Efficiencies 6, 8, 11, 12, 33, 57-59, 64, 71-75, 84, 85, 88, 89, 92, 94, 101-105, 107-110, 114, 121, 122
Eisenberg, Rebecca S. 92-95, 117
Elhauge, Einer 118
Entry 12, 36, 62, 73, 96, 97, 99, 107, 115, 116, 119, 120, 122
Essentiality 68-71, 75, 77, 78
Ethyl Gasoline Corp. v. United States, 309 U.S. 436 (1940) 21
Evans, David 103, 122
Everett, Clayton, Jr. 26
Ewing, Ky P. 68
Ex ante 7, 8, 35-37, 39, 41, 48-56, 119
    agreements 8, 50, 51, 53, 55, 57
    commitments 35, 41, 49, 55
    discussion 8, 48, 55
    joint 7, 8, 37, 52-56
    licensing 7, 8, 35, 37, 39, 41, 48-57
    negotiations 7, 8, 37, 41, 49-55
Exclusionary 1, 2, 18, 20, 28, 44, 50, 54, 101, 106
Exclusive licenses 79, 80
Experts
    independent 50, 65, 71, 78
Extension 20, 25, 26, 122

F
Farrell, Joseph 38-41, 47-50, 58, 88, 89, 92, 96, 98, 104, 105, 108, 114, 116, 118, 122
Feldman, Robin C. 97, 117
Fitzpatrick, Danielle S. 44
Foreclosure 8, 24, 58
Fox, Stephen P. 66, 85
Fox Motors, Inc. v. Mazda Distributors (Gulf), Inc., 806 F.2d 953 (10th Cir. 1986) 106
Frank, Theodore H. 73
Franzinger, Michael R. 76
Fraud 5, 17, 18, 21, 44, 73, 74, 78
Free-riding 80, 119
Friedman, Bradford L. 59
Fromm, Jeffrey 58-62, 66, 72, 76, 79, 82-84, 88-91, 93, 97, 98, 117
FTC Act 44
FTC Innovation Report 57, 90, 93, 95
Futa, Baryn S. 58, 65, 66, 83, 84

G
Galbreath, Carolyn 40
Gandal, Neil 38
Gellhorn, Ernest 39
Georgia-Pacific Corp. v. U.S. Plywood Corp., 318 F. Supp. 1116 (S.D.N.Y. 1970) 46
Gifford, Daniel J. 34, 40
Gilbert, Richard J. 4, 34, 38, 62, 63, 97, 107, 118, 120
Gleklen, Jonathan I. 15-21, 23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 31
Golden Bridge Technology, Inc. v. Nokia, Inc., 416 F. Supp. 2d 525 (E.D. Tex. 2006) 51
Goods 46, 67, 71, 81, 99, 100, 106-108
    finished 46
    patented 81, 99, 106
    substitutable 71
    unpatented 100, 106
Gordon, George G. 119, 122
Grantbacks 5, 10, 19, 46, 59, 66, 80, 81, 85, 88-94, 97-99, 101, 104, 115, 116
    clauses 72, 89, 90, 92, 93
    exclusive 19, 80, 90-92
    requirements 66
    tailored 81
Grid Systems Corp. v. Tex. Instruments Inc., 771 F. Supp. 1033 (N.D. Cal. 1991) 26
Grimes, Warren S. 109
Grindley, Peter 39, 58-61, 64, 65, 76, 81, 83, 84, 89
Grosman, Sanford J. 35
Group boycott 51

H
Hall, Bronwyn H. 59
Harm
    innovation 6, 58, 66, 67, 71, 74, 92, 95, 96, 101, 102, 112, 116
Harrison, Jeffrey L. 51
Hart, Oliver D. 35
Hartford-Empire Co. v. United States, 323 U.S. 386 (1945) 29, 66
Heaton-Peninsular Button-Fastener Co. v. Eureka Specialty Co., 77 F. 288 (6th Cir. 1896) 29
Heller, Michael A. 92-95, 117
Hold up 5, 7, 8, 35-49, 52-55, 57, 58, 62, 64, 90, 121
Holleman, Richard 40- 42, 47, 50, 54, 55
Hovenkamp, Herbert 11, 18, 19, 26, 30, 31, 52, 81, 92, 93, 105, 107, 109, 111-113, 115, 117, 118, 122
Hynix Semiconductor Inc. v. Rambus Inc., 441 F. Supp. 2d 1066 (N.D. Cal. 2006) 45

I
Illinois Tool Works Inc. v. Independent Ink, Inc., 126 S. Ct. 1281 (2006) 2, 11, 22, 25, 27, 39, 63, 99, 100, 104, 105, 109, 110, 113, 115
Image Technical Services, Inc. v. Eastman Kodak Co., 125 F.3d 1195 (9th Cir. 1997) 5, 15-20, 22, 25, 30, 32
Incentives 1, 2, 8, 12, 13, 19-21, 23-25, 27, 40, 47, 48, 79, 81, 85, 90, 91, 96-99, 108, 118, 119
Independent Ink, Inc. v. Illinois Tool Works, Inc., 396 F.3d 1342 (Fed Cir. 2005) 113
In re Independent Service Organizations Antitrust Litigation, 203 F.3d 1322 (Fed. Cir. 2000) 5, 15-20, 22, 25, 26, 32
In re Independent Service Organizations Antitrust Litigation, 989 F. Supp. 1131 (D. Kan. 1997) 26
In re Independent Service Organizations Antitrust Litigation, 964 F. Supp. 1479 (D. Kan. 1997) 16
Industrial Promotion Co. v. Versa Products, Inc., 467 N.W.2d 168 (Wis. Ct. App. 1991) 121
Industry
    biomedical 96
    biotechnology 59, 60, 95
    computer 59, 60, 91
    semiconductor 59, 60
    standards 6, 7, 33, 34, 39, 40, 43-46, 64, 76
Infringement 19-21, 23, 25, 26, 31, 44-46, 59-61, 65, 73, 84, 93, 96, 101, 102, 111, 117
Injunctions 60
Innovation 1-4, 6, 8, 12, 13, 16-18, 20-26, 32-36, 52-54, 56-58, 60-62, 66-68, 74-82, 84, 85, 90-102, 116-118
    and consumer welfare 6, 33
    cost-reducing process 67
    downstream 8, 46, 51, 75, 81, 85, 92-96, 102, 117
    effects 6, 8, 9, 12, 20, 21, 24, 33, 38, 46, 58, 80, 92, 97, 101, 102, 104, 110, 111
    foreclosure of 8, 58
    incentives 1, 8, 12, 13, 21, 23-25, 53, 81, 85, 91, 96, 98, 101, 118, 122
    preserving 12, 13, 122
    independent 5, 55, 68, 80, 90
    investments 2, 35, 46, 60, 64, 67
Intellectual property
    bottleneck 25
    bundling 5, 10, 11, 63, 103-116, 121, 122
    disclosure rules 7, 42, 43
    exploitation of 25, 100, 107
    holders 7, 8, 17, 35, 36, 40-43, 48-50, 54, 55, 57, 90, 94, 100
    infringement 21, 23, 25, 44, 46, 60, 61, 65, 111, 117
    investments 2, 35, 60, 80
    licenses 5, 8, 9, 12, 24, 40, 46, 48, 50, 57-59, 61-63, 79, 83-85, 89, 99, 101
    pooled 58, 74, 79, 84, 100
    tying 11, 107, 114
Intergraph Corp. v. Intel Corp., 195 F.3d 1346 (Fed. Cir. 1999) 25, 29
International Salt Co. v. United States, 332 U.S. 392 (1947) 21, 104, 105, 109
Internet 6, 33, 46-48, 59, 65, 76, 95, 107, 108
Interoperability 33
Inventions 1, 2, 20, 29-31, 39, 46, 59, 80, 81, 94, 95, 117
    follow-on 80, 92
    upstream 94, 95
Inventors 8, 31, 57
Investments 2, 17, 21, 25, 29, 35, 46, 58, 60, 64, 67, 74, 80, 85, 91, 101
    long-term 60
    relationship-specific 35, 64
    standards-specific 35
    sunk 35, 60, 74

J
Jacobson, Jonathan M. 104, 105, 109, 111-113
James, Charles A. 13, 68
Janis, Mark D. 11, 30, 31, 81, 92, 93, 105, 107, 115, 117, 122
Japan 62, 69, 87
Jefferson Parish Hospital District No. 2 v. Hyde, 466 U.S. 2 (1984) 11, 104-106, 109, 112
Joint ventures 34, 51, 116

K
Kartell v. Blue Shield of Massachusetts, Inc., 749 F.2d 922 (1st Cir. 1984) 22
Kattan, Joseph 40, 48, 52
Katz, Michael L. 33, 34, 38, 64, 104, 108, 116, 122
Kelly, Christopher J. 58, 69, 75, 77, 79, 83, 84
Khan v. State Oil Co., 93 F.3d 1358 (7th Cir. 1996) 112
King v. Anthony Pools, Inc., 202 F. Supp. 426 (S.D. Cal. 1962) 66
Kirsch, Paul F. 15, 17, 18, 24, 29, 31
Kirschner, Michael K. 95
Klamer, J. Mark 38
Klein, Benjamin 15, 24, 35
Klein, Joel I. 68, 84
Klevorick, Alvin K. 115
Kobayashi, Bruce H. 18
Kobe v. Dempsey Pump Co., 198 F.2d 416 (10th Cir. 1952) 66
Kohn, Robert H. 95
Kolasky, William J. 112
Kulbaski, James J. 58, 64, 65, 75, 76, 80

L
Law, Stephen M. 118
Lear v. Adkins, 395 U.S. 653 (1969) 90
Lemley, Mark A. 11, 30, 31, 33, 36, 38, 39, 42-44, 46, 47, 49, 53, 81, 92, 93, 105, 107, 115, 117, 122
Lerner, Josh 58, 64, 74, 76, 77, 79, 80, 83, 85
Leverage 94, 104
Levin, Richard C. 115
Levine, Gail 15, 39, 40, 52, 58, 88
Liability rules 23, 29, 65
Liberal licensing 60
License
    agreements 5, 22, 52, 53, 57, 61-64, 66, 76, 78, 80, 84, 89, 92, 94-96, 118, 119, 121
    claims 16, 17, 20, 25, 26, 44, 45, 62
    compulsory 6, 21-24
    copyrights 29, 121
    fees 46, 61, 74, 76
    implied 27, 30, 44
    know-how 23, 89, 98, 120, 121
    negotiation 48, 53, 89
    nonexclusive 42, 62, 74, 78-81, 89, 91, 92
    one-stop 65
    partial 57, 76, 83, 84
    perpetual 45
    portfolio 57, 59-62, 66, 92, 98
    reach-through 5, 94-97, 99, 101, 102
    reciprocal 48
    royalty 5, 12, 23, 40, 46-48, 57, 61, 65, 66, 69, 70, 74, 75, 79, 80, 83-85, 89, 94-97, 118, 119
    third-party 73
Licensees
    exclusive 78-80, 119
    freedom 54, 61
Licensing
    administrator 68-70, 82
    agreements 3, 5, 8-10, 50, 51, 55, 57-59, 61-64, 66, 67, 76, 84, 85, 87-89, 91-96, 98-102, 116-118, 121, 122
    efficiencies 8, 11, 57-59, 64, 71, 73, 84, 85, 88, 89, 92, 94, 101, 102, 104, 105, 109, 110, 114, 121, 122
    negotiations 7, 8, 37, 38, 41, 49-55, 57, 59, 61, 84
    regime 62, 99, 121
Licensors 8, 16, 22, 28, 41, 47, 48, 59, 61, 67, 69-71, 78-82, 84, 85, 89-93, 95, 96, 117-119
Lipsky, Abbott B., Jr. 98, 104, 105, 111-114
Lister, Penelope M. 26
Litigation costs 40, 61, 65, 84
Lo, Allen M. 40, 41, 48
Long term contracts 119
Lynch, Patrick 73

M
MCA Television Ltd. v. Public Interest Corp., 171 F.3d 1265 (11th Cir. 1999) 108
MPEG-2 Business Review Letter 68, 69, 71, 72,
76-79, 81-83
MacKie-Mason, Jeffrey K. 15, 17-20, 29, 31
Majewski, Suzanne E. 15, 35
Majoras, Deborah Platt 52, 54
Mandatory package licensing 107
Mansfield, Edwin 121
Manufacturing 4, 30, 49, 55, 60, 62, 65, 75, 81
Marasco, Amy A. 6, 33, 39, 43, 50, 53
Marginalization, double 96
Marshall, Frances 58, 59, 88
Market
    analysis 8, 9, 11, 12, 17, 20, 35, 39, 57, 62, 73, 87, 97-101, 103, 105, 113-115, 122
    competitive 24, 35, 39, 48, 75, 81, 95, 97, 104, 105, 107, 109, 122
    conditions 11, 22, 49, 104, 105, 119
    defined 20, 23, 99
    definition 20, 111
    division 2, 10, 19, 62, 63, 82, 116, 123
    downstream 24, 75, 81, 82, 95
    effects 9, 11, 12, 20, 21, 34, 38, 39, 52, 58, 63, 67, 97, 99, 104-106, 109-111, 114
    power 1, 2, 4, 8, 11, 12, 16, 17, 20-24, 29, 34-36, 39, 46-48, 52-54, 63, 97-100, 104-106, 109-123
    price 8, 10, 19, 21-24, 49, 53, 58, 62, 63, 67, 73, 81, 83, 85, 100, 106
    relevant 11, 20, 26, 64, 67, 83, 97, 99, 102, 106, 110, 111
Masoudi, Gerald F. 101
Mathias, Sarah 58, 88
Matsushita Electrical Industrial Co. v. Cinram International, Inc., 299 F. Supp. 2d 370 (D. Del. 2004) 67, 79
Matthew Bender & Co. v. West Publishing Co., 158 F.3d 693 (2d Cir. 1998) 113
McCarthy, J. Thomas 4
McCullen, Sharon Brawner 26
McCurdy, Daniel 43
McDermott, Inc. v. AmClyde, 511 U.S. 202 (1994) 91
McFalls, Michael 58, 80, 88-92, 97, 98
McGarey, Barbara M. 58, 88, 92-96
McGowan, David 58, 75, 78-81, 84, 85
MedImmune, Inc. v. Genentech, Inc., 127 S. Ct. 764 (2007) 90, 91
Meehan v. PPG Industries, Inc., 802 F.2d 881 (7th Cir. 1986) 117
Melamed, A. Douglas 15, 17, 19, 20, 23, 25, 27-29, 31
Mercoid Corp. v. Mid-Continent Investment Co., 320 U.S. 661 (1944) 21, 29
Merges, Robert P. 58, 65, 76
Microeconomics 62, 71, 97, 107, 118, 121
Micron Technology, Inc. v. Rambus Inc., 189 F. Supp. 2d 201 (D. Del. 2002) 45
Milgrim, Roger M. 4
Miller, Joseph Scott 108
Miller Insituform, Inc. v. Insituform of North America, Inc., 830 F.2d 606 (6th Cir. 1987) 30
Misappropriation 21, 119
Misuse 25, 26, 33, 44, 96, 97, 108, 111, 112, 115, 117
Monopolist 22-24, 27, 30, 65, 108, 120
Monopolization 21, 25, 35
Monopoly
    lawful 2, 19, 23
    power 1, 2, 12, 16, 20-23, 29-31, 44, 97, 99, 104, 110, 117, 120, 122
    prices 1, 22-24
Monopsony 48, 49, 51, 52
Morse, M. Howard 58, 63, 71, 72, 74, 76, 80, 82, 83, 85, 92
Motion Picture Patents Co. v. Universal Film Manufacturing Co., 243 U.S. 502 (1917) 30
Mozart Co. v. Mercedes-Benz of North America, Inc., 833 F.2d 1342 (9th Cir. 1987) 106
Mueller, Janice M. 33, 34, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97
Muris, Timothy J. 35

N
Naked agreements 50, 51, 55, 106
National Collegiate Athletic Association v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma, 468 U.S. 85 (1984) 11, 39, 105
National Society of Professional Engineers v. United States, 435 U.S. 679 (1978) 50
Negotiations 7, 8, 28, 37, 38, 41, 49-55, 57, 59, 61, 64, 84
    bilateral 8, 41, 54, 57
Nelson, Richard R. 115
Network effects 33, 34, 38
Network industries 34, 38
Networks 6, 19, 27, 33, 38, 40
Newberg, Joshua A. 58, 63, 74
Nielsen, Jane 92, 94
Noerr-Pennington 45, 122
Non-assertion 5, 10, 59, 88-93, 97-101, 116
Non-disclosure 40, 44
Nondiscriminatory 7, 36, 46, 47, 49, 70
Northern Pacific Railway Co. v. United States, 356 U.S. 1 (1958) 104, 112

O
Oehler, Ross 95
Oligopolistic 62
One monopoly rent 24
Ordover, Janusz A. 58, 60, 62, 88, 92, 96, 98, 99
Output 8, 58, 64, 82, 100

P
Package license 12, 84, 107, 108, 110, 112
Partial-pool licenses 83
Pate, R. Hewitt 15, 18, 20, 54, 82, 90, 101
Patent
    applications 42, 43, 104
    biotechnology 59, 65, 93, 95
    claims 16, 17, 20, 25, 26, 31, 44, 45, 62, 66, 67, 76, 90, 93
    competing 74-76, 79
    complementary 5, 9, 48, 62, 63, 66, 71, 74, 76-78, 81, 83, 84, 96
    disclosure rule 43
    essential 21, 54, 64-66, 68-71, 74-78, 81, 83, 85, 92, 108
    expert 65, 68-71, 78, 113
    expiration 12, 97, 115-122
    hold-up 8, 35, 42
    infringement 19, 44, 73, 93, 96, 117
    invalid 71, 78, 90, 91, 96
    misuse 25, 26, 33, 44, 96, 97, 108, 111, 115, 117
    doctrine 26, 44, 97, 115, 117
    rules 97
    pooling 5, 8, 9, 52, 57-59, 62, 64, 66-69, 71, 72, 77-79, 82, 84, 85, 99, 100
    portfolio 8, 41, 43, 57-63, 66, 67, 77, 84, 85, 91, 92, 96, 98-100
    rival 65, 74, 79
    royalty-free 42, 47, 48, 61, 74, 89
    scope 19, 20, 59, 72, 80, 81, 90, 91, 93, 96, 120
    substitutable 64, 71, 77
    tying cases 111
    unenforceable 78, 90
    valid 4, 66, 71, 78
    validity 51, 78, 90
Patent Act 6, 25, 31
Patent breadth 62, 93
Patterson, Mark R. 39, 40, 46, 52, 53
Perloff, Jeffrey M. 103, 119
Peterson, Scott K. 33, 40, 46, 47, 49, 53, 55
Pfaff v. Wells Electronics, Inc., 525 U.S. 55 (1998) 113
Piccolo, Joe 65, 74
Pitney Bowes, Inc. v. Mestre, 701 F.2d 1365 (11th Cir. 1983) 117, 121
Pitofsky, Robert 34
Polk, C. Edward 15, 104, 116
Pool
    administrator 68, 69, 82, 84
    agreement 63, 64, 68, 69, 72-74, 78, 80, 85
    anticompetitive effects of 9, 58
    business review letters 67-69, 72, 77, 78
    of complementary patents 66, 74, 77
    partial 57, 83, 84
    royalty rates 66, 80, 85
Poppen, Joel 60
Portfolio cross-licensing agreements 57, 58, 91, 92, 96, 100
Posner, Richard A. 2
Potential competitors 8, 10, 32, 37, 39, 51, 58, 63, 67, 99, 102
Predatory 17, 28
Price
    bundled 11, 107, 112
    competition 8, 20, 24, 28, 31, 37, 38, 48, 51-55, 67, 71, 73, 74, 78, 83, 99-102, 106
    discrimination 24, 109
    fixing 8, 10, 19, 21, 37, 51, 52, 58, 62, 63, 85
    terms 7, 8, 21, 24, 28, 37, 47, 49, 52-55, 82, 83
Price fixing 19, 51, 55, 74, 78, 113
Price fixing, naked 37, 52, 62, 63
Procompetitive 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, 19, 37, 42, 52-55, 58, 62, 63, 67, 76, 84, 85, 87-89, 109, 110
    activity 52, 54, 55, 62, 87, 100
    benefits 9, 37, 42, 52, 54, 58, 63, 67, 84, 85, 110
    conduct 19, 37, 63, 100, 105
    effects 5, 9, 11, 12, 58, 63, 76, 109, 110
Product
    complex 60, 106
    homogeneous 81
    market 2-4, 8, 11, 20, 22, 33, 34, 38, 39, 41, 42, 49, 57, 62, 64, 75, 82, 95, 97-101, 103-106, 109-112, 115, 119, 120
    noninfringing 96, 115
    platform software 112
    prices of 51, 71, 74, 82
    rival 79
    second-generation 81
    standardized 36, 55
Production
    complementary factors of 4, 62, 76, 87
    costs 4, 61, 65, 76
    facilities 4, 99
Professional Real Estate Investors, Inc. v. Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc., 508 U.S. 49 (1993) 21
Profits 20, 24, 28, 38, 48, 79, 95, 108
Property, tangible 3, 4, 21, 63, 107, 108
Proprietary information 71, 81, 82, 121
Pure bundling 103
Putnam, Jonathan D. 58

Q
Quélin, Bertrand V. 38
Qureshi, Abid 109

R
RAND (reasonable and nondiscriminatory) 7, 36, 42, 46, 47, 49, 53, 54, 64, 70
R&D 2, 8, 17, 48, 57, 59-62, 64, 67
Radiant Burners, Inc. v. Peoples Gas Light & Coke Co., 364 U.S. 656 (1961) 35, 50
In re Rambus, Inc., No. 9302 (F.T.C. July 31, 2006) 36, 37, 44
Rambus Inc. v. Infineon Technologies AG, 164 F. Supp. 2d 743 (E.D. Va. 2001) 44
Ramos, Carey R. 68
Ramseyer, J. Mark 120
Rapp, Richard T. 38, 39
Rasmusen, Eric B. 120
Reach-through 5, 10, 59, 88, 92-97, 99, 101, 102, 116, 117
Refusals 5, 6, 15-32, 63, 84
    conditional 6, 19, 31
    unconditional 6, 18, 19, 22, 23, 27, 29-32
Relief 25, 112
Rents 35, 90, 119
Research 15, 39, 40, 45, 57-60, 66, 67, 81, 91-97, 101, 115-117
    biotechnology 59, 60, 66, 93
    tool 91-97, 101, 116, 117
Restraint 9, 10, 29, 51, 52, 63, 64, 73, 93, 99, 102, 122
Restrictions 5, 8, 19, 24, 31, 58, 67, 96, 98, 100, 101, 119, 121, 122
Rey, Patrick 24, 25
Royalties 7-9, 10, 12, 23, 35, 36, 40, 41, 44-48, 53, 54, 57-61, 64-66, 69-71, 77, 79, 80, 82-85, 93-97, 101, 116-119
    charge 23, 45, 48, 101, 117-11
    cumulative 8, 95, 101
    distributing 64
    excessive 82, 96, 101
    fixed 36, 61
    legitimate 101
    negotiated 69, 84, 97
    post-expiration 113, 117, 118
    reach-through 59, 88, 93-97, 101, 116, 117
    reasonable 7, 36, 46, 70, 80, 82, 83, 94
    running 61
    stacking 8, 57, 58, 61, 65, 95, 96
    up-front 94, 95
Royalty rates 12, 23, 36, 40, 51, 54, 61, 66, 70, 77, 80, 83, 85, 92, 97, 118, 119
Royalty-free 42, 46-48, 61, 74, 89, 92
Rule, Charles F. (Rick) 58, 62, 88, 90, 92, 93, 94, 96- 100, 102, 118

S
SCM Corp. v. Xerox Corp., 645 F.2d 1195 (2d Cir. 1981) 30
SSO (Standard-setting organizations) 7, 8, 33-47, 49-55
    intellectual property policies 43
    policies 42-44
    requirements 7, 37, 42, 53
    rules 7, 36, 40, 42, 43, 45, 50, 51, 53, 54
Safeguards 9, 46, 58, 72
Safety zone 112
Salinger, Michael 103, 122
Saloner, Garth 38
Samsung Electronics Co. v. Rambus Inc., 439 F. Supp. 2d 524 (E.D. Va. 2006) 45
Scheffman, David L. 58, 88, 104, 116
Scheiber v. Dolby Laboratories, Inc., 293 F.3d 1014 (7th Cir. 2002) 25, 26, 97, 113, 118
Scherer, F. M. 95
Schor v. Abbott Laboratories, 457 F.3d 608 (7th Cir. 2006) 101
Scope 19, 20, 34, 59, 72, 80, 81, 90, 91, 93, 96, 120
Scotchmer, Suzanne 81
Segal, Ilya R. 120
Semiconductors 43, 44, 59-62
Sham 5, 17, 18, 44, 51, 55, 63, 102, 121, 123
Shapiro, Carl 15, 17-19, 21-23, 28, 29, 33-36, 38, 40, 42, 47, 50, 57-62, 64, 65, 74, 83, 85, 88, 91, 96, 97, 99, 107, 117, 118, 120
Sherman Act 8, 15, 16, 21, 26-28, 30, 31, 35, 37, 39, 51, 52, 54, 79, 101, 106
Sherry, Edward F. 48
Sibley, David S. 104, 105, 116, 119
Sidak, J. Gregory 104, 105, 107, 112
Simmons, Ian 73
Simon, James 60
Simpson, John 120
Simpson v. Union Oil Co. of California, 377 U.S. 13 (1964) 30
Skitol, Robert A. 52, 53, 55
Software 16, 38, 51, 59, 68, 81, 95, 104, 108, 109, 112
Sony Electronics, Inc. v. Soundview Technologies, Inc., 157 F. Supp. 2d 180 (D. Conn. 2001) 51
Spengler, Joseph J. 65
Sprigman, Christopher J. 15, 17, 19-21, 23-25, 29, 31
Southco, Inc. v. Kanebridge Corp. (Southco II), 390 F.3d 276 (3d Cir. 2004) (en banc) 113
Southco, Inc. v. Kanebridge Corp. (Southco I), 258 F.3d
148 (3d Cir. 2001) 113
Square D Co. v. Niagara Frontier Tariff Bureau, Inc., 476 U.S. 409 (1986) 27
Standard Oil Co. v. United States, 337 U.S. 293 (1949) 105
Standard Oil Co. v. United States, 283 U.S. 163 (1931) 66
Standard Sanitary Manufacturing Co. v. United States, 226 U.S. 20 (1912) 34, 66
Standard setting 7, 33-43, 45, 49, 50, 52-55
Standard-setting process 7, 35-39, 41-43, 45, 49, 50, 52, 53, 55
Standards 5-7, 33-36, 38-48, 50-55, 64, 69, 76, 79, 81, 96, 110, 114
    de facto 34, 36
    development 34, 42, 46, 47, 50, 51, 53, 64
    interoperability 33
    war 34
Stanton, Brian 65, 74
State Oil v. Khan, 522 U.S. 3 (1997) 113
Steinman, David R. 44
Stiroh, Lauren J. 39, 40
Stoeppelwerth, Ali M. 17, 19, 25, 28, 29
Stoner, Robert D. 95
Substitutes 2, 4, 7, 9, 12, 22, 34, 36, 38, 63, 66-69, 71, 74-79, 85, 100, 106, 111, 115, 116, 122
    economic 66, 71, 111
    noninfringing 115
    partial 76
    patents 7, 9, 66-71, 74-78, 85
    products 2, 7, 12, 34, 67, 69, 71, 74, 85, 116, 122
    technological 77
    technologies 2, 7, 66, 67, 71, 75, 76
Sullivan, Mary 58
In re Summit Technology, Inc., 127 F.T.C. 208 (1999) 67, 73, 74, 76-79
Sung, Lawrence M. 58, 59, 66
Surplus 64, 81, 108
Swanson, Daniel G. 36, 40, 46-48
Symbol Technologies, Inc. v. Proxim Inc., No. Civ. 01-801-SLR, 2004 WL 1770290 (D. Del. July 28, 2004) 44

T
Tacit agreement 51, 64
Tassey, Gregory 33
Technology
    blocking 61, 71, 73, 74, 84, 89, 92
    competing 74-76
    complementary 2, 4, 48, 62, 66, 71, 74, 76, 84
    developing 35, 38, 52, 55, 109
    disseminate 97, 118
    public domain 52, 121
Technology markets 36, 64
Teece, David J. 39, 43, 48, 59-61, 89
Telecky, Fredrick J., Jr. 44, 61, 62, 90
Telecommunications 6, 33, 40, 46, 68
Television 11, 68, 106-108
Temporal extensions 104, 115
Territories 121
Thompson, Earle 40, 41, 47, 49, 50
Tie 11, 103-107, 109-112, 114, 118, 119, 122
    technological 11, 103, 107, 109
Tied product 11, 106, 107, 110, 111
Tirole, Jean 24, 77, 80, 83
Townshend v. Rockwell International Corp., 2000-1 Trade Cas. (CCH) ¶ 72,890, 2000 WL 433505 (N.D. Cal. 2000) 19
Trade secrets 4, 12, 23, 116, 120, 121
Trademarks 4
Transaction
    costs 8, 10, 34, 57, 61, 65, 75, 79, 84, 89, 95, 121
    efficiencies 57, 84, 89, 121
Tying
    arrangements 5, 11, 12, 31, 63, 104, 105, 109, 110, 114, 122
    product-to-patent 109
    product 2, 10-12, 22, 31, 39, 63, 103-107, 109-112
    sales 106
Tyson, Karin 65, 74

U
USM Corp. v. SPS Technologies, Inc., 694 F.2d 505 (7th Cir. 1982) 26
U.S. Philips Corp. v. International Trade Commission, 424 F.3d 1179 (Fed. Cir. 2005) 109, 117, 121
Unilateral
    refusals 5, 6, 15-23, 25, 27-32, 63
    termination 28
In re Union Oil Co. of California, No. 9305 (F.T.C. Nov. 25, 2003) 36, 45
United Mine Workers v. Pennington, 381 U.S. 657 (1965) 45, 122
United States v. Colgate & Co., 250 U.S. 300 (1919) 27
United States v. Grinnell Corp., 384 U.S. 563 (1966) 100
United States v. Jerrold Electronics Corp., 187 F. Supp. 545 (E.D. Pa. 1960) 106
United States v. Line Material Co., 333 U.S. 287 (1948) 21, 66
United States v. Loew's, Inc., 371 U.S. 38 (1962) 103, 106, 108
United States v. Masonite Corp., 316 U.S. 265 (1942) 21
United States v. Microsoft Corp., 253 F.3d 34 (D.C. Cir. 2001) (en banc) 18, 104, 107-109, 112
United States v. Microsoft Corp., 87 F. Supp. 2d 30 (D.D.C. 2000) 46, 107
United States v. New Wrinkle, Inc., 342 U.S. 371 (1952) 66
United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc., 334 U.S. 131 (1948) 109
United States v. Pilkington plc, No. 94-345, 1994-2 Trade Cas. (CCH) ¶ 70,842, 1994 WL 750645 (D. Ariz. Dec. 22, 1994) 121
United States v. Socony-Vacuum Oil Co., 310 U.S. 150 (1940) 51, 52
United States v. Singer Manufacturing Co., 374 U.S. 174 (1963) 66
United States v. U.S. Gypsum Co., 333 U.S. 364 (1948) 66
United States v. United Shoe Machinery Co. of New Jersey, 247 U.S. 32 (1918) 29
United States v. Univis Lens Co., 316 U.S. 241 (1942) 21
United States v. Westinghouse Electric Corp., 648 F.2d 642 (9th Cir. 1981) 30
Updegrove, Andrew 33, 40, 41, 43, 46-48

V
In re VISX, Inc., 127 F.T.C. 236 (1999) 67, 73, 74, 76-79
Validity 46, 51, 78, 90, 108
Varian, Hal R. 34, 36, 71
Verizon Communications Inc. v. Law Offices of Curtis V. Trinko, LLP, 540 U.S. 398 (2004) 6, 22, 23, 27-29, 32
Vertical integration 20, 35, 65
Vishny, Paul 40, 46, 47, 50
Vistnes, Gregory 104, 107, 121
Vogel v. American Society of Appraisers, 744 F.2d 598 (7th Cir. 1984) 55

W
Ware, Roger 34
Walker Process Equipment, Inc. v. Food Machinery & Chemical Corp., 382 U.S. 172 (1965) 21
Welfare 1, 6, 33, 66, 74, 76, 104, 108, 109
Wells Real Estate, Inc. v. Greater Lowell Board of Realtors, 850 F.2d 803 (1st Cir. 1988) 106
Wetzner, Daniel J. 40, 46, 47
Whinston, Michael D. 120
Whitener, Mark D. 15, 17-19, 22, 23, 28, 29, 31
Wickelgren, Abraham 120
Wiley, John Shepard, Jr. 15, 24, 120
Williamson, Dean V. 35
Williamson, Oliver E. 35, 64
Wilson, Bruce B. 98
Winston, Tor 39, 40
Winter, Sidney G. 115
Worley, Regis C. 76

Y
Yao, Dennis A. 39, 40

Z
Zanfagna, Gary 43
Zenith Radio Corp. v. Hazeltine Research, Inc., 395 U.S. 100 (1969) 97, 117

Updated June 25, 2015