find attached the Farmer to Farmer Campaign on Genetic Engineering’s Report
entitled, Out of Hand: Farmers Face the
Consequences of a Consolidated Seed Industry. The Farmer
to Farmer Campaign on Genetic Engineering, together with the National Family
Farm Coalition (NFFC) and Farm Aid, request that the Report be entered into the
record in its entirety as our organizational comments on anticompetitive
practices in the seed industry.
findings in the Report include:
Seed industry concentration is
indisputable. The top 4 firms account for 43%
of the global seed market and 50% of the proprietary seed market (i.e. branded
seed with intellectual property protections). In corn seed, the top 3 firms
control nearly 100% percent of the market. Monsanto’s market power is
unmatched. Its subsidiaries control 60% of the U.S. corn and soybean market
through direct sales and licensing agreements. 90% of soybean and cotton
acreage and 80% of the corn acreage in the U.S. is planted with one or more of
Patents and intellectual property
rights in seeds and genetics have been a major contributing factor in seed
industry concentration. The Supreme Court decision in Pioneer
v. JEM Ag Supply allowing patent law application to seeds coupled with
aggressive use of restrictive licensing agreements and the high cost of seed
research and development have driven competition out of the marketplace. At
least 200 independent seed companies have been lost in the last 13 years alone.
Independent seed companies that license traits from Monsanto say these
licensing agreements are anti-competitive in nature and are unreasonably
Seed prices have skyrocketed as
the seed industry became concentrated. Corn
seed prices jumped by over 30% between 2008 and 2009 alone, resulting in nearly
$100/bag increases. Soybean prices doubled in some regions during this time.
Much of the increase is the result of technology fee increases (i.e. $6.50/bag
in 2003 to $17.50/bag in 2008).
Farmers’ choice in seed has
dwindled as the seed industry became concentrated.
Monsanto has employed a trait penetration
plan to force farmers to use multi-stacked, genetically engineered
(GE) seed varieties. Monsanto has developed regional pricing programs
offering low cost varieties to lure farmers to buy these GE varieties. As
farmer adoption rates rise, conventional and other less expensive GE varieties
(e.g., single and double stack varieties) are reduced or eliminated, forcing
farmers to use the higher priced, multi-stacked varieties. In 2009, triple
stack Monsanto corn varieties were priced as high as $350/bag – a
$100/bag increase over 2008 prices, while conventional varieties typically cost
$50-100/bag less. In 2009, 70% of corn seed sales were triple stack
varieties, arguably due to lack of other seed options.
Patent/Intellectual Property Law
have impacted farmers’ choice in seeds.
Patents have effectively resulted in a prohibition on seed saving.
Farmers historically have had the ability to save seed, which provided them
with options and choices that are no longer available. This loss has also
influenced seed prices since farmers can no longer opt to use their own seed
(i.e. seed saving had the effect of holding down seed prices). Threat of
liability/lawsuits for alleged patent infringement by patent-owners has also
led farmers to adopt GE varieties and/or continue using those varieties while
the availability of lower priced, higher performing options has dried up due to
lack of public funding for plant breeding/seed development.
Existing public policy has
thwarted innovation. The ability to obtain
utility patents in seeds and genetics coupled with the Bayh-Dole Act mandates allowing
companies to acquire intellectual property rights in innovations derived from publicly
funded research to develop commercial applications, has resulted in less
innovation in new seed varieties. Seed researchers and breeders find it
difficult (if not impossible) to access a wide variety of plant genetics to
conduct seed development research. Furthermore, accessing these genetics often
comes with strings attached, including confidentially agreements and industry
veto power over research.
In order to address the problems of seed industry concentration, we
recommend that the U.S. Department of Justice in collaboration with the U.S.
Department of Justice:
a comprehensive assessment of the anti-competitive practices in the seed
industry that have resulted in high seed prices and reduced seed choices to
farmers and have limited the access of genetic material to seed breeders and
all available antitrust enforcement powers to restore innovation, competition, access
to genetic material, choice in seeds and fair seed prices to farmers,
researchers and other seed-related industries.
legislation to eliminate utility patents for seeds and plant genetics and to
reinstate the protections afforded under the Plant Variety Protection Act
(PVPA) as the exclusive authority for protecting economic interests in seeds
and plant genetics.
Should you have any questions regarding the Report, please feel free
to contact Bill Wenzel (contact information below) or Kristina Hubbard, Out of Hand author and Farmer to Farmer
Campaign on Genetic Engineering Consultant, at firstname.lastname@example.org or (406)
Wenzel, National Director
to Farmer Campaign on GE
P.O. Box 272