Hate Crime

U.S. Department of
Community Relations
Rose Ochi, Director,
Community Relations Service

    Hate Crime:
    The Violence of Intolerance

    The Community Relations Service
    (CRS), an arm of the U.S. Department of Justice, is a specialized Federal
    conciliation service available to State and local officials to help resolve
    and prevent racial and ethnic conflict, violence and civil disorders. When governors,
    mayors, police chiefs, and school superintendents need help to defuse racial
    crises, they turn to CRS. CRS helps local officials and residents tailor locally
    defined resolutions when conflict and violence threaten community stability
    and well-being. CRS conciliators assist in identifying the sources of violence
    and conflict and utilizing specialized crisis management and violence reduction
    techniques which work best for each community. CRS has no law enforcement authority
    and does not impose solutions, investigate or prosecute cases, or assign blame
    or fault. CRS conciliators are required by law to conduct their activities in
    confidence, without publicity, and are prohibited from disclosing confidential

    In 1997, CRS was involved in 135 hate crime cases that caused or
    intensified community racial and ethnic tensions. As authorized by the
    Civil Rights Act of 1964, CRS became involved only in those cases in
    which the criminal offender was motivated by the victim's race, color, or
    national origin. Of all hate crime incidents reported to the U.S.
    Department of Justice's Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1996,
    72 percent were motivated by the victim's race, color, or national origin.

    Hate Crime

    Hate crime is the violence of intolerance and bigotry, intended to hurt
    and intimidate someone because of their race, ethnicity, national origin,
    religious, sexual orientation, or disability. The purveyors of hate use
    explosives, arson, weapons, vandalism, physical violence, and verbal
    threats of violence to instill fear in their victims, leaving them vulnerable
    to more attacks and feeling alienated, helpless, suspicious and fearful.
    Others may become frustrated and angry if they believe the local
    government and other groups in the community will not protect them.
    When perpetrators of hate are not prosecuted as criminals and their acts
    not publicly condemned, their crimes can weaken even those
    communities with the healthiest race relations.

    Of all crimes, hate crimes are most likely to create or exacerbate
    tensions, which can trigger larger community-wide racial conflict, civil
    disturbances, and even riots. Hate crimes put cities and towns at-risk of
    serious social and economic consequences. The immediate costs of racial
    conflicts and civil disturbances are police, fire, and medical personnel
    overtime, injury or death, business and residential property loss, and
    damage to vehicles and equipment. Long-term recovery is hindered by a
    decline in property values, which results in lower tax revenues, scarcity
    of funds for rebuilding, and increased insurance rates. Businesses and
    residents abandon these neighborhoods, leaving empty buildings to
    attract crime, and the quality of schools decline due to the loss of tax
    revenue. A municipality may have no choice but to cut services or raise
    taxes or leave the area in its post-riot condition until market forces of
    supply and demand rebuild the area.

    Victims and Perpetrators

    In 1996, the FBI received reports of 10,706 hate crimes from State and
    local law enforcement agencies, involving 11,039 victims, and 10,021
    known perpetrators. The crimes included 12 murders, 10 forcible rapes,
    1,444 aggravated assaults, 1,762 simple assaults, and 4,130 acts of

    Among the known perpetrators, 66 percent were white, and 20 percent
    were black. Some perpetrators commit hate crimes with their peers as a
    "thrill" or while under the influence of drugs or alcohol; some as a
    reaction against a perceived threat or to preserve their "turf'; and some
    who out of resentment over the growing economic power of a particular
    racial or ethnic group engage in scapegoating.

    Examples of CRS Hate Crime Cases

    In Augusta,
    two black families experienced a series of hate crimes, including
    a cross burning and a vandalized vehicle. When tensions increased across the
    community, CRS worked with representatives from more than 25 churches, law enforcement
    agencies, schools, and community organizations to develop both short- and longterm
    approaches to eliminate hate crimes.

    In Clarksville, Tennessee the U.S. Attorney requested CRS
    assistance after a number of hate crimes and other incidents
    created community-wide tensions. CRS helped local officials
    establish a Human Relations Commission to mediate disputes
    and conflicts.

    After a white youth from Guthrie, Kentucky, was killed by
    several black males in Robertson County, Tennessee, for
    displaying on his truck the confederate flag, the emblem of the
    youth's high school, regional tensions flared, marked by cross
    burnings and other incidents. CRS worked with Federal, State
    and local officials to restore racial order, including assistance to
    the mayor of Guthrie in establishing a Community Relations
    Commission to help maintain stability.

    After three black youths were wounded in a Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
    drive-by shooting of a black nightclub in Lexington County,
    South Carolina, CRS conducted a series of conciliation meetings
    with the youths' families, State and county government and
    school officials, and black and white citizen groups to promote
    harmonious racial relations.

    In St. Louis, Missouri, an Asian refugee sitting in his automobile
    in front of his house was killed by a black youth. Long-simmering
    ethnic-racial tensions were exacerbated by the murder, and civil
    disturbances appeared imminent. CRS helped Federal, State and
    local officials, and community and religious organizations
    develop a process to begin to address both the immediate and
    underlying social and economic causes of the tension.

    CRS Assistance on School Issues:

    CRS assistance was requested by school district officials and
    leaders of 17 community organizations to reduce racial tensions
    in a high school in Fairbanks, Alaska, after the KKK directed its
    recruitment activities at the school and a series of hate crimes
    incidents occurred against black and native Alaskan residents.

    CRS conciliators helped administrators of a high school in
    Tucson, Arizona, following two months of racial violence
    between white, black, and Hispanic students, with one incident
    requiring the response of more than 120 law enforcement officers.
    CRS helped restore stability in the schools and ease tensions in
    the community.

    In Suffolk County, New York, administrators of school districts
    requested CRS assistance when hate crimes and racial conflicts
    increased tensions in the county's schools and communities. At
    a Brookhaven high school, CRS responded when racial tensions
    escalated into violence after white students distributed flyers
    promoting white supremacy. In Deerpark, CRS mediation and
    conciliation services helped students, parents and officials stop
    hate crimes and racial violence in middle and high schools.

    CRS Assistance
    on Housing Issues:

    In Independence, Kansas,
    CRS was contacted when the home of a black family was firebombed, one in a series
    of incidents and threats to force the families to move from an all-white neighborhood.
    By working with various government agencies and community groups, CRS helped
    reduce tension in the area.

    In Rome, Georgia,
    CRS was asked by a Hispanic minister to help end racial conflicts arising from
    the movement of Hispanic families to a previously all-black apartment building.
    Hate crimes, including violent assaults, robberies, and vandalism, increased
    the tensions among all residents. CRS helped resolve the conflict by working
    with government officials and Hispanic and black community leadership.

    In Wilmington, Delaware,
    the U.S. Attorney asked CRS to resolve tensions and conflicts involving
    Hispanic and black residents of a housing complex, which was marked by arson,
    violence, and intimidation. CRS mediated the tensions and, by working with local
    government agencies and residents of the complex, established a resident-operated
    mediation process to maintain stability in the event of future tensions.

    In Omaha, Nebraska, CRS assistance was requested by Federal
    and State authorities after two black families were relocated from
    a primarily white housing complex after a series of firebombings,
    vandalism and verbal threats. CRS helped the police department
    develop an educational program to teach citizens about hate

    CRS Assistance
    on Business Issues:

    In Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
    an Asian-owned store targeted for protests and boycott by black residents was
    firebombed. When existing community-wide tensions were heightened by comments
    on a local talk show by boycott leaders, CRS successfully mediated the long-running
    dispute at the request of the U.S. Attorney.

    In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, CRS mediated a dispute between
    Korean and black business owners and employees in a public
    market when tensions escalated in the community and the
    market's business dropped.

    In Bridgeport, Washington, the relatively rapid demographic
    shift in a multi-county area from primarily white to a majority of
    Hispanic agricultural workers led to a series of hate crimes and
    racial conflicts, including the murder of two Hispanic men by two
    white men, formation of armed vigilante groups, and a Hispanic
    boycott of white-owned businesses. CRS helped local
    government agencies and civic, business and community groups
    develop a process to end existing tensions and prevent future


    Assistance on Church

    In response to the President's
    call for a comprehensive response by Federal agencies to address church burnings,
    CRS staff have worked directly with more than 230 rural, suburban, and urban
    governments in 17 states to help eliminate racial distrust and polarization,
    promote multiracial construction of new buildings, conduct race relations training
    for community leaders and law enforcement officers, and provide technical assistance
    in ways to bring together law enforcement agencies and minority neighborhoods.
    CRS serves as a principal partner on the President's Church Arson Task Force.

    CRS Best Practices to Prevent Hate
    Crimes from Escalating Racial and Ethnic
    Tensions into Conflict or Civil

    From years of experience with hundreds of hate crime cases that have
    caused or intensified community-wide racial and ethnic tensions, CRS
    recommends certain "best practices" to prevent hate crimes and restore
    harmony in the community.

    Hate Crime Ordinances
    are a Deterrent

    A core responsibility of government is to protect the civil rights of its
    citizens and to advance its inherent obligation to ensure good race and
    ethnic relations. This tenet cannot be abrogated and such a commitment
    requires no special funding. A government can confirm its commitment
    to the safety and well-being of its citizens by establishing an ordinance
    against hate crime activity or enhancing the punishment for hate crime.
    It can also encourage compliance with existing equal opportunity

    A local government may
    establish an ordinance against hate activity modeled on existing hate crime
    law in effect in that State. Punishment is enhanced by promulgating guidelines
    or amending existing guidelines to provide varying offense levels for use in
    sentencing There should be reasonable consistency with other guidelines, avoidance
    of duplicative punishments for the same offense, and consideration of any mitigating
    circumstances. Compliance with existing statutes can be achieved by training
    law enforcement officers to enforce existing statutes, imposing fines or penalties
    when ordinances are violated, reviewing licenses or privileges, reviewing tax
    exempt status, and providing incentives or awards. A local government may also
    establish boards or commissions to review and analyze hate crime activity, create
    public service announcements, and recommend measures to counter hate activity.
    In September 1994, Congress also enacted a Federal hate crime penalty enhancement
    statute (Public Law 103-322 § 28003), which would increase the penalties
    for Federal crimes where the victim was selected "because of the actual or perceived

    color, religion, national
    origin, ethnicity, gender, disability, or sexual orientation of any person.

    Local Actions
    to Improve Communication

    When left unresolved, simmering racial and ethnic friction can be
    triggered by a hate crime into a community-wide conflict or civil
    disturbance. Communication and interaction between majority and
    minority groups is often a key factor in preventing tensions or restoring

    A Human Rights Commission (HRQ can facilitate and coordinate
    discussions, training, and events for the benefit of everyone. An HRC
    can create a forum for talking about racial and ethnic relations and
    encourage citizens to discuss their differences, commonalities, hopes
    and dreams. Forums could focus on the common features of
    community life, including economic development, education,
    transportation, environment, cultural and recreational opportunities,
    leadership, community attitudes, and racial and ethnic diversity. The
    Commission can use multicultural training and special events to
    promote harmony and stability. Also, see A
    Policymaker's Guide to
    Hate Crimes,
    published by the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA),
    US. Department of Justice. Telephone 8001688-4252, or visit their
    home page at www ojp usdoj gov/BJA.

    Coalitions Create
    a Positive Climate

    Racial and ethnic tensions increase during periods of economic
    downswings. Hate crimes may occur when unemployed or
    underemployed workers vent anger on available scapegoats from the
    minority groups.

    Coalitions of representatives
    from political, business, civic, religious, and community organizations help
    create a positive climate in the community and encourage constructive dialogue.
    Coalitions can recommend initiatives to help racial and ethnic communities affected
    by the loss of jobs, including programs and plans to help local government ensure
    an equitable disbursement of public and private finds, resources, and services.

    Inclusion Increases
    Confidence in Government

    Hate crimes can often be prevented by policies designed to promote
    good racial and ethnic relations.

    Local governments can
    assure that everyone has access to

    in the municipality's decision-making processes, including equal opportunity
    for minorities to be represented on appointed boards and commissions. Local
    governments might institute a policy of inclusion for appointments on boards
    and commissions. The policy could require listing all appointive

    positions, and notifying all racial and ethnic groups of open
    seats through the minority media.

    Schools and Police
    Must Work Together

    Racial and ethnic tensions may increase in schools when there are
    rapid demographic or socio-economic changes. Tensions may result
    from the perception of unequal educational opportunities or disparate
    practices in hiring faculty and staff within the school district.

    Preventing and dealing
    with hate crimes and hate-based gang activity in schools are the responsibility
    of school and police officials, who should work together to develop a plan to
    handle hate crimes and defuse racial tensions. Hate crimes can be school-related,
    communityrelated, or a combination of both. Officials should consider prevention
    and response roles, identify potential trouble sites, and plan for phased police
    intervention. Tension can be eased by regular communication with parents, students,
    media, and other community organizations. Mediation and conflict resolution
    classes develop the capacity of young people to peacefully settle disputes and
    conflicts. For more information on how to prevent and counter hate crime in
    schools, contact the Office for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
    (OJJDP), US. Department of Justice. See also OJJDPs
    A National Hate Crime
    Prevention Curriculum for Middle Schools.
    Telephone 8001638-8736, or
    visit their home page at www.ncjrs.gov/ojjhome.htm.

    Rumors Fuel Racial
    Tensions and Conflict

    Law enforcement officers believe rumors aggravate more than twothirds of all civil disturbances. When racial or ethnic tensions may
    become heightened by exaggerated rumors, a temporary rumor control
    and verification center is an effective mechanism to ensure accurate

    A temporary rumor control and verification center typically is
    operated 24 hours a day during the crisis period by a local
    government agency. It is staffed by professionals and trained
    volunteers. The media and others should publicize the telephone

    The Media Can
    Be a Helpful Ally

    The influence of the print and broadcast media on preventing and
    investigating hate crimes cannot be overstated. The media is critical in
    shaping public attitudes about the crime, its perpetrators, and the law
    enforcement response.

    The media can play an
    important role in preventing hate crimes from increasing community tensions.
    Local officials should designate an informed single-point-of-contact for hate
    crime information. Accurate, thorough, and responsible reporting significantly
    improves the likelihood that stability and harmony will be restored The media
    can promote public

    of mediation and conflict resolution processes, and help alleviate fear, suspicion,
    and anger.

    Community Policing
    Should Be Well Planned

    During the transition by a local law enforcement agency from traditional
    policing to community-oriented policing, retention of the agency's
    Community Affairs/Relations Office should be carefully considered.

    During the transition to community-oriented policing, some law
    enforcement agencies may choose to close their community relations
    office, encouraging their community policing officers on the beat to
    learn who the key community leaders are in their patrol sectors. In
    this case, the department must make certain it does not lose
    institutional knowledge about community leaders, the mutual benefits
    of a working relationship, and the means to learn about and work
    with up-and-coming leaders. The experience gained by officers
    permanently assigned to monitor and work on community relations
    matters should be used in this transition period If the office is to be
    disbanded, community leaders who have worked with the officers in
    the past should be consulted on the proposed changes during the
    planning process.

    Hate Crimes Must Be
    Investigated and Reported

    Findings on the exact number of hate crimes and trends are difficult to
    establish and interpretations about hate crimes vary among individuals,
    law enforcement agencies, public and private organizations, and
    community groups.

    A municipality should
    assure that its law enforcement agencies adopt the model policy supported by
    the International Association of Chiefs of Police (tel. 7031836-6767) for investigating
    and reporting hate crimes. This model policy uses the standard reporting form
    and uniform definition of hate crime developed by the FBI after passage of The
    Hate Crime Statistics Act (HCSA), 28 U.S.C 534, enacted April 1990, as amended
    by the Church Arson Prevention Act of June 1996 (The HCSA also requires the
    collection of data on crimes based on religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity,
    and disability). The FBI offers training for law enforcement officers and administrators
    on developing data collection procedures. For more information, call the FBI
    at 1-888-UCR-NIBR. CRS and the FBI recommend a two-tier procedure for accurately
    collecting and reporting hate crime case information. It includes: (1)
    the officer on the scene of an alleged bias crime making an initial determination
    that bias motivation is "suspected"; and (2) a second officer or unit with more
    expertise in bias matters making the final determination of whether a hate crime
    has actually occurred For more information, see the FBIs
    Training Guide
    for Hate Crime Data Collection
    and Hate Crime Data Collection Guidelines.
    Telephone 3041625-4995. See also Hate/Bias Crimes Train-the-Trainer
    conducted by the

    National Center for State, Local and International Law
    Enforcement Training Federal Law Enforcement Training
    Center, US. Treasury Department. Telephone 91212673240.

    Hate Crimes and Multi-jurisdictional
    Task Forces

    Multi-jurisdictional or regional task forces are an effective means
    of sharing information and combining resources to counter hate
    crime activity.

    Some local governments have institutionalized sharing of
    expertise and agency resources through memorandums of
    understanding. For example, creating a coalition of public
    and private agencies and community organizations will give
    cities in the county or region a complete and thorough range
    of resources and information to promote racial and ethnic
    relations and counter hate crimes. This network or
    consortium can also work with coalitions created especially
    to investigate and prosecute hate crimes. Such a coalition
    might include the district attorney, the city attorney, law
    enforcement agencies, and civil rights, community, and
    educational organizations. This partnership links
    prosecutory and law enforcement agencies and communitybased response organizations. See also,
    Stopping Hate Crime:
    A Case History from the Sacramento Police Department,
    BJA. Telephone 8001688-4252.

    Victims, Witnesses
    and Offenders Need Help

    Nearly two-thirds of all known perpetrators of hate crimes are
    teenagers or young adults. When appropriate, a victim-offender
    restitution program or offender counseling program can be an
    effective sanction for juveniles.

    Educational counseling programs for young perpetrators Of
    hate crime can help dispel stereotypes, prejudice, fears, and
    other motivators of hate crime. Counseling may include
    sessions with members of minority groups and visits to local
    correctional facilities. In addition, "restorative justice, " the
    concept of healing both the victim and the offender while
    regaining the trust of the community, may be appropriate.
    The offenders are held accountable and are required to
    repair both the physical and emotional damage caused by
    their actions.

    To ensure a comprehensive response to hate crimes, the needs
    of the victims must be served.

    For more information on
    how to meet the diverse needs of both the immediate and secondary victims of
    hate crimes, contact the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), US Department of
    Justice. 0 VC also provides funding for State offices to provide

    victim assistance
    and victim compensation services. See also
    OVC's National Bias Crimes
    Training: For Law Enforcement and Victim Assistance Professionals.
    20213054548, or visit their home page at www. ojp. usdoj.gov/ovc/.

    On November 10, 1997, at the White House Conference on
    Hate Crime, the President declared "Starting today, every
    United States Attorney in our country will establish or
    expand working groups to develop enforcement practices,
    and educate the public about hate crimes. This national
    hate crimes network will marshal the resources of Federal,
    state and local enforcement,. community groups, educators,
    and antiviolence advocates, to give us another powerful
    tool in the struggle against hate crimes.
    For more
    information on local efforts in your area, call the hate crime
    coordinator in your U.S. Attorney's office.

    CRS Services that Defuse
    Hate Crime Activity

    When hate crimes threaten racial and ethnic relations or escalate
    community-wide tensions, CRS offers five types of services. To
    determine the best service(s), CRS conciliators meet with elected
    officials and community leaders, analyzing a variety of indicators,
    including causes, potential for violence or continued violence,
    extent of dialogue, communication and interest in working
    cooperatively to restore harmony and stability. The five services

    Mediation and Conciliation.
    Mediation and conciliation are two techniques used by CRS to help resolve
    communitywide tensions and conflicts arising from hate crimes. CRS conciliators
    provide representatives of community groups and local government leaders with
    an impartial forum to help restore stability and harmony through orderly dialogue
    and clarification of the issues. CRS establishes with the parties the ground
    rules for discussion and facilitates the meetings.

    Technical Assistance. CRS can assist local officials and
    community leaders with developing and implementing
    polices, practices, and procedures to respond to hate crimes
    and garner the support of residents and organizations to ease
    tensions and help end conflicts.

    Training. CRS can
    conduct training sessions and workshops to teach patrol officers and residents
    how to recognize a hate crime, gain support of the community early in the investigation,

    and begin the identification of victims and witnesses to the crime. CRS can
    teach community leaders and volunteers how to prevent the likelihood of more
    hate crimes, and how to assist and share information in the investigation by
    law enforcement agencies. Volunteers can serve in such valuable roles as rumor
    control, initiating community watch patrols, and raising public consciousness
    about types of hate crimes and those who perpetrate such offenses.

    Public Education and Awareness.
    CRS can also conduct hate crime prevention and education programs in schools,
    colleges, and the community. These programs break down barriers, build bridges
    of trust across racial and ethnic lines, develop mutual respect, and
    reduce fear. In 1997, CRS services were requested by more than 135 school districts
    and 75 colleges. CRS helped to address conflicts and violence, reduce tensions,
    develop plans to avoid potential incidents, and conduct training programs for
    students, teachers, administrators, and parents.

    CRS offers six school-based programs. An example is Student
    Problem Identification and Resolution (SPIR),
    a conflict
    resolution program designed to identify and defuse racial
    tensions involving students at the junior and senior levels.
    SPIR assists school administrators in addressing racial and
    ethnic tensions through a carefully structured process that
    involves students, teachers, administrators, and parents. A
    further development of this program, called SPIRIT, involves
    local law enforcement agencies as key partners in the design
    of an action plan. CRS now trains officers to conduct the
    SPIRIT program as a part of a process to strengthen
    cooperation among law enforcement and school officials.

    Event Contingency Planning. CRS, at the request of either
    local officials or demonstration organizers, can assist in
    contingency planning to ensure that marches,
    demonstrations, and similar events occur without
    exacerbating racial and ethnic tensions and minimizing the
    prospect of any confrontations. CRS assisted Federal and
    State officials plan the 1996 International Olympic Summer
    Games in Atlanta, Georgia, and the national political
    conventions in San Diego, California, and Chicago, Illinois.
    CRS can also train community residents to plan and monitor
    local-level events. CRS assistance is often requested when
    demonstrations and marches are scheduled. For example, CRS
    has helped scores of municipalities with KKK rallies and

    As part of the Attorney General's Hate Crime Initiative, CRS
    and the FBI's Hate Crime Unit, working with the Department
    of Treasury's Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, the
    National Association of Attorneys General, and the
    International Association of Directors of Law Enforcement
    Standards and Training and other USDOJ agencies, are
    developing four model hate crime training curricula. The four
    curricula are specifically designed for patrol officers,
    investigating officers, supervising officers and a multilevel
    audience of officers. This effort was undertaken to provide
    State and local law enforcement officers with the skills and
    knowledge that are crucial to the identification, reporting,
    investigation and prosecution of and education about hate

    The new courses are approximately eight-hours in length,
    can be taught at a training academy or on-site at a
    department, and have been field-tested at law enforcement
    academies and departments across the country. The
    curricula will contain the best policies, procedures, practices
    and materials used to train law enforcement officers, and
    provide an equitable balance of instruction on enforcement,
    victim assistance and community relations. The trainings are
    expected to be offered beginning in November, 1998.

    Publications and Resources

    American Jewish Committee, Skinheads: Who They Are And
    What to Do When They Come to Town
    and Bigotry on Campus:
    A Planned Response.
    165 East 56 St., New York, NY, 10022.

    Anti-Defamation League, 1997 Hate Crimes Laws, 823 United
    Nations Plaza, New York, NY 100 17. 800/343-5540.

    Center for Democratic Renewal, When Hate Groups Come to
    ($18.95). P.O. Box 50469, Atlanta, GA 30302. 404/221-0025.

    Japanese American Citizens League, Walk with Pride: Taking
    Steps to Address Anti-Asian Violence.
    1765 Sutter St., San
    Francisco, CA 94115. 415/921-5225.

    Klanwatch, The Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center, 400
    Washington Ave., Montgomery, AL 36104. 334/264-0286.

    Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, Hate Crime in
    Los Angeles County in 1996
    320 West Temple St., Los Angeles, CA
    90012. 213/974-7601.

    National Asian Pacific American Legal Consortium, Audit of Violence
    Against Asian Pacific Americans. 100
    1 Connecticut Ave., NW,
    Washington, DC 20036.202/296-2300.

    National Conference. Provides training and technical assistance to end
    racism and religious bigotry. 71 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10003.

    National Council on Crime and Delinquency, Hate Crime Prevention
    Resource Guide.
    685 Market St., Suite 620, San Francisco, CA 94105.

    People for the American Way, Democracy's Next Generation II: Study
    of American Youth on Race.
    2000 M St. NW,

    Washington, DC 20036. 202/467-4999.

    U.S. Department of Justice, Hateful Acts Hurt Kids,

    U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Hate
    Crimes Report,

    U.S. Department of Justice,
    Community Relations Service, and the President's Initiative on Race,
    One America In The 21st Century: Conducting a Discussion on Race. 202/305-2935

    U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
    Prevention, Healing the Hate: A National Bias Crime Prevention
    Curriculumfor Middle Schools.

    U.S. Department of Justice and U.S. Department of Education,
    Preventing Youth Hate Crime, www.usdoj.gov/kidspage. See,
    "Information for parents and teachers."

    Customer Service
    Relations Service

    Our goal is to
    provide sensitive and effective conflict
    and resolution services. CRS will meet the

    following Standards:

    • We will clearly explain the process that

      to address racial and ethnic conflicts and our role in that process.
    • We will provide opportunities
      for all parties involved to contribute to and work toward a solution to the
      racial or ethnic conflict.
    • If you are a participant
      in a
      training session
      or conference, you will receive timely and useful information and materials
      that will assist you in preventing or minimizing racial and ethnic tensions.
    • We will be prepared
      to provide on-site services in major racial or ethnic crisis situations within
      24 hours from the time when your community notifies


      becomes aware
      of the crisis.
    • In non-crisis situations
      we will contact you to discuss our services within three days of when your
      community notifies CRS or when CRS becomes aware of the situation.

    CRS Headquarters,
    Regional and Field Offices

    Headquarters Office
    Rose Ochi,
    600 E Street,
    NW, Suite 2000
    D.C. 20530
    (202) 305-2935
    (202) 305-3009

    Regional Offices
    and States Within Each Region

    Region I - New
    99 Summer
    Street, Suite 1820
    Boston, MA
    (617) 424-5715
    (617) 424-5727


    Region 11 - Northeast
    26 Federal
    Plaza, Room 36
    New York,
    NY 10278
    (212) 264-0700
    (212) 264-2143

    Region III - Mid-Atlantic
    2nd and Chestnut
    Room 208
    PA 19106
    (215) 597-2344
    (215) 597-9148


    CRS Regional
    Field Offices

    IV - Southeast

    75 Piedmont Avenue, NE, Room 900
    Atlanta, GA 30303
    (404) 331-6883
    (404) 331-4471 (fax)
    Servicing: AL,FL,GA,KY,MS,NC,SC,TN

    Miami Field Office - Region
    51 SW First Avenue, Room 424
    Miami,FL 33130
    (305) 536-5206
    (305) 536-7363 (fax)

    Region V - Mid-West
    55 West Monroe Street, Suite
    Chicago, IL 60603
    (312) 353-4391
    (312) 353-4390 (fax)
    Servicing: IL,TN,M1,N4N,OH,Wl

    Detroit Field Office - Region
    211 West Fort Street, Suite
    Detroit, MI 48226
    (313) 2264010
    (313) 226-2568 (fax)

    Region VI - Southwest
    1420 West Mockingbird Lane,
    Suite 250
    Dallas, TX 75247
    (214) 655-8175
    (214) 655-8184 (fax)
    Servicing: AR,LA,NM,OK,TX

    Houston Field Office - Region
    515 Rusk Avenue, Room 12605
    Houston, TX 77002
    (713) 718-4861
    (713) 7184862 (fax)

    Region VII - Central
    I 100 Main Street, Suite 1320
    Kansas City, MO 64106
    (816) 426-7434
    (816) 426-7441 (fax)
    Servicing: IA,KS,M0,NE

    Region VIII - Rocky Mountain
    1244 Speer Blvd., Room 650
    Denver, CO 80204-3584
    (303) 844-2973
    (303) 844-2907 (fax)
    Servicing: CO,MT,ND,SD,UT,WY

    Region IX - Western
    120 Howard Street, Suite 790
    San Francisco, CA 94105
    (415) 744-6565
    (415) 744-6590 (fax)
    Servicing: AZ,CA,GU,HI,NV

    Los Angeles Field Office -
    Region IX
    888 South Figueroa Street, Suite 1880
    Los Angeles, CA 90017
    (213) 894-2941
    (213) 894-2880 (fax)

    Region X - Northwest
    915 Second Avenue, Room 1808
    Seattle, WA 98174
    (206) 220-6700
    (206) 220-6706 (fax)
    Servicing: AK,ID,OR,WA

    CRS World Wide Web address

    U.S. Department of Justice
    Community Relations

    Washington, D.C 20530

    Official Business
    Penalty for Private
    Use, $300




    Permit No. G-71

    Updated June 23, 2014