U.S. Department of
Rose Ochi, Director,
Community Relations Service
The Violence of Intolerance
The Community Relations Service
(CRS), an arm of the U.S. Department of Justice, is a specialized Federal
conciliation service available to State and local officials to help resolve
and prevent racial and ethnic conflict, violence and civil disorders. When governors,
mayors, police chiefs, and school superintendents need help to defuse racial
crises, they turn to CRS. CRS helps local officials and residents tailor locally
defined resolutions when conflict and violence threaten community stability
and well-being. CRS conciliators assist in identifying the sources of violence
and conflict and utilizing specialized crisis management and violence reduction
techniques which work best for each community. CRS has no law enforcement authority
and does not impose solutions, investigate or prosecute cases, or assign blame
or fault. CRS conciliators are required by law to conduct their activities in
confidence, without publicity, and are prohibited from disclosing confidential
In 1997, CRS was involved in 135 hate crime cases that caused or
intensified community racial and ethnic tensions. As authorized by the
Civil Rights Act of 1964, CRS became involved only in those cases in
which the criminal offender was motivated by the victim's race, color, or
national origin. Of all hate crime incidents reported to the U.S.
Department of Justice's Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1996,
72 percent were motivated by the victim's race, color, or national origin.
Hate crime is the violence of intolerance and bigotry, intended to hurt
and intimidate someone because of their race, ethnicity, national origin,
religious, sexual orientation, or disability. The purveyors of hate use
explosives, arson, weapons, vandalism, physical violence, and verbal
threats of violence to instill fear in their victims, leaving them vulnerable
to more attacks and feeling alienated, helpless, suspicious and fearful.
Others may become frustrated and angry if they believe the local
government and other groups in the community will not protect them.
When perpetrators of hate are not prosecuted as criminals and their acts
not publicly condemned, their crimes can weaken even those
communities with the healthiest race relations.
Of all crimes, hate crimes are most likely to create or exacerbate
tensions, which can trigger larger community-wide racial conflict, civil
disturbances, and even riots. Hate crimes put cities and towns at-risk of
serious social and economic consequences. The immediate costs of racial
conflicts and civil disturbances are police, fire, and medical personnel
overtime, injury or death, business and residential property loss, and
damage to vehicles and equipment. Long-term recovery is hindered by a
decline in property values, which results in lower tax revenues, scarcity
of funds for rebuilding, and increased insurance rates. Businesses and
residents abandon these neighborhoods, leaving empty buildings to
attract crime, and the quality of schools decline due to the loss of tax
revenue. A municipality may have no choice but to cut services or raise
taxes or leave the area in its post-riot condition until market forces of
supply and demand rebuild the area.
Victims and Perpetrators
In 1996, the FBI received reports of 10,706 hate crimes from State and
local law enforcement agencies, involving 11,039 victims, and 10,021
known perpetrators. The crimes included 12 murders, 10 forcible rapes,
1,444 aggravated assaults, 1,762 simple assaults, and 4,130 acts of
Among the known perpetrators, 66 percent were white, and 20 percent
were black. Some perpetrators commit hate crimes with their peers as a
"thrill" or while under the influence of drugs or alcohol; some as a
reaction against a perceived threat or to preserve their "turf'; and some
who out of resentment over the growing economic power of a particular
racial or ethnic group engage in scapegoating.
Examples of CRS Hate Crime Cases
Michigan, two black families experienced a series of hate crimes, including
a cross burning and a vandalized vehicle. When tensions increased across the
community, CRS worked with representatives from more than 25 churches, law enforcement
agencies, schools, and community organizations to develop both short- and longterm
approaches to eliminate hate crimes.
In Clarksville, Tennessee the U.S. Attorney requested CRS
assistance after a number of hate crimes and other incidents
created community-wide tensions. CRS helped local officials
establish a Human Relations Commission to mediate disputes
After a white youth from Guthrie, Kentucky, was killed by
several black males in Robertson County, Tennessee, for
displaying on his truck the confederate flag, the emblem of the
youth's high school, regional tensions flared, marked by cross
burnings and other incidents. CRS worked with Federal, State
and local officials to restore racial order, including assistance to
the mayor of Guthrie in establishing a Community Relations
Commission to help maintain stability.
After three black youths were wounded in a Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
drive-by shooting of a black nightclub in Lexington County,
South Carolina, CRS conducted a series of conciliation meetings
with the youths' families, State and county government and
school officials, and black and white citizen groups to promote
harmonious racial relations.
In St. Louis, Missouri, an Asian refugee sitting in his automobile
in front of his house was killed by a black youth. Long-simmering
ethnic-racial tensions were exacerbated by the murder, and civil
disturbances appeared imminent. CRS helped Federal, State and
local officials, and community and religious organizations
develop a process to begin to address both the immediate and
underlying social and economic causes of the tension.
CRS Assistance on School Issues:
CRS assistance was requested by school district officials and
leaders of 17 community organizations to reduce racial tensions
in a high school in Fairbanks, Alaska, after the KKK directed its
recruitment activities at the school and a series of hate crimes
incidents occurred against black and native Alaskan residents.
CRS conciliators helped administrators of a high school in
Tucson, Arizona, following two months of racial violence
between white, black, and Hispanic students, with one incident
requiring the response of more than 120 law enforcement officers.
CRS helped restore stability in the schools and ease tensions in
In Suffolk County, New York, administrators of school districts
requested CRS assistance when hate crimes and racial conflicts
increased tensions in the county's schools and communities. At
a Brookhaven high school, CRS responded when racial tensions
escalated into violence after white students distributed flyers
promoting white supremacy. In Deerpark, CRS mediation and
conciliation services helped students, parents and officials stop
hate crimes and racial violence in middle and high schools.
on Housing Issues:
In Independence, Kansas,
CRS was contacted when the home of a black family was firebombed, one in a series
of incidents and threats to force the families to move from an all-white neighborhood.
By working with various government agencies and community groups, CRS helped
reduce tension in the area.
In Rome, Georgia,
CRS was asked by a Hispanic minister to help end racial conflicts arising from
the movement of Hispanic families to a previously all-black apartment building.
Hate crimes, including violent assaults, robberies, and vandalism, increased
the tensions among all residents. CRS helped resolve the conflict by working
with government officials and Hispanic and black community leadership.
In Wilmington, Delaware,
the U.S. Attorney asked CRS to resolve tensions and conflicts involving
Hispanic and black residents of a housing complex, which was marked by arson,
violence, and intimidation. CRS mediated the tensions and, by working with local
government agencies and residents of the complex, established a resident-operated
mediation process to maintain stability in the event of future tensions.
In Omaha, Nebraska, CRS assistance was requested by Federal
and State authorities after two black families were relocated from
a primarily white housing complex after a series of firebombings,
vandalism and verbal threats. CRS helped the police department
develop an educational program to teach citizens about hate
on Business Issues:
In Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
an Asian-owned store targeted for protests and boycott by black residents was
firebombed. When existing community-wide tensions were heightened by comments
on a local talk show by boycott leaders, CRS successfully mediated the long-running
dispute at the request of the U.S. Attorney.
In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, CRS mediated a dispute between
Korean and black business owners and employees in a public
market when tensions escalated in the community and the
market's business dropped.
In Bridgeport, Washington, the relatively rapid demographic
shift in a multi-county area from primarily white to a majority of
Hispanic agricultural workers led to a series of hate crimes and
racial conflicts, including the murder of two Hispanic men by two
white men, formation of armed vigilante groups, and a Hispanic
boycott of white-owned businesses. CRS helped local
government agencies and civic, business and community groups
develop a process to end existing tensions and prevent future
Assistance on Church
In response to the President's
call for a comprehensive response by Federal agencies to address church burnings,
CRS staff have worked directly with more than 230 rural, suburban, and urban
governments in 17 states to help eliminate racial distrust and polarization,
promote multiracial construction of new buildings, conduct race relations training
for community leaders and law enforcement officers, and provide technical assistance
in ways to bring together law enforcement agencies and minority neighborhoods.
CRS serves as a principal partner on the President's Church Arson Task Force.
CRS Best Practices to Prevent Hate
Crimes from Escalating Racial and Ethnic
Tensions into Conflict or Civil
From years of experience with hundreds of hate crime cases that have
caused or intensified community-wide racial and ethnic tensions, CRS
recommends certain "best practices" to prevent hate crimes and restore
harmony in the community.
Hate Crime Ordinances
are a Deterrent
A core responsibility of government is to protect the civil rights of its
citizens and to advance its inherent obligation to ensure good race and
ethnic relations. This tenet cannot be abrogated and such a commitment
requires no special funding. A government can confirm its commitment
to the safety and well-being of its citizens by establishing an ordinance
against hate crime activity or enhancing the punishment for hate crime.
It can also encourage compliance with existing equal opportunity
A local government may
establish an ordinance against hate activity modeled on existing hate crime
law in effect in that State. Punishment is enhanced by promulgating guidelines
or amending existing guidelines to provide varying offense levels for use in
sentencing There should be reasonable consistency with other guidelines, avoidance
of duplicative punishments for the same offense, and consideration of any mitigating
circumstances. Compliance with existing statutes can be achieved by training
law enforcement officers to enforce existing statutes, imposing fines or penalties
when ordinances are violated, reviewing licenses or privileges, reviewing tax
exempt status, and providing incentives or awards. A local government may also
establish boards or commissions to review and analyze hate crime activity, create
public service announcements, and recommend measures to counter hate activity.
In September 1994, Congress also enacted a Federal hate crime penalty enhancement
statute (Public Law 103-322 § 28003), which would increase the penalties
for Federal crimes where the victim was selected "because of the actual or perceived
color, religion, national
origin, ethnicity, gender, disability, or sexual orientation of any person.
to Improve Communication
When left unresolved, simmering racial and ethnic friction can be
triggered by a hate crime into a community-wide conflict or civil
disturbance. Communication and interaction between majority and
minority groups is often a key factor in preventing tensions or restoring
A Human Rights Commission (HRQ can facilitate and coordinate
discussions, training, and events for the benefit of everyone. An HRC
can create a forum for talking about racial and ethnic relations and
encourage citizens to discuss their differences, commonalities, hopes
and dreams. Forums could focus on the common features of
community life, including economic development, education,
transportation, environment, cultural and recreational opportunities,
leadership, community attitudes, and racial and ethnic diversity. The
Commission can use multicultural training and special events to
promote harmony and stability. Also, see A Policymaker's Guide to
Hate Crimes, published by the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA),
US. Department of Justice. Telephone 8001688-4252, or visit their
home page at www ojp usdoj gov/BJA.
a Positive Climate
Racial and ethnic tensions increase during periods of economic
downswings. Hate crimes may occur when unemployed or
underemployed workers vent anger on available scapegoats from the
Coalitions of representatives
from political, business, civic, religious, and community organizations help
create a positive climate in the community and encourage constructive dialogue.
Coalitions can recommend initiatives to help racial and ethnic communities affected
by the loss of jobs, including programs and plans to help local government ensure
an equitable disbursement of public and private finds, resources, and services.
Confidence in Government
Hate crimes can often be prevented by policies designed to promote
good racial and ethnic relations.
Local governments can
assure that everyone has access to
in the municipality's decision-making processes, including equal opportunity
for minorities to be represented on appointed boards and commissions. Local
governments might institute a policy of inclusion for appointments on boards
and commissions. The policy could require listing all appointive
positions, and notifying all racial and ethnic groups of open
seats through the minority media.
Schools and Police
Must Work Together
Racial and ethnic tensions may increase in schools when there are
rapid demographic or socio-economic changes. Tensions may result
from the perception of unequal educational opportunities or disparate
practices in hiring faculty and staff within the school district.
Preventing and dealing
with hate crimes and hate-based gang activity in schools are the responsibility
of school and police officials, who should work together to develop a plan to
handle hate crimes and defuse racial tensions. Hate crimes can be school-related,
communityrelated, or a combination of both. Officials should consider prevention
and response roles, identify potential trouble sites, and plan for phased police
intervention. Tension can be eased by regular communication with parents, students,
media, and other community organizations. Mediation and conflict resolution
classes develop the capacity of young people to peacefully settle disputes and
conflicts. For more information on how to prevent and counter hate crime in
schools, contact the Office for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
(OJJDP), US. Department of Justice. See also OJJDPs A National Hate Crime
Prevention Curriculum for Middle Schools. Telephone 8001638-8736, or
visit their home page at www.ncjrs.gov/ojjhome.htm.
Rumors Fuel Racial
Tensions and Conflict
Law enforcement officers believe rumors aggravate more than twothirds of all civil disturbances. When racial or ethnic tensions may
become heightened by exaggerated rumors, a temporary rumor control
and verification center is an effective mechanism to ensure accurate
A temporary rumor control and verification center typically is
operated 24 hours a day during the crisis period by a local
government agency. It is staffed by professionals and trained
volunteers. The media and others should publicize the telephone
The Media Can
Be a Helpful Ally
The influence of the print and broadcast media on preventing and
investigating hate crimes cannot be overstated. The media is critical in
shaping public attitudes about the crime, its perpetrators, and the law
The media can play an
important role in preventing hate crimes from increasing community tensions.
Local officials should designate an informed single-point-of-contact for hate
crime information. Accurate, thorough, and responsible reporting significantly
improves the likelihood that stability and harmony will be restored The media
can promote public
of mediation and conflict resolution processes, and help alleviate fear, suspicion,
Should Be Well Planned
During the transition by a local law enforcement agency from traditional
policing to community-oriented policing, retention of the agency's
Community Affairs/Relations Office should be carefully considered.
During the transition to community-oriented policing, some law
enforcement agencies may choose to close their community relations
office, encouraging their community policing officers on the beat to
learn who the key community leaders are in their patrol sectors. In
this case, the department must make certain it does not lose
institutional knowledge about community leaders, the mutual benefits
of a working relationship, and the means to learn about and work
with up-and-coming leaders. The experience gained by officers
permanently assigned to monitor and work on community relations
matters should be used in this transition period If the office is to be
disbanded, community leaders who have worked with the officers in
the past should be consulted on the proposed changes during the
Hate Crimes Must Be
Investigated and Reported
Findings on the exact number of hate crimes and trends are difficult to
establish and interpretations about hate crimes vary among individuals,
law enforcement agencies, public and private organizations, and
A municipality should
assure that its law enforcement agencies adopt the model policy supported by
the International Association of Chiefs of Police (tel. 7031836-6767) for investigating
and reporting hate crimes. This model policy uses the standard reporting form
and uniform definition of hate crime developed by the FBI after passage of The
Hate Crime Statistics Act (HCSA), 28 U.S.C 534, enacted April 1990, as amended
by the Church Arson Prevention Act of June 1996 (The HCSA also requires the
collection of data on crimes based on religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity,
and disability). The FBI offers training for law enforcement officers and administrators
on developing data collection procedures. For more information, call the FBI
at 1-888-UCR-NIBR. CRS and the FBI recommend a two-tier procedure for accurately
collecting and reporting hate crime case information. It includes: (1)
the officer on the scene of an alleged bias crime making an initial determination
that bias motivation is "suspected"; and (2) a second officer or unit with more
expertise in bias matters making the final determination of whether a hate crime
has actually occurred For more information, see the FBIs Training Guide
for Hate Crime Data Collection and Hate Crime Data Collection Guidelines.
Telephone 3041625-4995. See also Hate/Bias Crimes Train-the-Trainer
Program, conducted by the
National Center for State, Local and International Law
Enforcement Training Federal Law Enforcement Training
Center, US. Treasury Department. Telephone 91212673240.
Hate Crimes and Multi-jurisdictional
Multi-jurisdictional or regional task forces are an effective means
of sharing information and combining resources to counter hate
Some local governments have institutionalized sharing of
expertise and agency resources through memorandums of
understanding. For example, creating a coalition of public
and private agencies and community organizations will give
cities in the county or region a complete and thorough range
of resources and information to promote racial and ethnic
relations and counter hate crimes. This network or
consortium can also work with coalitions created especially
to investigate and prosecute hate crimes. Such a coalition
might include the district attorney, the city attorney, law
enforcement agencies, and civil rights, community, and
educational organizations. This partnership links
prosecutory and law enforcement agencies and communitybased response organizations. See also, Stopping Hate Crime:
A Case History from the Sacramento Police Department, by
BJA. Telephone 8001688-4252.
and Offenders Need Help
Nearly two-thirds of all known perpetrators of hate crimes are
teenagers or young adults. When appropriate, a victim-offender
restitution program or offender counseling program can be an
effective sanction for juveniles.
Educational counseling programs for young perpetrators Of
hate crime can help dispel stereotypes, prejudice, fears, and
other motivators of hate crime. Counseling may include
sessions with members of minority groups and visits to local
correctional facilities. In addition, "restorative justice, " the
concept of healing both the victim and the offender while
regaining the trust of the community, may be appropriate.
The offenders are held accountable and are required to
repair both the physical and emotional damage caused by
To ensure a comprehensive response to hate crimes, the needs
of the victims must be served.
For more information on
how to meet the diverse needs of both the immediate and secondary victims of
hate crimes, contact the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), US Department of
Justice. 0 VC also provides funding for State offices to provide
and victim compensation services. See also OVC's National Bias Crimes
Training: For Law Enforcement and Victim Assistance Professionals. Telephone
20213054548, or visit their home page at www. ojp. usdoj.gov/ovc/.
On November 10, 1997, at the White House Conference on
Hate Crime, the President declared "Starting today, every
United States Attorney in our country will establish or
expand working groups to develop enforcement practices,
and educate the public about hate crimes. This national
hate crimes network will marshal the resources of Federal,
state and local enforcement,. community groups, educators,
and antiviolence advocates, to give us another powerful
tool in the struggle against hate crimes. For more
information on local efforts in your area, call the hate crime
coordinator in your U.S. Attorney's office.
CRS Services that Defuse
Hate Crime Activity
When hate crimes threaten racial and ethnic relations or escalate
community-wide tensions, CRS offers five types of services. To
determine the best service(s), CRS conciliators meet with elected
officials and community leaders, analyzing a variety of indicators,
including causes, potential for violence or continued violence,
extent of dialogue, communication and interest in working
cooperatively to restore harmony and stability. The five services
Mediation and Conciliation.
Mediation and conciliation are two techniques used by CRS to help resolve
communitywide tensions and conflicts arising from hate crimes. CRS conciliators
provide representatives of community groups and local government leaders with
an impartial forum to help restore stability and harmony through orderly dialogue
and clarification of the issues. CRS establishes with the parties the ground
rules for discussion and facilitates the meetings.
Technical Assistance. CRS can assist local officials and
community leaders with developing and implementing
polices, practices, and procedures to respond to hate crimes
and garner the support of residents and organizations to ease
tensions and help end conflicts.
Training. CRS can
conduct training sessions and workshops to teach patrol officers and residents
how to recognize a hate crime, gain support of the community early in the investigation,
and begin the identification of victims and witnesses to the crime. CRS can
teach community leaders and volunteers how to prevent the likelihood of more
hate crimes, and how to assist and share information in the investigation by
law enforcement agencies. Volunteers can serve in such valuable roles as rumor
control, initiating community watch patrols, and raising public consciousness
about types of hate crimes and those who perpetrate such offenses.
Public Education and Awareness.
CRS can also conduct hate crime prevention and education programs in schools,
colleges, and the community. These programs break down barriers, build bridges
of trust across racial and ethnic lines, develop mutual respect, and
reduce fear. In 1997, CRS services were requested by more than 135 school districts
and 75 colleges. CRS helped to address conflicts and violence, reduce tensions,
develop plans to avoid potential incidents, and conduct training programs for
students, teachers, administrators, and parents.
CRS offers six school-based programs. An example is Student
Problem Identification and Resolution (SPIR), a conflict
resolution program designed to identify and defuse racial
tensions involving students at the junior and senior levels.
SPIR assists school administrators in addressing racial and
ethnic tensions through a carefully structured process that
involves students, teachers, administrators, and parents. A
further development of this program, called SPIRIT, involves
local law enforcement agencies as key partners in the design
of an action plan. CRS now trains officers to conduct the
SPIRIT program as a part of a process to strengthen
cooperation among law enforcement and school officials.
Event Contingency Planning. CRS, at the request of either
local officials or demonstration organizers, can assist in
contingency planning to ensure that marches,
demonstrations, and similar events occur without
exacerbating racial and ethnic tensions and minimizing the
prospect of any confrontations. CRS assisted Federal and
State officials plan the 1996 International Olympic Summer
Games in Atlanta, Georgia, and the national political
conventions in San Diego, California, and Chicago, Illinois.
CRS can also train community residents to plan and monitor
local-level events. CRS assistance is often requested when
demonstrations and marches are scheduled. For example, CRS
has helped scores of municipalities with KKK rallies and
As part of the Attorney General's Hate Crime Initiative, CRS
and the FBI's Hate Crime Unit, working with the Department
of Treasury's Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, the
National Association of Attorneys General, and the
International Association of Directors of Law Enforcement
Standards and Training and other USDOJ agencies, are
developing four model hate crime training curricula. The four
curricula are specifically designed for patrol officers,
investigating officers, supervising officers and a multilevel
audience of officers. This effort was undertaken to provide
State and local law enforcement officers with the skills and
knowledge that are crucial to the identification, reporting,
investigation and prosecution of and education about hate
The new courses are approximately eight-hours in length,
can be taught at a training academy or on-site at a
department, and have been field-tested at law enforcement
academies and departments across the country. The
curricula will contain the best policies, procedures, practices
and materials used to train law enforcement officers, and
provide an equitable balance of instruction on enforcement,
victim assistance and community relations. The trainings are
expected to be offered beginning in November, 1998.
Publications and Resources
American Jewish Committee, Skinheads: Who They Are And
What to Do When They Come to Town and Bigotry on Campus:
A Planned Response. 165 East 56 St., New York, NY, 10022.
Anti-Defamation League, 1997 Hate Crimes Laws, 823 United
Nations Plaza, New York, NY 100 17. 800/343-5540.
Center for Democratic Renewal, When Hate Groups Come to
Town, ($18.95). P.O. Box 50469, Atlanta, GA 30302. 404/221-0025.
Japanese American Citizens League, Walk with Pride: Taking
Steps to Address Anti-Asian Violence. 1765 Sutter St., San
Francisco, CA 94115. 415/921-5225.
Klanwatch, The Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center, 400
Washington Ave., Montgomery, AL 36104. 334/264-0286.
Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, Hate Crime in
Los Angeles County in 1996 320 West Temple St., Los Angeles, CA
National Asian Pacific American Legal Consortium, Audit of Violence
Against Asian Pacific Americans. 100 1 Connecticut Ave., NW,
Washington, DC 20036.202/296-2300.
National Conference. Provides training and technical assistance to end
racism and religious bigotry. 71 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10003.
National Council on Crime and Delinquency, Hate Crime Prevention
Resource Guide. 685 Market St., Suite 620, San Francisco, CA 94105.
People for the American Way, Democracy's Next Generation II: Study
of American Youth on Race. 2000 M St. NW,
Washington, DC 20036. 202/467-4999.
U.S. Department of Justice, Hateful Acts Hurt Kids,
U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Hate
Crimes Report, www.fbi.gov/ucr/hatecm.htm.
U.S. Department of Justice,
Community Relations Service, and the President's Initiative on Race,
One America In The 21st Century: Conducting a Discussion on Race. 202/305-2935
U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Prevention, Healing the Hate: A National Bias Crime Prevention
Curriculumfor Middle Schools. 800/638-8736
U.S. Department of Justice and U.S. Department of Education,
Preventing Youth Hate Crime, www.usdoj.gov/kidspage. See,
"Information for parents and teachers."
Our goal is to
provide sensitive and effective conflict prevention
and resolution services. CRS will meet the
We will clearly explain the process that
to address racial and ethnic conflicts and our role in that process.
- We will provide opportunities
for all parties involved to contribute to and work toward a solution to the
racial or ethnic conflict.
- If you are a participant
in a CRS
or conference, you will receive timely and useful information and materials
that will assist you in preventing or minimizing racial and ethnic tensions.
- We will be prepared
to provide on-site services in major racial or ethnic crisis situations within
24 hours from the time when your community notifies
of the crisis.
- In non-crisis situations
we will contact you to discuss our services within three days of when your
community notifies CRS or when CRS becomes aware of the situation.
Regional and Field Offices
600 E Street,
NW, Suite 2000
and States Within Each Region
Region I - New
Street, Suite 1820
Region 11 - Northeast
Plaza, Room 36
Region III - Mid-Atlantic
2nd and Chestnut
IV - Southeast
75 Piedmont Avenue, NE, Room 900
Atlanta, GA 30303
(404) 331-4471 (fax)
Miami Field Office - Region
51 SW First Avenue, Room 424
(305) 536-7363 (fax)
Region V - Mid-West
55 West Monroe Street, Suite
Chicago, IL 60603
(312) 353-4390 (fax)
Detroit Field Office - Region
211 West Fort Street, Suite
Detroit, MI 48226
(313) 226-2568 (fax)
Region VI - Southwest
1420 West Mockingbird Lane,
Dallas, TX 75247
(214) 655-8184 (fax)
Houston Field Office - Region
515 Rusk Avenue, Room 12605
Houston, TX 77002
(713) 7184862 (fax)
Region VII - Central
I 100 Main Street, Suite 1320
Kansas City, MO 64106
(816) 426-7441 (fax)
Region VIII - Rocky Mountain
1244 Speer Blvd., Room 650
Denver, CO 80204-3584
(303) 844-2907 (fax)
Region IX - Western
120 Howard Street, Suite 790
San Francisco, CA 94105
(415) 744-6590 (fax)
Los Angeles Field Office -
888 South Figueroa Street, Suite 1880
Los Angeles, CA 90017
(213) 894-2880 (fax)
Region X - Northwest
915 Second Avenue, Room 1808
Seattle, WA 98174
(206) 220-6706 (fax)
CRS World Wide Web address
U.S. Department of Justice
Washington, D.C 20530
Penalty for Private
FIRST CLASS MAIL
POSTAGE & FEES PAED
Permit No. G-71