In October, 2007, British Petroleum Exploration (Alaska), Inc. (“BPXA”), an international pipeline company, and several of its subsidiaries pled guilty to Clean Water Act violations related to two separate leaks from oil transit lines. The leaks were the result of BPXA’s failure to heed repeated red flags and warning signs that its pipeline had suffered significant internal corrosion. The first leak resulted in more than 200,000 gallons of crude oil spreading over two acres of tundra, reaching and contaminating a lake. This spill was the largest to ever occur on the North Slope. The second leak was quickly discovered and limited to approximately 1,000 gallons of oil, but led to the shut down of Prudhoe Bay oil production on the eastern side of the field. For these unlawful actions, BPXA was sentenced to pay a $12 million fine, $4 million as community service payment to the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, and $4 million as restitution.