Deference Chart

Chevron Deference

· Agency regulations. Mejia v. Gonzales, 499 F.3d 991, 996 (9th Cir. 2007); Hernandez v. Ashcroft, 345 F.3d 824, 839 (9th Cir. 2003).


· AG adjudicative decisions. Miguel-Miguel v. Gonzales, 500 F.3d 941, 947-48 (9th Cir. 2007).


· BIA published opinions. Camins v. Gonzales, 500 F.3d 872, 879 (9th Cir. 2007).

Skidmore Deference

· Unpublished BIA decisions. Estrada-Rodriguez v. Mukasey, 512 F.3d 517, 519-20 (9th Cir. 2007); Ortega-Cervantes v. Gonzales, 501 F.3d 1111, 1113 (9th Cir. 2007); Kharana v. Gonzales, 487 F.3d 1280, 1283 n.4 (9th Cir. 2007); Garcia-Quintero v. Gonzales, 455 F.3d 1006, 1012-16 (9th Cir. 2006).


· Internal guidance memoranda. Acosta v. Gonzales, 439 F.3d 550, 554 (9th Cir. 2006).


· Foreign Affairs Manual. Scales v. INS, 232 F.3d 1159, 1166 (9th Cir. 2000).


· An individual IJ’s opinion (either Skidmore deference or none, the 9th Circuit has declined to decide which). Im v. Gonzales, 497 F.3d 990, 994-95 (9th Cir. 2007); Miranda Alvarado v. Gonzales, 449 F.3d 915, 921-24 (9th Cir. 2006) (as amended).

No Deference

· Agency interpretations of state law. Parrilla v. Gonzales, 414 F.3d 1038, 1041 (9th Cir. 2005); Garcia-Lopez v. Ashcroft, 334 F.3d 840, 843 (9th Cir. 2003).


· Agency interpretations of provisions of the federal criminal code that are referenced within the INA. Parrilla v. Gonzales, 414 F.3d 1038, 1041 (9th Cir. 2005); Singh v. Ashcroft, 386 F.3d 1228, 1230-31 (9th Cir. 2004).


· Agency determinations based upon circuit law. Im v. Gonzales, 497 F.3d 990, 995 (9th Cir. 2007); Acosta v. Gonzales, 439 F.3d 550, 553 n.4 (9th Cir. 2006).


· Agency’s retroactivity analysis. Valencia-Alvarez v. Gonzales, 469 F.3d 1319, 1326 (9th Cir. 2006).


· Agency’s interpretation of citizenship/nationality law. Minasyan v. Gonzales, 401 F.3d 1069, 1074 (9th Cir. 2005); Perdomo-Padilla v. Ashcroft, 333 F.3d 964, 967 (9th Cir. 2003); Hughes v. Ashcroft, 255 F.3d 752, 758 (9th Cir. 2001).


· Agency litigating positions. Bowen v. Georgetown Univ. Hosp., 488 U.S. 204, 212-13 (1988); Langandaon v. Ashcroft, 383 F.3d 983, 990 (9th Cir. 2004).


· Substantial constitutional question raised by an agency’s statutory interpretation. Kim Ho Ma v. Ashcroft, 257 F.3d 1095, 1105 n.15 (9th Cir. 2001).