Case Law Chart

Chevron Step One: Unambiguous Statute

INS v. Cardoza-Fonseca, 480 U.S. (1987)
Kaganovich v. Gonzales, 470 F.3d 894 (9th Cir. 2006)
Cuevas-Gaspar v. Gonzales, 430 F.3d 1013 (9th Cir. 2005)
Azarte v. Ashcroft, 394 F.3d 1278 (9th Cir. 2005)
Gonzalez-Gonzalez v. Ashcroft, 390 F.3d 649 (9th Cir. 2004)
Lagandaon v. Ashcroft, 383 F.3d 983 (9th Cir. 2004)
Shivaraman v. Ashcroft, 360 F.3d 1142 (9th Cir. 2004)
Padash v. INS, 358 F.3d 1161 (9th Cir. 2004)
Socop-Gonzalez v. INS, 272 F.3d 1176 (9th Cir. 2001)
Dillingham v. INS, 267 F.3d 996 (9th Cir. 2001)
Chowdhury v. INS, 249 F.3d 970 (9th Cir. 2001)
Lujan-Armendariz v. INS, 222 F.3d 728 (9th Cir. 2000)
Gorbach v. Reno, 219 F.3d 1087 (9th Cir. 2000)
Beltran-Tirado v. INS, 213 F.3d 1179 (9th Cir. 2000)
Aragon-Ayon v. INS, 206 F.3d 847 (9th Cir. 2000)
Ortiz v. Meissner, 179 F.3d 718 (9th Cir. 1999)
Singh-Bhathal v. INS, 170 F.3d 943 (9th Cir. 1999)
Coronado-Durazo v. INS, 123 F.3d 1322 (9th Cir. 1997)
Tang v. Reno, 77 F.3d 1194 (9th Cir. 1996)

Chevron Step Two: Ambiguous Statute, Agency Interpretation Permissible

Gonzales v. Dep’t of Homeland Security, 508 F.3d 1227 (9th Cir. 2007)
Morales-Izquierdo v. Gonzales, 486 F.3d 484 (9th Cir. 2007) (en banc)
INS v. Aguirre-Aguirre, 526 U.S. 415 (1999)
Camins v. Gonzales, 508 F.3d 872 (9th Cir. 2007)
Miguel-Miguel v. Gonzales, 500 F.3d 941 (9th Cir. 2007)
Mejia v. Gonzales, 499 F.3d 991 (9th Cir. 2007)
United States v. Dang, 488 F.3d 1135, 1140 (9th Cir. 2007)
Morales v. Gonzales, 478 F.3d 972, 982 (9th Cir. 2007)
Kepilino v. Gonzales, 454 F.3d 1057 (9th Cir. 2006)
Afridi v. Gonzales, 442 F.3d 1212 (9th Cir. 2006)
Perez-Enriquez v. Gonzales, 463 F.3d 1007 (9th Cir. 2006)
Parrilla v. Gonzales, 414 F.3d 1038, 1041 (9th Cir. 2005)
Zhang v. Gonzales, 408 F.3d 1239 (9th Cir. 2005)
Hernandez v. Ashcroft, 345 F.3d 824 (9th Cir. 2003)
Ramirez-Zavala v. Ashcroft, 336 F.3d 872 (9th Cir. 2003)
Vasquez-Lopez v. Ashcroft, 343 F.3d 961 (9th Cir. 2003)
Espejo v. INS, 311 F.3d 976 (9th Cir. 2002)
Murillo-Espinoza v. INS, 261 F.3d 771 (9th Cir. 2001) Young v. Reno, 114 F.3d 879 (9th Cir. 1997)
Jang v. Reno, 113 F.3d 1074 (9th Cir. 1997)
Yang v. INS, 79 F.3d 932 (9th Cir. 1996)
Ayala-Chavez v. U.S. INS, 944 F.2d 638 (9th Cir. 1991)

Chevron Step Two: Ambiguous Statute, Agency Interpretation Not Permissible

Cuevas-Gaspar v. Gonzales, 430 F.3d 1013, 1022 (9th Cir. 2005)
Akhtar v. Burzynski, 384 F.3d 1193 (9th Cir. 2004) (regulation)
Bona v. Gonzales, 425 F.3d 663 (9th Cir. 2005) (regulation)
Ma v. Ashcroft, 361 F.3d 553 (9th Cir. 2004)
Zheng v. Ashcroft, 332 F.3d 1186 (9th Cir. 2003)
Pitcherskaia v. INS, 118 F.3d 641 (9th Cir. 1997)

Skidmore Deference: Ambiguous Statute, Agency Interpretation Persuasive
Ortega-Cervantes v. Gonzales, 501 F.3d 1111 (9th Cir. 2007)
Skidmore Deference: Ambiguous Statute, Agency Interpretation Not Persuasive
Garcia-Quintero v. Gonzales, 455 F.3d 1006 (9th Cir. 2006)
Im v. Gonzales, 497 F.3d 990, 994-95 (9th Cir. 2007)
Miranda Alvarado v. Gonzales, 449 F.3d 915, 921-24 (9th Cir. 2006) (as amended).
Published BIA Cases Asserting Brand X
Matter of Briones, 24 I&N Dec. 355, 372 n.9 (BIA 2007) (disagreeing with Acosta v. Gonzales, 439 F.3d 550 (9th Cir. 2006))
Matter of Lemus-Losa, 24 I&N Dec. 373, 377 n.4 (BIA 2007)
Matter of Rodarte-Roman, 23 I&N Dec. 905 (BIA 2006)
Matter of N-A-M-, 24 I&N Dec. 336, 341 n.5 (BIA 2007)