3. Invitation policies
Larry Stewart testified at the July 21, 1995, Senate Judiciary Committee hearing that he had the "distinct impression" that no African Americans had "ever been invited" to the Roundup. Curtis Cooper testified that because Roundup invitations were not posted on bulletin boards at ATF headquarters, he "assumed that the invitation to attend was for white agents only." OIG thus assessed whether any official policy expressly or implicitly limited invitations only to whites or was designed to send a message that whites were the preferred attendees.