FOIA Post (2009): Statutes Found to Qualify under Exemption 3 of the FOIA

FOIA Post

Statutes Found to Qualify under Exemption 3 of the FOIA

Exemption 3 of the Freedom of Information Act incorporates certain nondisclosure provisions contained in federal statutes other than the FOIA. To assist agencies in properly processing FOIA requests and in preparing their Annual FOIA Reports, the Office of Information Policy has compiled a list of statutes that courts have found to qualify as Exemption 3 statutes. This chart does not include statutes which have been found not to qualify under Exemption 3, nor does it include any statute which has not yet been considered by a court as a possible Exemption 3 statute. In addition, on occasion a statute has been found to qualify under Exemption 3 by one court and found not to qualify by another. Those statutes are marked with asterisks.

Statute/Rule Type of Information Withheld Case Citation
2 U.S.C. § 437g(a)(12)(A)*

(Federal Election Campaign Act)

Any notification or investigation made under this section of the Federal Election Campaign Act pertaining to federal campaign funds Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington v. FEC, No. 04-1672, slip op. at 5 (D.D.C. May 16, 2005).
5 U.S.C. §§ 7114(b)(4), 7132

(Civil Service Reform Act)

Defining agencies' and representatives' duty to negotiate in good faith to include disclosure of certain labor relations training and guidance materials and limiting the issuance of certain subpoenas Dubin v. Dep't of Treasury, 555 F. Supp. 408, 412 (N.D. Ga. 1981) (5 U.S.C. § 7114(b)(4)), aff'd, 697 F.2d 1093 (11th Cir. 1983) (unpublished table decision); NTEU v. OPM, No. 76-695, slip op. at 3-4 (D.D.C. July 9, 1979) (5 U.S.C. § 7114(b)(4) and 5 U.S.C. § 7132).
5 U.S.C. app. § 107(a)

(Ethics in Government Act of 1978)

Financial disclosure information pertaining to certain government employees Meyerhoff v. EPA, 958 F.2d 1498, 1500-02 (9th Cir. 1992); Concepcion v. FBI, 606 F. Supp. 2d 14, 33 (D.D.C. 2009).
7 U.S.C. § 12

(Commodity Exchange Act)

"[D]ata and information that would separately disclose the business transactions of any person" and trade secrets or names of customers gathered in the course of the Commission's investigations under the Commodity Exchange Act Hunt v. Commodity Futures Trading Comm'n, 484 F. Supp. 47, 49 (D.D.C. 1979).
7 U.S.C. § 136i-1

(Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act)

Data "that would directly or indirectly reveal the identity of individual producers [of certain pesticides]" Doe v. Veneman, 380 F.3d 807, 818 (5th Cir. 2004).
8 U.S.C. § 1202(f)

(Immigration and Nationality Act)

Certain records pertaining to the issuance or refusal of visas to enter the United States Medina-Hincapie v. Dep't of State, 700 F.2d 737, 741-42 (D.C. Cir. 1983); DeLaurentiis v. Haig, 686 F.2d 192, 194 (3d Cir. 1982); Durrani v. DOJ, 607 F. Supp. 2d 77, 86 (D.D.C. 2009); Smith v. DOJ, No. 81-CV-813, 1983 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 10878, at *13-14 (N.D.N.Y. Dec. 13, 1983).
10 U.S.C. § 130 Certain "technical data with military or space application in the possession of, or under the control of, the Department of Defense" Chenkin v. Dep't of the Army, No. 93-494, 1994 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 20907, at *8 (E.D. Pa. Jan. 14, 1994), aff'd, 61 F.3d 894 (3d Cir. 1995) (unpublished table decision); Colonial Trading Corp. v. Dep't of the Navy, 735 F. Supp. 429, 431 (D.D.C. 1990).
10 U.S.C. § 130b Personally identifiable information pertaining to members of the armed forces assigned to "routinely deployable unit[s]" and certain employees of DOD and DHS Hiken v. DOD, 521 F. Supp. 2d 1047, 1062 (N.D. Cal. 2007); O'Keefe v. DOD, 463 F. Supp. 2d 317, 325 (E.D.N.Y. 2006) .
10 U.S.C. § 130c Certain "sensitive information of foreign governments" and certain international organizations Nat'l Inst. of Military Justice v. DOD, 404 F. Supp. 2d 325, 335-37 (D.D.C. 2005), aff'd on other grounds, 512 F.3d 677 (D.C. Cir. 2008), cert. denied, 129 S. Ct. 775 (U.S. 2008); ACLU v. DOD, 389 F. Supp. 2d 547, 554 (S.D.N.Y. 2005).
10 U.S.C. § 424 Organization or any function of, and certain information pertaining to, employees of the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office, and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Miller v. DOJ, 562 F. Supp. 2d 82, 112 (D.D.C. 2008); Wickwire Gavin, P.C. v. Def. Intelligence Agency, 330 F. Supp. 2d 592, 602 (E.D. Va. 2004).
10 U.S.C. § 1102

(National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1987)

Medical quality assurance records Goodrich v. Dep't of the Air Force, 404 F. Supp. 2d 48, 50-51 (D.D.C. 2005); Dayton Newspapers, Inc. v. Dep't of the Air Force, 107 F. Supp. 2d 912, 917 (S.D. Ohio 1999).
10 U.S.C. § 2305(g) Certain contractor proposals Chesterfield Assocs., Inc. v. U.S. Coast Guard, No. 08-CV-4674, 2009 WL 1406994, at *1-2 (E.D.N.Y. May 19, 2009).
13 U.S.C. §§ 8(b), 9(a)

(Census Act)

Certain census data Baldrige v. Shapiro, 455 U.S. 345, 355 (1982).
13 U.S.C. § 301(g)

(Collection and Publication of Foreign Commerce Act)

Shippers' export declarations or successor documents Afr. Fund v. Mosbacher, No. 92 Civ. 289, 1993 WL 183736, at *5 (S.D.N.Y. May 26, 1993); Young Conservative Found., Inc. v. U.S. Dep't of Commerce, No. 85-3982, 1987 WL 9244, at *2-3 (D.D.C. Mar. 25, 1987).
15 U.S.C. §§ 46(f), 57b-2

(Federal Trade Commission Act)

"[A]ny trade secret or any commercial or financial information which is obtained from any person and which is privileged or confidential" and certain investigative materials received by the FTC and "provided pursuant to any compulsory process under this subchapter or which is provided voluntarily in place of such compulsory process." A. Michael's Piano, Inc. v. FTC, 18 F.3d 138, 143-44 (2d Cir. 1994) (15 U.S.C. § 57b-2); National Educ. Ass'n v. FTC, No. 79-959-S, 1983 WL 1883, at *1 (D. Mass. Sept. 26, 1983) (15 U.S.C. § 57b-2); Novo Laboratories, Inc. v. FTC, No. 80-1989, 1981 WL 2214, at *4 (D.D.C. July 21, 1981) (15 U.S.C. § 57b-2); Doherty v. FTC, No. 80-0513, 1981 WL 2094, at *3 (D.D.C. June 24, 1981) (15 U.S.C. § 46(f)).
15 U.S.C. § 1314(g)

(Antitrust Civil Process Act)

"Any documentary material, answers to written interrogatories, or transcripts of oral testimony" provided pursuant to certain civil investigative demands pertaining to antitrust investigations Motion Picture Ass'n of Am. v. DOJ, No. 80 Civ. 6612, slip op. at 1 (S.D.N.Y. Oct. 6, 1981).
15 U.S.C. §§ 2055(a)(2), 2055(b)(1), 2055(b)(5)

(Consumer Product Safety Act)

Certain information reported to, or otherwise obtained by, the Consumer Product Safety Commission which either contains or relates to a trade secret or is "subject to section 552(b)(4) of Title 5" Consumer Prod. Safety Comm'n v. GTE Sylvania, Inc., 447 U.S. 102, 122 (1980) (15 U.S.C.
§ 2055(b)(1)); Mulloy v. Consumer Prods. Safety Comm'n, No. 85-3720, 1986 WL 17283, at *1 (6th Cir. July 22, 1986) (per curiam) (unpublished disposition) (15 U.S.C. § 2055(a)(2) and 15 U.S.C. § 2055(b)(5)); Reliance Elec. Co. v. Consumer Prod. Safety Comm'n, No. 87-1478, slip op. at 16-17 (D.D.C. Sept. 19, 1989) (15 U.S.C. § 2055(b)(5)); Mulloy v. Consumer Prod. Safety Comm'n, No. C-2-85-645, 1985 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 17194, at *2-6 (S.D. Ohio Aug. 2, 1985) (15 U.S.C.
§ 2055(a)(2) and 15 U.S.C.
§ 2055(b)(5)).
15 U.S.C. § 6801

(Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act)

Nonpublic personal information of customers of financial institutions Hodes v. HUD, 532 F. Supp. 2d 108, 117 (D.D.C. 2008).
15 U.S.C. § 3710a(c)

(Federal Technology Transfer Act)

"[T]rade secrets or commercial or financial information that is privileged or confidential, under the meaning of section 552(b)(4) of Title 5, which is obtained in the conduct of research or as a result of activities under this chapter," which pertains to cooperative research and development agreements for the purpose of technological and industrial innovation Pub. Citizen Health Research Group v. NIH, 209 F. Supp. 2d 37, 43, 51 (D.D.C. 2002); DeLorme Pub. Co., Inc. v. NOAA, 917 F. Supp. 867, 871-72 (D. Me. 1996), appeal dismissed per stipulation, No. 96-1601 (1st Cir. July 8, 1996).
16 U.S.C. § 470hh

(Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979)

Information pertaining to the nature and location of certain archaeological resources Hornbostel v. U.S. Dep't of the Interior, 305 F. Supp. 2d 21, 30 (D.D.C. 2003), summary affirmance granted, No. 03-5257, 2004 WL 1900562 (D.C. Cir. Aug. 25, 2004).
16 U.S.C. § 5937

(National Parks Omnibus Management Act)

Information pertaining to: "endangered, threatened, rare, or commercially valuable" National Park System resources; "mineral or paleontological objects within units of the National Park System"; or "objects of cultural patrimony within units of the National Park System" Hornbostel v. U.S. Dep't of the Interior, 305 F. Supp. 2d 21, 30 (D.D.C. 2003), summary affirmance granted, No. 03-5257, 2004 WL 1900562 (D.C. Cir. Aug. 25, 2004); Sw. Ctr. for Biological Diversity v. USDA, 170 F. Supp. 2d 931, 945 (D. Ariz. 2000), aff'd, 314 F.3d 1060, 1062 (9th Cir. 2002); Pease v. U.S. Dep't of Interior, No. 1:99CV113, slip op. at 2, 4 (D. Vt. Sept. 17, 1999).
18 U.S.C. § 701 Establishes penalties for: manufacturing, selling, or possessing "any badge, identification card, or other insignia, of the design prescribed by the head of any department or agency of the United States for use by any officer or employee thereof, or any colorable imitation thereof"; and photographing, printing, making, or executing "any engraving, photograph, print, or impression in the likeness of any such badge, identification card, or other insignia, or any colorable imitation thereof" Jones v. IRS, No. 06-CV-322, 2008 WL 1901208, at *3-4 (W.D. Mich. Apr. 25, 2008).
18 U.S.C. § 798

(Espionage Act)

Certain classified information pertaining to the communication intelligence and cryptographic devices of the United States or any foreign government Larson v. Dep't of State, 565 F.3d 857, 868-69 (D.C. Cir. 2009); N.Y. Times Co. v. DOD, 499 F. Supp. 2d 501, 512 (S.D.N.Y. 2007); Adejumobi v. NSA, No. 07-1237, 2007 WL 4247878, at *3 (M.D. Fla. Dec. 3, 2007), aff'd per curiam, 287 F. App'x 770 (11th Cir. 2008).
18 U.S.C. §§ 2510-20

(Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act)

Wiretap requests and the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication obtained through wiretaps Mendoza v. DEA, No. 07-5006, 2007 U.S. App. LEXIS 22175 (D.C. Cir. Sept. 14, 2007) (per curiam); Lam Lek Chong v. DEA, 929 F.2d 729, 733 (D.C. Cir. 1991); Payne v. DOJ, No. 96-30840, slip op. at 5-6 (5th Cir. July 11, 1997).
18 U.S.C. § 3123(d)

(Pen Register Act)

Certain court "order[s] authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device"; information pertaining to "the existence of the pen register or trap and trace device or the existence of the investigation" Jennings v. FBI, No. 03-1651, slip op. at 11-12 (D.D.C. May 6, 2004); Riley v. FBI, No. 00-2378, 2002 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2632, at *5-6 (D.D.C. Feb. 11, 2002); Manna v. DOJ, 815 F. Supp. 798, 812 (D.N.J. 1993), aff'd on other grounds, 51 F.3d 1158 (3d Cir. 1995).
18 U.S.C. § 3509(d)

(Federal Victims' Protection and Rights Act)

Certain records containing identifying information pertaining to children involved in criminal proceedings Tampico v. EOUSA, No. 04-2285, slip op. at 8 (D.D.C. Apr. 29, 2005).
18 U.S.C. § 4208(c)

(Parole Commission and Reorganization Act)

Certain records pertaining to parole determination proceedings DOJ v. Julian, 486 U.S. 1, 9 (1988).
19 U.S.C. § 1677f

(Tariff Act)

Certain "information submitted to the administering authority or the [United States International Trade] Commission which is designated as proprietary by the person submitting the information" Mudge Rose Guthrie Alexander & Ferdon v. U.S. Int'l Trade Comm'n, 846 F.2d 1527, 1530 (D.C. Cir. 1988).
21 U.S.C. § 331(j)

(Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act)

Certain information "concerning any method or process which as a trade secret is entitled to protection" Anderson v. HHS, 907 F.2d 936, 950-51 (10th Cir. 1990).
22 U.S.C. §§ 1461, 1461-1a

(Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act)

Certain program information prepared by the United States Information Agency Essential Info., Inc. v. USIA, 134 F.3d 1165, 1168 (D.C. Cir. 1998).
22 U.S.C. § 2778(e)

(Arms Export Control Act)

Certain information pertaining to export license applications Council for a Livable World v. U.S. Dep't of State, No. 96-1807, slip op. at 11 (D.D.C. Jan. 21, 1998), amended (D.D.C. Nov. 23, 1998).
22 U.S.C. § 3104(c)

(International Investment Survey Act)

Records and reports provided pursuant to subsection (b)(2) of the section of the statute which pertains to certain "surveys and studies" regarding international investment and trade Young Conservative Found., Inc. v. U.S. Dep't of Commerce, No. 85-3982, 1987 WL 9244, at *3-4 (D.D.C. Mar. 25, 1987).
26 U.S.C. §§ 6103, 6105

(Internal Revenue Code)

Certain tax return information and certain tax convention information Church of Scientology v. IRS, 484 U.S. 9, 15 (1987) (26 U.S.C. § 6103); Tax Analysts v. IRS, 217 F. Supp. 2d 23, 27-29 (D.D.C. 2002) (26 U.S.C. § 6105).
31 U.S.C. § 5319

(Bank Secrecy Act)

Reports pertaining to monetary instruments transactions filed under subchapter II of title 31 Berger v. IRS, 487 F. Supp. 2d 482, 496-97 (D.N.J. 2007), aff'd on other grounds, 288 F. App'x 829 (3d Cir. 2008), cert. denied, 129 S. Ct. 2789 (U.S. 2009); Sciba v. Bd. of Governors of the Fed. Reserve Sys., No. 04-1011, 2005 WL 3201206, at *6 (D.D.C. Nov. 4, 2005).
35 U.S.C. § 122

(Patent Act)

Applications for patents; certain information pertaining to applications for patents Irons & Sears v. Dann, 606 F.2d 1215, 1219-21 (D.C. Cir. 1979).
38 U.S.C. § 5705 Records created by VA as part of its medical quality-assurance program; certain other information pertaining to VA's medical quality-assurance program Schulte & Sun-Sentinel Co. v. VA, No. 86-6251, slip op. at 3-4, 12 (S.D. Fla. Feb. 2, 1996).
38 U.S.C. § 7332 Records of patients being treated for certain conditions Palmer v. Derwinski, No. 91-197, slip op. at 3-4 (E.D. Ky. June 10, 1992).
39 U.S.C. § 410(c)(2)

(Postal Reorganization Act)

Commercial information which would not be disclosed under good business practice Wickwire Gavin, P.C. v. USPS, 356 F.3d 588, 589, 597 (4th Cir. 2004); Reid v. USPS, No. 05-294, 2006 WL 1876682, at *5-9 (S.D. Ill. July 5, 2006); Airline Pilots Ass'n, Int'l v. USPS, No. 03-2384, 2004 WL 5050900, at *5-7 (D.D.C. June 24, 2004).
41 U.S.C. § 253b(m)(1)

(National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997)

Contractor proposals that are in the possession or control of an executive agency and that have not been set forth or incorporated by reference into contracts Hornbostel v. U.S. Dep't of the Interior, 305 F. Supp. 2d 21, 30 (D.D.C. 2003), summary affirmance granted, No. 03-5257, 2004 WL 1900562 (D.C. Cir. Aug. 25, 2004).
41 U.S.C. § 423(a)(1)*

(Procurement Integrity Act)

Contractor bid or proposal information; source selection information Legal & Safety Employer Research, Inc. v. U.S. Dep't of the Army, No. Civ. S001748, 2001 WL 34098652, at *3-4 (E.D. Cal. May 4, 2001) (dictum).
42 U.S.C. § 405(r)

(Social Security Act)

Death certificates and records pertaining to deaths provided to the Commissioner of Social Security under this subsection Int'l Diatomite Producers Ass'n v. SSA, No. 92-1634, 1993 WL 137286, at *3 (N.D. Cal. Apr. 28, 1993), appeal dismissed per stipulation, No. 93-16204 (9th Cir. Oct. 27, 1993).
42 U.S.C. §§ 2000e-5(b), 2000e-8(e)

(Civil Rights Act of 1964)

Information pertaining to charges of unlawful employment practices; information obtained by the EEOC in investigating charges of unlawful employment practices Frito-Lay v. EEOC, 964 F. Supp. 236, 240-43 (W.D. Ky. 1997); Am. Centennial Ins. Co. v. EEOC, 722 F. Supp. 180, 184 (D.N.J. 1989).
42 U.S.C. § 2162

(Atomic Energy Act)

"Restricted Data" pertaining to atomic weapons and special nuclear material Meeropol v. Smith, No. 75-1121, slip op. at 53-55 (D.D.C. Feb. 29, 1984), aff'd in relevant part & remanded in part on other grounds sub nom, Meeropol v. Meese, 790 F.2d 942 (D.C. Cir. 1986).
42 U.S.C. §§ 2286d(a), 2286g(3)

(Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Act)

Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board recommendations Nat. Res. Def. Council, Inc. v. Def. Nuclear Facilities Safety Bd., 969 F.2d 1248, 1249, 1251 (D.C. Cir. 1992).
42 U.S.C. § 3610(d)

(Fair Housing Act)

Records pertaining to conciliation of disputes regarding allegations of unfair housing practices; information derived from housing discrimination investigations and any final investigative reports pertaining to such investigations West v. Jackson, 448 F. Supp. 2d 207, 212-13 (D.D.C. 2006), summary affirmance granted, No. 06-5281, 2007 WL 1723362 (D.C. Cir. Mar. 6, 2007).
45 U.S.C. § 362(d)

(Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act)

Information obtained by the Railroad Retirement Board that reveals, in any matter, an employee's identity Ass'n of Retired R.R. Workers v. U.S. R.R. Retirement Bd., 830 F.2d 331, 334 (D.C. Cir. 1987); Nat'l Ass'n of Retired & Veteran Ry. Employees v. R.R. Ret. Bd., No. 87-117, slip op. at 5 (N.D. Ohio Feb. 20, 1991).
47 U.S.C. § 605

(Communications Act of 1934)

Certain information pertaining to interstate or foreign communication by wire or radio Reston v. FCC, 492 F. Supp. 697, 699-700 (D.D.C. 1980).
49 U.S.C. § 114(s) Information obtained or developed in carrying out security under the authority of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act or under chapter 449 of this title Tooley v. Bush, No. 06-306, 2006 WL 3783142, at *19 (D.D.C. Dec. 21, 2006), rev'd & remanded in part on other grounds sub nom. Tooley v. Napolitano, 556 F.3d 836 (D.C. Cir. 2009), reh'g granted & judgment vacated, No. 07-5080, 2009 U.S. App. LEXIS 14307 (D.C. Cir. July 1, 2009); Gordon v. FBI, 390 F. Supp. 2d 897, 900 (N.D. Cal. 2004).
49 U.S.C. § 1114(c)

(Transportation Safety Act of 1974)

Certain "cockpit voice or video recorder recording[s] or transcript[s] of communications by and between flight crew members and ground stations pertaining to [] incident[s] investigated by the [National Transportation Safety] Board" McGilvra v. NTSB, 840 F. Supp. 100, 102 (D. Colo. 1993).
49 U.S.C. § 40119(b)

(Federal Aviation Act)

Certain information obtained or developed in ensuring transportation security if disclosure of that information would: constitute an invasion of personal privacy, reveal a trade secret or confidential commercial or financial information, or be detrimental to transportation safety Pub. Citizen, Inc. v. FAA, 988 F.2d 186, 194 (D.C. Cir. 1993); Gordon v. FBI, 390 F. Supp. 2d 897, 900 (N.D. Cal. 2004).
50 U.S.C. § 402 note

(National Security Agency Act of 1959)

Information pertaining to the functions or organization of NSA; certain information pertaining to NSA employees Larson v. Dep't of State, 565 F.3d 857, 868-69 (D.C. Cir. 2009); Founding Church of Scientology v. NSA, 610 F.2d 824, 827-28 (D.C. Cir. 1979); Roman v. NSA, No. 07-CV-4502, 2009 WL 303686, at *5-6 (E.D.N.Y. Feb. 9, 2009).
50 U.S.C. § 403-1(i)(1)

(National Security Act of 1947)

Intelligence sources and methods CIA v. Sims, 471 U.S. 159, 167 (1985); Berman v. CIA, 501 F.3d 1136, 1137-38, 1140 (9th Cir. 2007); Wolf v. CIA, 473 F.3d 370, 378, 380 (D.C. Cir. 2007).
50 U.S.C. § 403g

(Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949)

Intelligence sources and methods; certain information pertaining to Agency employees, specifically: "the organization, functions, names, official titles, salaries, or numbers of personnel employed by the Agency" Larson v. Dep't of State, 565 F.3d 857, 865 n.2 (D.C. Cir. 2009); Berman v. CIA, 501 F.3d 1136, 1137-38, 1140 (9th Cir. 2007); Makky v. Chertoff, 489 F. Supp. 2d 421, 442 (D.N.J. 2007), aff'd on other grounds, 541 F. 3d 205 (3d Cir. 2008).
50 U.S.C. § 431

(Central Intelligence Agency Information Act of 1984)

"[O]perational files of the Central Intelligence Agency" CIA v. Sims, 471 U.S. 159, 167, 174 n.19 (1985) (dictum); Wolf v. CIA, 569 F. Supp. 2d 1, 8 (D.D.C. 2008).
50 U.S.C. § 432a Operational files of the National Reconnaissance Office Aftergood v. National Reconnaissance Office, 441 F. Supp. 2d 37, 46 (D.D.C. 2006).
50 U.S.C. § 1702(a)(1)

(International Emergency Economic Powers Act)

Authorizes the President to "regulate . . . prevent or prohibit . . . importation or exportation of . . . any property in which any foreign country or a national thereof has any interest . . . by any person, or with respect to any property, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States" Wis. Project on Nuclear Arms Control v. U.S. Dep't of Commerce, 317 F.3d 275, 284 (D.C. Cir. 2003).
50 U.S.C. app. § 2411(c)

(Export Administration Act of 1979)

Information pertaining to license applications under the Export Administration Act Wis. Project on Nuclear Arms Control v. U.S. Dep't of Commerce, 317 F.3d 275, 284 (D.C. Cir. 2003); Times Publ'g Co. v. U.S. Dep't of Commerce, 236 F.3d 1286, 1292 (11th Cir. 2001).
Pub. L. No. 108-447, 118 Stat. 2809, 2859-60

(Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2005)

Certain firearms database information City of Chicago v. U.S. Dep't of the Treasury, 423 F.3d 777, 781-82 (7th Cir. 2005); Singh v. FBI, 574 F. Supp. 2d 32, 45-46 (D.D.C. 2008).
Fed. R. Crim. P. 6(e), enacted by Act of July 30, 1977, Pub. L. No. 95-78, 91 Stat. 319 Certain records pertaining to grand jury proceedings Sussman v. USMS, 494 F.3d 1106, 1113 (D.C. Cir. 2007); Fund for Constitutional Gov't v. Nat'l Archives & Records Serv., 656 F.2d 856, 867-68 (D.C. Cir. 1981); Durham v. U.S. Atty. Gen., No. 06-843, 2008 WL 620744, at *2 (E.D. Tex. Mar. 3, 2008); Cozen O'Connor v. U.S. Dep't of Treasury, 570 F. Supp. 2d 749, 776 (E.D. Pa. 2008).
Fed. R. Crim. P. 32, enacted by Act of July 31, 1975, Pub. L. 94-64, § 2, 89 Stat. 370 Presentence reports and recommendations DOJ v. Julian, 486 U.S. 1, 9 (1988).

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