Overview of The Privacy Act of 1974 2012 Edition

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The "Overview of the Privacy Act of 1974," prepared by the Department of Justice's Office of Privacy and Civil Liberties (OPCL), is a discussion of the Privacy Act's disclosure prohibition, its access and amendment provisions, and its agency recordkeeping requirements. Tracking the provisions of the Act itself, the Overview provides reference to, and legal analysis of, court decisions interpreting the Act's provisions. The Overview is not intended to provide policy guidance, as that role statutorily rests with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 5 U.S.C. § 552a(v). However, where OMB has issued policy guidance on particular provisions of the Act, citation to such guidance is provided in the Overview. The 2012 edition of the Overview was issued electronically and sent for publication in September 2012 and includes cases through July 2012. The Overview is scheduled to be revised again in 2014.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. Agency
B. Individual
C. Maintain
D. Record
E. System of Records

  1. Disclosure: Subsection (b)
  2. Access and Amendment: Subsections (d)(1) and (d)(2)
  3. Other Aspects

A. The "No Disclosure Without Consent" Rule
B. Twelve Exceptions to the "No Disclosure Without Consent" Rule

  1. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(b)(1) ("need to know" within agency)
  2. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(b)(2) (required FOIA disclosure)
  3. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(b)(3) (routine uses)
  4. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(b)(4) (Bureau of the Census)
  5. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(b)(5) (statistical research)
  6. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(b)(6) (National Archives)
  7. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(b)(7) (law enforcement request)
  8. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(b)(8) (health or safety of an individual)
  9. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(b)(9) (Congress)
  10. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(b)(10) (General Accounting Office)
  11. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(b)(11) (court order)
  12. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(b)(12) (Debt Collection Act)

A. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(e)(1)
B. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(e)(2)
C. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(e)(3)
D. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(e)(4)
E. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(e)(5)
F. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(e)(6)
G. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(e)(7)
H. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(e)(8)
I. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(e)(9)
J. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(e)(10)
K. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(e)(11)

A. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(f)(1)
B. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(f)(2)
C. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(f)(3)
D. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(f)(4)
E. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(f)(5)

A. Amendment Lawsuits under (g)(1)(A)
B. Access Lawsuits under (g)(1)(B)
C. Damages Lawsuits under (g)(1)(C)
D. Damages Lawsuits under (g)(1)(D)
E. Principles Applicable to Damages Lawsuits

  1. Intentional/Willful Standard
  2. Actual Damages

F. Principles Applicable to All Privacy Act Civil Actions

  1. Attorney Fees and Costs
  2. Jurisdiction and Venue
  3. Statute of Limitations
  4. Jury Trial

A. One Special Exemption -- 5 U.S.C. § 552a(d)(5)
B. Two General Exemptions -- 5 U.S.C. § 552a(j)(1) and (j)(2)
C. Seven Specific Exemptions -- 5 U.S.C. § 552a(k)

  1. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(k)(1)
  2. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(k)(2)
  3. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(k)(3)
  4. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(k)(4)
  5. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(k)(5)
  6. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(k)(6)
  7. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(k)(7)