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Limits of the § 106 Waiver of Sovereign Immunity

2.Sovereign Immunity v. Bankruptcy Jurisdiction
3.Sue-and-Be-Sued Agencies.
4.Application of 28 U.S.C. § 2410
5.Effect of § 106 On Non-Bankruptcy Jurisdictional Prerequisites
6.Multiple Agencies in Case

1.   Forum.  
Section 106 is a forum waiver only and does not expose governments to causes 

of action from which they would be immune in a non-bankruptcy context.  
See WJM, Inc. v. Mass. Dep't of Pub. Welfare, 840 F.2d 996 
(1st Cir. 1988) (waiver of sovereign immunity under § 106 does not 
include prejudgment interest absent express statutory authority creating 
right to payment); see also Minnesota v. United States, 305 
U.S. 382, 399 (1939) (Congress determines not only whether the United States 

may be sued but also in what courts suit may be brought); 2 Collier on 
Bankruptcy  106.06[1] (15th ed. 1997) (whether estate has a valid and 
enforceable claim against government depends upon the applicable substantive 

law, whether state or Federal).  This argument is strengthened by the 1994 
Reform Act's new language stating:  "Nothing in this section shall create 
any substantive claim for relief or cause of action not otherwise existing 
under this title, the Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure, or 
nonbankruptcy law."  11 U.S.C. § 106(a)(5).  See Hardy v. IRS 

(In re Hardy), 97 F.3d 1384 (11th Cir. 1996) (1994 act unequivocally 
waived sovereign immunity permitting court to hold IRS in contempt under 
§ 105 for violation of § 524 discharge injunction; court may 
impose sanctions that are coercive, not punitive, and attorney fees if 
consistent with EAJA and 26 U.S.C. § 7430); Jove Eng'g, Inc. v. 
IRS, 92 F.3d 1539 (11th Cir. 1996) (same for automatic stay violation); 
United States v. Pullman Constr. Indus., Inc., 210 B.R. 302 (N.D. 
Ill. 1997) (Bankruptcy Code does not expressly waive U.S. sovereign immunity 

with regard to pre- judgment interest).

2. Sovereign Immunity v. Bankruptcy Jurisdiction.  

We also argue that a non-bankruptcy waiver of sovereign immunity, e.g., 
Federal Tort Claims Act, may not be combined with 28 U.S.C. § 1334(b) 
("co-exclusive" jurisdiction of district court sitting in bankruptcy) and 28 

U.S.C. § 157 (referral of jurisdiction to bankruptcy court) to waive 
sovereign immunity in the bankruptcy court.  Sections 157 and 1334 address 
subject matter jurisdiction and do not waive sovereign immunity.   
See United States v. Nordic Vill., Inc., 503 U.S. 30 (1992); 
see also Williamson v. USDA, 815 F.2d 368 (5th Cir. 1987); 
Kjeldahl v. United States (In re Kjeldahl), 52 B.R. 916 (D. Minn. 
1985); FDIC v. Ginn (In re Ginn), 128 B.R. 719 (Bankr. D.S.C. 1990) 
(all holding that FTCA jurisdictional requirements cannot be circumvented by 

§ 106).  Contra Quality Tooling, Inc. v. United States, 
47 F.3d 1569 (Fed. Cir. 1995) (Tucker Act and Contract Disputes Act waivers 
of sovereign immunity apply to bankruptcy courts despite apparent language 
limiting jurisdiction under those statutes to Court of Federal Claims); 
Anderson v. FDIC, 918 F.2d 1139 (4th Cir. 1990) (claim lacking waiver 

of sovereign immunity under FTCA permitted to proceed as counterclaim based 
on § 106(a) waiver of sovereign immunity); Town & Country Home 
Nursing Servs., Inc. v. Blue Cross of Cal. (In re Town & Country Home 
Nursing Servs., Inc.), 112 B.R. 329 (B.A.P. 9th Cir. 1990) (independent 
grants of bankruptcy jurisdiction in 28 U.S.C. §§ 157 and 1334 and 

11 U.S.C. § 106(a) overcome limitations on judicial review found in 
Medicare statute, Tucker Act and FTCA), aff'd, 963 F.2d 1146 (9th 
Cir. 1992); TPI Int'l Airways, Inc. v. FAA (In re TPI Int'l Airways, 
Inc.), 141 B.R. 512 (Bankr. S.D. Ga. 1992) (filing of FAA claim for 
civil penalties waived immunity under § 106(a) for misrepresentation, 
conversion, and interference with business in connection with FAA's failure 
to return forfeited operating specifications; however, notwithstanding 
waiver, FAA immune under FTCA's discretionary function exception), 
aff'd, No. CV292- 230 (S.D. Ga. Dec. 21, 1992) (in unpublished 
opinion, district court stated that all of the substantive 
limitations on the FTCA applied, including the misrepresentation exception); 

Inslaw, Inc. v. United States (In re Inslaw , Inc.), 76 B.R. 224 
(Bankr. D.D.C. 1987), aff'd, 83 B.R. 89 (D.D.C. 1989), rev'd on 
other grounds, 932 F.2d 1467 (D.C. Cir. 1991); cf. Ashbrook v. 

Block, 917 F.2d 918 (6th Cir. 1990) (U.S. filing of proof of claim 
obviates FTCA administrative claim filing requirement).  In a nonbankruptcy 
case, the Supreme Court unanimously held that an FTCA action cannot be 
maintained when the claimant failed to exhaust the administrative claim 
requirement even if he did so while the suit was pending. McNeil v. 
United States, 508 U.S. 106 (1993).  This may cast doubt on the 
continued validity of some of the above decisions.  In addition, in 
Department of the Army v. Blue Fox, Inc., 525 U.S. 255 (1999), the 
Supreme Court reiterated that waivers of sovereign immunity must be both 
explicit and narrowly construed.  At least one court, in the context of a 
Tucker Act case, has cited Department of the Army as compelling 
rejection of the Federal Circuit's Quality Tooling decision.  
Carrington Gardens Assocs. v. United States (In re Carrington Gardens 
Assocs.), 248 B.R. 752, 768-69 n.7 (Bankr. E.D. Va. 2000), aff'd, 

258 B.R. 622 (E.D. Va. 2001).
3. Sue-and-Be-Sued Agencies.
Courts have held that "sue and be sued" statutes waive sovereign immunity, 
and, therefore, courts do not need to consider applicability of § 106.  

In re Epps, 110 B.R. 691 (E.D. Pa. 1990) (sovereign immunity waived 
under National Housing Act authorizing HUD to "sue and be sued" in carrying 
out certain provisions of the Act).  Such "sue and be sued" statutes waive 
sovereign immunity only of particular agencies, not the United States 
generally.  See Lomas & Nettleton Co. v. Pierce, 636 F.2d 971, 

972-73 (5th Cir. 1981); Indus. Indem., Inc. v. Landrieu, 615 F.2d 
644, 646 (5th Cir. 1980).  If the judgment sought by the plaintiff would 
"expend itself on the public Treasury," the suit is in reality against the 
United States regardless of whether the complaint names only Federal 
agencies or officials.  Dugan v. Rank, 372 U.S. 609, 620 (1963) 
(quoting Land v. Dollar, 330 U.S. 731, 738 (1947)); see also 
FHA V. Burr, 309 U.S. 242, 250-51 (1940) (garnishment action against 
Federal agency permitted only to the extent it had funds outside the 
Treasury); Presidential Gardens Assocs. v. United States ex rel. Sec'y of 

HUD, 175 F.3d 132, 141 (2d Cir. 1999) (waiver of HUD's immunity limited 
to funds under control of HUD, does not reach general Treasury funds).  
Finally, in the case of "sue-and-be-sued" agencies, one can argue that, 
although such governmental units may have independent litigating authority, 
the Bankruptcy Code, § 106, places limits upon the jurisdiction of the 
bankruptcy courts over any governmental unit.  Cf. Aetna Cas. & 
Sur. Co. v. United States, 655 F.2d 1047 (Ct. Cl. 1981) (although HUD 
might be suable in other courts upon certain causes of action, Tucker Act 
places limits upon Court of Claims' jurisdiction over them).

4. Application of 28 U.S.C. § 2410.

Harmon v. United States Through FmHA, 101 F.3d 574 (8th Cir. 1996). 
In this case of first impression for the courts of appeal, the Eighth 
Circuit held that chapter 12 permits a debtor to strip down an undersecured 
creditor's lien to the value of the collateral, and that the United States 
waived sovereign immunity under 28 U.S.C. § 2410(a)(1).  That statute 
provides that the U.S. "may be named a party in any civil action or suit . . 

. to quiet title to . . . real property on which the United States has or 
claims a mortgage or other lien." Because of this statute, the individual 
defendants (an AUSA and the FmHA state director), who were sued in their 
official capacities, were not entitled to dismissal either.

5. Effect of § 106 On Non-Bankruptcy Jurisdictional 

To the extent parties assert claims under non-bankruptcy statutes, they 
should be required to comply with the statutes' prerequisites to bring suit, 

including exhaustion of administrative remedies. Compare Farmers 
State Bank v. Norris (In re Norris), 90 B.R. 424, 427-28 (Bankr. D. Neb. 

1988) (to extent debtor invokes FTCA as jurisdictional basis for action, he 
is bound by the Act's procedural requirements and substantive exceptions), 
and Farmers State Bank v. Norris (In re Norris), 88 B.R. 213, 
214 (Bankr. D. Neb. 1988) (state tort claims act did not waive State's 
sovereign immunity for actions brought in Federal bankruptcy court) 
with Prudential Lines, Inc. v. United States Maritime Admin. (In 
re Prudential Lines, Inc.), 79 B.R. 167, 182-83 (Bankr. S.D.N.Y. 1987) 
(if § 106 applies, need not comply with administrative claim 
prerequisite of FTCA), and MacLeod Co. v. United States, No. 
C-1-88-931 (S.D. Ohio Oct. 27, 1989) (decision of contracting officer which 
is a jurisdictional requirement under the Contract Disputes Act need not be 
obtained to assert counterclaim against United States), aff'd, 1991 
U.S. WL 96718 (6th Cir. 1991) (unpublished opinion).  See also 
Gingold v. United States ex rel. Dep't of Health & Human Servs. (In re 
Shelby County Healthcare Servs., Inc.), 80 B.R. 555 (Bankr. N.D. Ga. 
1987) (although 42 U.S.C. § 405(h) jurisdictionally precludes review of 

HHS Medicare findings, waiver in § 106 obviates need to exhaust 
administrative remedies or defer to HHS (but court deferred to expeditious 
administrative process)); Kenny v. Block (In re Kenny), 75 B.R. 515, 
520-21 (Bankr. E.D. Mich. 1987) (§ 106 waiver "is separate and distinct 

from the FTCA waiver" and exhaustion of administrative remedy requirement of 

FTCA is not to be read into § 106) (note: reversed by district court in 

unpublished decision); In re Parker N. Am. Corp., 24 F.3d 1145 (9th 
Cir. 1994) (debtor need not comply with FIRREA filing requirements before 
asserting preference claim against RTC). 

6. Multiple Agencies in Case.

Are different agencies part of the same "governmental unit" for § 106 
purposes?  E.g., does IRS proof of claim waive immunity for a claim by the 
estate against HHS?  [Note: issue could arise under 106(b) or (c) but is 
less likely in case of the former because of the "same transaction or 
occurrence" requirement.]

     a.    11 U.S.C. § 101(27) defines "governmental unit" to include 
           "United States" but also "department, agency, or instrumentality 
           of the United States."  Although we assert that U.S. agencies are 

           part of one entity for setoff purposes, we could argue that they 
           are different governmental units for § 106 purposes because 
           of the § 101 definition and the requirement that sovereign 
           immunity waivers must be strictly construed.

     b.    In Doe v. United States, 58 F.3d 494, 497-98 (9th Cir. 
           1995), the court held that agencies of the United States are one 
           entity for purposes of the waiver of sovereign immunity and under 

           § 106(c).  This holding reflected the original position 
           taken by the U.S. but was rendered after the court instructed the 

           DOJ attorneys to consult with the Solicitor General, the IRS, and 

           other agencies.  Id. at 498.  The court stated as follows: 

           "The United States takes this position out of a commendable sense 

           of fairness and reciprocity because it often seeks to be treated 
           as a single unitary creditor under the offset provisions of 11 
           U.S.C. § 553."  Id.

     c.    See also Ossen v. Conn. Dep't of Soc. Servs. (In re 
           Charter Oak Assocs.), 203 B.R. 17 (Bankr. D. Conn. 1996) 
           (applying single entity approach to state agencies); but 
           see In re NVR L.P., 206 B.R. 831, 852 (Bankr. E.D. Va. 

           1997) (discussing diverse views on multiple agencies in 
           bankruptcy and non-bankruptcy contexts and holding that taxing 
           officials signing proof of claim must be authorized by state law 
           to waive immunity of court clerks of same county), aff'd in 
           part, rev'd in part on other grounds sub nom., Clerk of 
           Circuit Court for Anne Arundel County v. NVR Homes, Inc., 222 

           B.R. 514 (E.D. Va. 1998), rev'd in part, vacated in part on 
           other grounds, 189 F.3d 442 (4th Cir. 1999), cert. 
           denied, 528 U.S. 1117 (2000).