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256

Voice Exemplars—Self-Incrimination

Compelling a person to give a voice exemplar violates no privilege protected by the Fifth Amendment. The exemplar is used for identification purposes, and is not testimonial or communicative in nature. See United States v. Dionisio, supra. A witness subpoenaed to a grand jury, or a criminal defendant, may thus be compelled to produce voice exemplar, see United States v. Mitchell, 556 F.2d 382 (6th Cir. 1977), and evidence of a refusal to provide a voice exemplar may be introduced, see United States v. Flanagan, 34 F.3d 949, 953-954 (10th Cir. 1994).