Compelling a person to give a voice exemplar violates no
protected by the Fifth Amendment. The exemplar is used for
purposes, and is not testimonial or communicative in nature.
United States v. Dionisio, supra. A witness
subpoenaed to a grand
jury, or a criminal defendant, may thus be compelled to produce
see United States v. Mitchell, 556 F.2d 382 (6th
Cir. 1977), and
evidence of a refusal to provide a voice exemplar may be
United States v. Flanagan, 34 F.3d 949, 953-954 (10th Cir.