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1567

Applicability to Informants—18 U.S.C. §§  111 and 1114

Until April 24, 1996, a typical informant, including a so-called "special employee," was not, except for informants of those agents enforcing the customs and revenue laws, covered by 18 U.S.C. §§ 111 and 1114. Sections 1512 and 1513 of Title 18 may be utilized for investigating and punishing most attacks on informants.

However, commencing on April 24, 1996, "any person assisting such an [Federal employee] officer and employee in the performance of such duties or on account of that assistance" was added to those persons protected under §  1114. See Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act, §  727(a), Pub. L. 104-132, 110 Stat. 1214, 1302. Accordingly, as of April 24, 1996, 18 U.S.C. § 111 has been expanded to include informants and other persons assisting Federal law enforcement officers in the investigation of federal criminal offenses.

[cited in USAM 9-65.600]