Chapter I Making America Safe

Goal: Guarantee the incarceration of violent and repeat offenders and concentrate law enforcement resources where they can be most effective.
As the Nation's chief law enforcement organization, it is the responsibility of the Department to provide leadership toward ensuring that the citizens of the United States are safeguarded from violence and criminal activities. In 1995, the Department vigorously worked toward this end by using the new investigative and prosecutorial tools made available in the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (VCCLEA), such as the "three strikes" provision, the ban on assault weapons, and the increase in the types of crimes to which the death penalty applies. The Department also continued to expand its assistance and interaction with State and local police forces and its involvement in task force operations, increase its incarceration capabilities, and improve its technological crime fighting capabilities, all in an effort to enable the citizens of this Nation to feel safe and secure in their homes and neighborhoods.

Combatting Violence

Confronting and reducing violent crime continued to be a major priority for the Department in 1995. The Department continued, through the Administration's "Anti-Violent Crime Initiative", to work with Federal, State, and local law enforcement officials to address their most serious violent crime problems. Through the Initiative, the Department has achieved successful prosecutions in such areas as gang violence, juvenile violence, gun violence, and domestic violence as well as violent crimes committed in public housing, Indian country, prisons, and rural areas.

The single most violent act against the American people during the past year was the April 19, 1995, bombing of the Alfred Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Within hours of the bombing, Department personnel were on the scene, working with other agencies, in the investigation of this case. These efforts ultimately led to the Federal indictment of Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols on charges relating to use of a weapon of mass destruction, destruction of a Federal facility, and first degree murder. The trial of the two men is pending.

As a result of the bombing, the Department, at the direction of the President, coordinated security assessments of all Federal buildings nationwide. The assessments were accomplished successfully and are resulting in tighter security throughout all Federal workplaces.

The Department's litigators and investigators continued to achieve a great deal of success in apprehending and convicting violent offenders in 1995. The U.S. Attorneys filed criminal cases against almost 9,200 violent offenders and terminated cases against over 8,700 violent crime defendants in 1995. Of those defendants whose cases were terminated, the U.S. Attorneys achieved an 85 percent conviction rate, with 98 percent of all convicted defendants sent to prison, including 67 life sentences.

Using the expanded death penalty provision in the VCCLEA and provisions of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988, the Department prosecuted four cases where the government sought the death penalty against six defendants for homicides. Five of these defendants were convicted and one pleaded guilty; two were sentenced to death and four were sentenced to life imprisonment. In the first "three strikes" prosecution in the country, the U.S. Attorney in Des Moines, Iowa, obtained a mandatory life sentence against Thomas Farmer for armed robbery of a supermarket. The defendant had been convicted previously of second degree murder, robbery while on parole, and murdering a fellow inmate.

The USMS continued to target violent offenders through the execution of fugitive felon warrants. During 1995, the USMS arrested 15,800 Federal fugitives and an additional 12,500 violent State and local fugitives.

The FBI continued its involvement in task forces to help combat violent crime. At the close of 1995, the FBI had established 134 Safe Streets Task Forces operating in 52 field offices, with 940 State and local officers, 731 FBI Special Agents, and 162 other Federal law enforcement personnel.

Violence Against Women

During 1995, the Department aggressively attacked the serious problem of violence against women in America. In concert with the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (VAWA) that established tough law enforcement strategies with important safeguards for victims of domestic violence and sexual assault, the Department established the Violence Against Women Office to coordinate and focus the Department's efforts to combat violence against women.

For 1995, $26 million was appropriated for the Law Enforcement, Prosecution, and Victim Services Grants to Reduce Violence Against Women. As a part of this, all 50 States and eligible territories have received the first installment of funds under the Office of Justice Programs' (OJP) administered S.T.O.P. (Services*Training*Officers*Prosecutors) Violence Against Women grant program. Over the next five years, a total of $800 million in Federal funds is authorized to assist States in restructuring law enforcement's response to crimes of violence against women.

The Department made several advances on provisions designed to stop sex offenders before they strike. These include:

On the enforcement side, the Department won its first conviction under the VAWA's new interstate domestic violence offense. Christopher Bailey was sentenced to life in prison for kidnapping and interstate domestic violence after his conviction in the Southern District of West Virginia.

The Department encouraged law enforcement agencies to treat domestic violence and violence against women as serious criminal offenses. For example, the Attorney General signed guidelines for Victim and Witness Assistance that provide initial guidance on a variety of reforms that enhance the rights of victims of crime in Federal court. These measures include provisions strengthening restitution for victims of domestic violence and sexual assault crimes, payment for sexually transmitted disease testing for victims of sexual assault offenses, and a provision affording victims of violent and sexual abuse crimes the right to address the court at the sentencing of the offender.

Controlling Street Gangs

Members of violent street gangs are frequently involved in drug trafficking activities and often use firearms in the commission of their crimes. Under the Administration's Anti-Violent Crime Initiative, U.S. Attorneys have focused their efforts on dismantling violent criminal gangs, using Federal racketeering laws, Federal and State narcotics laws, and outstanding warrants to take violent gang members off the streets. The U.S. Attorneys have successfully prosecuted gang members, and have seen harsh sentences handed down. Some of the significant cases undertaken by the Department in 1995 are described below:

To combat the problem of drug gangs, drug trafficking organizations, and the accompanying violence that they foster, the DEA initiated its Mobile Enforcement Team (MET) Program. METs work with State and local law enforcement authorities to dismantle drug organizations to secure the conviction and incarceration of those individuals dealing drugs and causing violence in our communities. Since April 1995, DEA has deployed 24 METs to neighborhoods throughout the country. Recent examples of successful enforcement actions using this approach include the following:

In other Federal investigative work, the INS, working through the Violent Gang Task Forces (VGTF), removed from the country over 2,000 illegal alien gang members in 1995. Of those arrested, 415 were identified as aggravated felons and 270 were prosecuted for violent crimes, of which 96 percent were convicted. One VGTF investigation targeting one of the oldest, largest, and most violent street gangs in the Chicago area has yielded over 1,200 arrests in less than three years, including 73 arrests in 1995.

The Department implemented several initiatives to combat violent street gangs. One was the Comprehensive Gang Initiative, a model that includes prevention, intervention, and suppression of illegal gang activity. In another effort, OJP and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), sponsored a major National Gang Enforcement and Prevention Training Conference in Denver. Over 75 gang experts from around the Nation were brought together with hundreds of law enforcement, education, public, and other officials to address community-based approaches to reducing and eliminating violence, drug abuse, and community disorder associated with gang activity.

Fighting Drugs

Trafficking in illegal drugs is a target of intensive United States law enforcement action. In 1995, the Department continued to attack the Nation's drug crisis by disrupting and dismantling domestic and foreign cartels, along with pursuing serious demand reduction efforts. The Department continued to integrate its drug enforcement program with extensive investigations to prevent the insidious violent crime so closely interwoven with drug trafficking in our communities and neighborhoods.

Without question the most significant accomplishment achieved during 1995 by DEA was the systematic dismantling of the Cali cartel in Colombia. Throughout the year, the Colombian government, with the support of the United States, disrupted Cali cartel operations by arresting and incarcerating all but one of its leaders. Cali cartel leaders Miguel Rodriguez-Orjuela, Gilberto Rodriguez-Orjuela, and Jose "Chepe" Santacruz-Londono were arrested in Colombia and are being prosecuted in part with evidence supplied by the United States. The arrests of Gilberto and Miguel Rodriguez-Orejuela are among the most significant accomplishments of the entire drug enforcement effort to date. Their arrests represent the single most important achievement in the drug war since the death of Pablo Escobar, head of the Medellin drug trafficking organization, during a shoot-out with Colombian law enforcement officers, in December of 1993.

In June 1995, in Operation Cornerstone, the Department's OCDETF Program obtained a nine-count indictment of 59 individuals (including criminal defense attorneys) on racketeering, drug trafficking and money laundering charges. The investigation targeted the narcotic trafficking of more than 200,000 kilograms of cocaine into the United States and related illegal activities of the Rodriguez-Orejuela faction of the Cali cartel, that was responsible for the majority of the cocaine exported to the United States from Cali.

DEA agents and Thai police scored a major success in 1995 against the Shan United Army (SUA) and its notorious leader, fugitive drug kingpin Chang Chi Fu (a.k.a. Khun Sa). In December of 1994 and continuing into 1995, in an unprecedented operation called "Tiger Trap," DEA Agents and Thai military and police elements arrested 11 key associates of Khun Sa from the Thai/Burma border area and jailed them in Bangkok. All 11 remain incarcerated while extradition proceedings are pending. Those arrested represented the leadership infrastructure of the SUA and the SUA was dealt a crippling blow.

An aggressive and coordinated prosecution strategy is essential to fighting illegal drugs. The U.S. Attorneys again directed substantial resources to the prosecution of narcotics trafficking and OCDETF cases. Over 10,000 cases were filed against more than 21,000 drug defendants during the year, representing 28 percent of all criminal cases filed. Of all terminated drug defendant cases during the year, 84 percent (almost 14,600) either pled or were found guilty with 88 percent of these defendants being sentenced to prison, including 126 life sentences.

During 1995, DEA used regulations to stop 20 imports totalling 30.6 metric tons of ephedrine/pseudoephedrine, destined for rogue tablet manufacturers, mail order distributors and clandestine methamphetamine laboratories. As a result, the street price for a bottle of 1,000 pseudoephedrine tablets selling for less than $20 in October 1994 brought $385 by August 1995.

The Drug Courts Program, funded through OJP, provides funds to State, local, and tribal drug courts that provide specialized services, treatment, and continuing judicial supervision for nonviolent offenders who have the potential for rehabilitation. In 1995, almost $9 million was awarded under the Drug Courts Program: 52 communities received grants to plan new drug court programs; five sites received funds to implement new drug courts; and eight courts received awards to enhance their existing programs.

Organized Crime

The Department continued its work to eliminate the many criminal enterprises of the La Cosa Nostra (LCN) families and their associates, as well as prosecute the illegal activities of other non-traditional organized crime groups. In 1995, the U.S. Attorneys filed almost 300 organized crime cases against over 800 defendants. This represents a 54 percent increase in the number of cases filed and a 40 percent increase in the number of defendants from last year. Ninety percent of the defendants whose cases were terminated during the year either pled or were found guilty.

In 1995, the Department concluded investigations resulting in 96 members and associates of the New York LCN families being charged, in 40 convictions of LCN members and associates, and in $2 million in court-ordered restitution. Some other significant organized crime cases are described below:

The Tax Division, the FBI, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), and various State law enforcement agencies continued their joint investigations and prosecutions of the approximately billion dollar annual evasion of Federal motor fuel excise taxes by organized crime groups. This year, the Department obtained an indictment in the largest motor fuel excise tax evasion case brought to date, charging that the defendants attempted to evade and evaded more than $133 million in Federal motor fuel excise taxes over a three-year period.

Political Corruption

During 1995, the Department continued to attack those who abuse their office and the public's trust. FBI investigations in public corruption resulted in 403 informations and/or indictments; 388 convictions or pre-trial diversions; more than $30.3 million in fines, recoveries, and restitutions; and seizures of more than $13.6 million in assets. These efforts also produced the conviction of 12 police officers from the Metropolitan Police Department in Washington, D.C; the arrest of six police officers in Atlanta on corruption charges; and an investigation of the New Orleans Police Department, resulting in the indictment of eight police officers who are scheduled for trial.

The U.S. Attorneys were also successful in their attack on public corruption. Over 520 criminal cases charging almost 700 individuals with political corruption were filed in 1995. This represents a 20 percent increase in the number of cases filed and an 18 percent increase in the number of individuals charged compared to last year. Some of the significant convictions include:

White Collar Crime

The Department continued to vigorously pursue individuals who commit White Collar Crime (WCC). The U.S. Attorneys handled a myriad of WCC prosecutions in 1995, including crimes against business institutions, procurement and contract fraud, Federal program fraud, securities and commodities fraud, and tax fraud. In all, almost 7,000 cases were filed against over 9,700 defendants. Eighty-seven percent of the defendants whose cases were terminated during the year either pled or were found guilty.

To help combat WCC and fraud against the government, the U.S. Attorneys, in 1995, significantly increased the use of Affirmative Civil Enforcement (ACE) as a weapon. Substantial recoveries were obtained throughout the United States in the areas of health care fraud, defense and other procurement fraud, financial institution fraud and program fraud. This initiative, that began with three U.S. Attorneys' offices serving as ACE pilot districts, was expanded to 37 districts in the past year.

In 1995, the Civil Division, working with the U.S. Attorneys, won judgments and settlements of $475 million in civil fraud cases. The Division targeted procurement and health care fraud. Much of this success is due to the 1986 whistleblower provisions of the False Claims Act that allows private citizens to file suits on behalf of the government and share in the recoveries. In a representative case, an $88 million settlement was achieved in United States ex rel. Copeland v. Lucas Western, Inc., et al. In September, the Civil Division reached a major milestone when total cumulative recoveries in cases filed under the whistleblower provisions topped $1 billion.

Bankruptcy Fraud

The bankruptcy system is particularly susceptible to fraud and abuse due to the volume of bankruptcy cases (over 700,000 pending cases) and the economic limitations that prevent close scrutiny of most cases. In the last few years, the U.S. Trustee Program has referred over 2,400 cases of bankruptcy fraud to the U.S. Attorneys for investigation and prosecution and has been instrumental in obtaining convictions in approximately 450 cases.

In 1995, the Department announced a bankruptcy fraud program, coordinated by the Attorney General's Advisory Committee of U.S. Attorneys and the Executive Office for U.S. Trustees. This program will focus on coordinating law enforcement efforts in bankruptcy fraud and developing training for bankruptcy fraud detection, investigation and prosecution for Assistant U.S. Attorneys (AUSA), Assistant U.S. Trustees, and FBI agents. In addition, the U.S. Trustee Program has launched a nationwide drive to stem the growth in bankruptcy "petition mills" that prey on minorities and the poor in our inner cities. The Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1994 imposes stringent new requirements and penalties for fraud on all non lawyers who prepare bankruptcy petitions for compensation.

Consumer Fraud

The Department takes a hard line against those who commit consumer fraud and threaten the public health and well-being. Thanks to the Department's actions, thousands of consumers were protected from defective drugs and medical devices. Some examples include:

Computer Crimes

Recognizing the growth and potential costs of high-tech crime, the Department has continued to devote more resources to combatting computer crimes. Computer crime investigations focus primarily on impairment of a computer system, theft of information from a computer system, and intrusion into a computer system.

In 1995, the Department initiated the "CTC" program, where every U.S. Attorney's Office designated at least one AUSA as a Computer/Telecommunications Coordinator. Additionally, working in conjunction with the National White Collar Crime Center, the Department has undertaken a new training initiative designed to provide computer crime training to investigators and prosecutors at the Federal, State and local level. The Department is also working closely with international organizations, including the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in Paris and the Council of Europe, to ensure that the global computer crime problem is addressed in a comprehensive, coordinated way.

The FBI, through its Computer Analysis and Response Team (CART), provides technical support and forensic examination of computer crime evidence. During 1995, CART conducted more than 750 examinations and provided on-site field support in more than 50 cases. The FBI has a National Computer Crimes Squad in Washington, D.C., New York and San Francisco. In addition, the San Francisco FBI Office also has a "High Technology Crime Squad" to respond to high technology crime matters--theft of computer chips, economic espionage, and the illegal copying of computer software in the Silicon Valley.

The Tax Division continued its aggressive investigation and prosecution of computer-related fraud against the IRS's electronic filing system. Since 1991, the Division and U.S. Attorneys have conducted approximately 250 investigations and prosecuted over 800 individuals. Due to the large-scale potential of this fraud and the importance of maintaining the public's confidence in the tax system, the Department has devoted significant resources to this evolving computer-related crime.

Health Care Fraud

Health care fraud remains a top priority of the Attorney General. Health care fraud -- whether false billings, kickbacks, self-dealing, medically unnecessary procedures and tests, or use of unapproved devices -- can inflate the cost of America's health care while undermining its quality.

The number of FBI health care fraud investigations continues to increase: from 365 cases in 1991 to approximately 1,800 cases at the end of 1995. To handle this increased workload, each U.S. Attorney designated a criminal and civil attorney to coordinate health care fraud cases. Across the country, local health care fraud task forces or working groups, with membership from a number of Federal and State law enforcement agencies, share investigative and prosecutorial techniques, and monitor emerging frauds.

As a result of these efforts, prosecutions and monetary recoveries have increased dramatically. U.S. Attorneys, the Criminal Division and the Civil Division are pursuing a wide range of fraudulent practices by a diverse range of providers and insurers: from corporate chains, to large health care institutions such as nursing homes or hospitals, to individual physicians. During 1995, the U.S. Attorneys more than doubled the number of health care fraud cases filed, and obtained convictions against 89 percent of those defendants whose cases were terminated during the year. Financial recoveries also continued to be high. In 1995, the amount recovered in qui tam cases was $85 million, or 45 percent of the overall health care fraud dollars recovered. In 1994, that figure was only four percent. Many settlements have included significant compliance agreements where corporations agree to follow specified corporate practices designed to protect against future misconduct.

The enforcement efforts of the Department's prosecutors and investigators are diverse and numerous but a few examples illustrate the Department's interagency and multi-sanction approach to health care fraud enforcement:

United States v. Caremark. In June 1995, an extensive multi-agency investigation led by the Inspector General of HHS and the FBI resulted in criminal convictions, civil settlement and one of the largest recoveries ever obtained in a health care fraud case. Caremark Inc., a major health care corporation, pleaded guilty to fraud in its home infusion, oncology, hemophilia and human growth hormone businesses and specifically to paying kickbacks to physicians and others to prescribe the synthetic human growth hormone Protropin and to refer patients to Caremark. Caremark agreed to pay $161 million to the Federal and affected State governments in criminal fines, civil restitution and damages. As part of the settlement, Caremark sold its home infusion business and canceled contracts with doctors and other referral sources. It also agreed that its remaining businesses would comply with a "corporate integrity plan" that spells out measures to assure future compliance with health care laws and regulations.

United States v. Blue Cross/Blue Shield: In 1995, the Department expanded its health care fraud enforcement efforts beyond health care providers to reach health insurance companies that contract with the Federal government to administer Federal health care plans. Specifically, efforts to control rising health care costs were advanced with the favorable settlement of allegations against Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Michigan, that Blue Cross defrauded the Federal government by performing inadequate audits of hospitals' Medicare cost reports and then backdating the paperwork to conceal the errors. The $27.6 million settlement and the subsequent Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) cancellation of the Blue Cross Medicare Part A and Part B contracts sent a strong message to insurers that fraud will not be tolerated.

The Department announced a pilot with HHS on a health care voluntary disclosure program targeting these frauds to encourage business entities to disclose fraudulent acts committed by officers and employees and to develop internal compliance programs.

Finally, the Department, through the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), funded a Health Care Fraud Investigation and Prosecution Demonstration Program to develop strategies for State attorneys general to conduct health care fraud investigations and prosecutions, including health care consumer fraud, and fraud against traditional insurance companies and HMOs.

Financial Institution Fraud

The Department continues to aggressively investigate and prosecute individuals responsible for victimizing Federally insured financial institutions. The efforts of the U.S. Attorneys' Offices, the Criminal Division and the FBI produced impressive results during 1995 in major financial institution fraud (FIF) cases, (those involving officers or directors, losses of over $100,000, or certain other factors). In 1995, there were almost 900 defendants charged, over 700 defendants convicted, and over 500 defendants sentenced to prison (75 percent of all defendants sentenced).

Notable FIF prosecutions during 1995 included the following:

The Department, through the U.S. Attorneys' Offices and the Criminal, Civil and Tax Divisions, not only successfully investigated and prosecuted financial institution defrauders, but also obtained restitution for victims, criminal fines, civil money penalties and forfeiture of property traceable to fraud. For example, the Department's extensive Federal forfeiture efforts in the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) case are anticipated to result in total forfeitures of approximately $1 billion. To date, the Department has recovered $446 million plus accrued interest. Half of the sum distributed thus far will be used to compensate BCCI creditors, including depositors who in some cases lost their life savings when BCCI collapsed; a portion of the balance will be used to compensate the Federal Deposit Insurance Fund and the remainder will be used as directed by the Attorney General.

National Security

Ensuring the security of our Nation will always be a top priority to the Department. The Department continued to seek out and punish those who threaten the safety of the United States through aggressively investigating and prosecuting those who commit terrorist acts and by working with the nations of the world to coordinate international security efforts.


In the Eastern District of New York, a defendant, reputed to be a highly placed hit man for the late Pablo Escobar and Medellin cartel, was sentenced to life in prison on numerous charges including the bombing of Avianca Flight #203, and the extraterritorial murders of two United States citizens aboard the plane. The defendant was also responsible for various rocket attacks against facilities in Bogota, including the American Embassy, and was involved in two failed attempts against the life of then President George Bush.

On February 7, 1995, "Top Ten" fugitive Ramzi Ahmed Yousef was arrested for his involvement in the bombing of the World Trade Center, as well as his role in conspiring to bomb United States commercial airlines. Two other individuals were later arrested as accomplices of Ramzi Yousef and for their involvement in the bombing of the World Trade Center. On February 28, 1995, Douglas Allen Baker and Leroy Charles Wheeler were found guilty of violating the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act (BWAT) of 1989. Baker and Wheeler had manufactured ricin, a highly toxic substance, and had discussed using it against law enforcement personnel. This was the first successful prosecution under the BWAT Act. On October 26, 1995, two additional suspects were also convicted in connection with this matter.

The FBI is also in the process of establishing a Domestic Counterterrorism Center. The center will allow the FBI and other representatives of the United States Intelligence Community to counter more effectively threats of terrorism within the United States. The center will also establish a real-time analytical capability that will synthesize all source intelligence for both foreign and domestic terrorist groups, as well as establish closer liaison among the FBI and other law enforcement agencies.

International Cooperation

INTERPOL-U.S. National Central Bureau (USNCB) continued to work with law enforcement agencies throughout the world. This interaction continues to increase due in part, to the greater awareness on the part of United States and foreign law enforcement of the threat that terrorists pose and the importance and necessity of the timely exchange of information. This is a direct result of several incidents such as the Tokyo subway gas attack, the continuation of the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing investigation, the Oklahoma City Federal Building bombing, and the Amtrack train sabotage/wreck in Arizona.

Key Crime-Fighting Resources

Asset Forfeiture

In the national fight against drugs, perhaps the most effective Departmental program is the seizure and forfeiture of assets, most notably those derived from drug trafficking. Stripping criminal organizations of ill-gotten proceeds greatly diminishes their ability to continue criminal activity. In 1995, the Department's Asset Forfeiture Fund received deposits of $487.7 million. Of this amount, $217.3 million was shared with State and local law enforcement agencies and $5.8 million with international agencies. In addition, the USMS had in custody over 19,000 seized assets valued at $1.4 billion at the end of 1995.

Since January 1995, the Department has transferred, under the Weed and Seed program, nine forfeited properties to non-profit community organizations for low income housing projects, teen crisis centers, grief assistance programs, and drug treatment facilities. In addition, property in Hidalgo County, Texas, was transferred to the INS to provide a site for INS to build a new Border Patrol station.

Using Technology and Information Sharing

The Department continues to apply the latest state-of-the-art technology in its efforts to combat violent crime. To assist State and local law enforcement agencies in the fight against violent crime, the FBI continued to expand the use of DRUGFIRE, a computer system that links firearms-related evidence from serial shooting investigations. DRUGFIRE is currently operational in 42 firearms laboratories, representing nine networks in 11 States and the District of Columbia. As of October 1995, DRUGFIRE had linked over 800 pairs of shooting investigations nationwide since its inception in 1992.

Additionally, The FBI's DNA program provides a broad range of forensic services to State and local police agencies fighting violent crime. During 1995, the FBI Laboratory performed more than 2,500 DNA examinations, over 90 percent of which were for rape and murder. The FBI Laboratory also operates and maintains CODIS, the national DNA data base system that enables State and local law enforcement agencies to search DNA samples against those already in the data base at the State and local levels. Since its beginning as a pilot project in 1990, CODIS has been responsible for 20 case-to-offender hits and 28 case-to-case hits. As of October 1995, CODIS is operational in 42 crime laboratories in 22 States and the FBI Laboratory.

Six Regional Information Sharing System (RISS) projects, funded by OJP, share intelligence and coordinate efforts of State and local law enforcement against criminal networks that operate across jurisdictional lines. In 1995, RISS projects served 4,566 member law enforcement agencies. RISS investigations resulted in 9,042 arrests; seizures of narcotics worth almost $53 million; and seized assets valued at approximately $30 million. In 1995, RISS projects focused on enhancing gang and firearms intelligence, providing linkages within RISS and outreach linkages to other systems, and assisting the U.S. Attorneys' anti-violence initiative.

Witness Protection

The Department's Federal Witness Security Program (WITSEC) continued to be one of the government's most potent weapons against organized crime, terrorists, violent street gangs, and narcotics traffickers. In 1995, 141 new participants were added to the program, increasing the number to 6,580 primary witnesses and 14,845 total participants, since the program began. The USMS also produced 257 protected witnesses to testify at trials against organized crime members. Their testimony resulted in a substantial number of convictions and significantly diminished these criminal groups.

In addition, 24 new witnesses were authorized to participate in the District of Columbia Short Term Protection Program, a pilot effort that provides limited protection for witnesses in D.C. Superior Court cases. More than 200 witnesses and family members have entered this program since its inception.

International Assistance

Throughout the Federal government, there is an increasing recognition of the globalization of criminal activity, of the growing impact of international criminal activity upon the United States and its citizens, and of the national security implications of these developments. The Department is involved in a number of interagency and international efforts to deal with criminal activity that transcends national borders. For example, the Department continually participates in interagency efforts to deal with terrorism and drug trafficking, and provides assistance to Federal and State law enforcement authorities by facilitating international extradition of fugitives and by establishing avenues by which U.S prosecutors can obtain the evidence they need from other countries to prosecute cases. In 1995, a treaty was signed with Jordan, enabling it to extradite to the United States a defendant in the World Trade Center bombing case.

The Department has become a vital force in helping to improve the legal systems of many countries, by implementing numerous training programs around the world. These programs focus on various parts of the criminal justice system -- prosecutions, judges, and police. For example, at the request of the Russian Procuracy, the Department placed two resident legal advisors in Moscow to provide training for prosecutors and judges in Russia and the United States. Training on various law enforcement and legal topics was also provided to international students by several components in the Department. For example, the Criminal Division's International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) provided training and assistance to several countries, including:

During 1995 the United States and the government of Hungary created the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA), in Budapest, Hungary, modeled after the FBI's National Academy. The focus for this program is on leadership, personnel and financial management issues, human rights, ethics, the rule of law, management of the investigative process, and other contemporary law enforcement issues. During 1995, two classes with a total of 66 international mid-level police officers from the Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Poland, and Romania graduated from the ILEA.

Incarcerating Violent Criminals

In 1995, the Federal inmate population grew by more than six percent from its 1994 level. At the end of 1995, BOP's inmate population was 100,958 (90,159 in its own facilities and 10,799 in contract confinement). Since BOP's rated capacity is 72,039, in 1995, it was at 126 percent of capacity. In addition, the USMS was responsible for the confinement of approximately 22,000 violent criminals daily. Prisoners in USMS custody are detained in more than 1,000 State, local, and Federal detention facilities throughout the country.

In 1995, BOP continued its ongoing construction and expansion program. It added significant prison capacity with new activations for a Federal Medical Center and camp for female offenders at Carswell Air Force Base, Texas; three Federal Correctional Institutions with camps at Cumberland, Maryland, Greenville, Illinois, and Pekin, Illinois; an Administrative Maximum Security prison at Florence, Colorado; and, a Federal Transportation Center at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Additionally, the USMS acquired 600 additional guaranteed detention beds from State and local governments through its Cooperative Agreement Program. This effective Department program funds State and local law enforcement agencies as they construct and renovate detention facilities in return for guaranteed bed space for USMS' Federal prisoners.

In addition to activating new facilities, the Department, through the Violent Offender Incarceration Grants, received a $24.5 million appropriation to plan, renovate, and construct boot camps for nonviolent offenders. In August 1995, $21 million was awarded to more than 40 communities for boot camp programs for adult as well as juvenile offenders.

The Department continues to explore alternatives to traditional confinement. The BOP's community corrections and home confinement programs experienced substantial growth in 1995, when this population grew to approximately 6,000 inmates, 1,200 of whom were on home confinement status. The increased use of these alternative confinement options helps alleviate the crowding pressures being placed on low and medium security facilities.

In 1995, the BOP expanded the use of Comprehensive Sanctions Centers. These Centers are designed to assist inmates returning to the community after extended periods of incarceration and meet the needs of offenders on supervision who have reverted to the use of drugs. About 30 percent of all offenders in the BOP have histories of substance abuse. In order to handle this situation, the BOP has redesigned its drug treatment programs. In addition to several types of in-prison treatment options, the BOP's current program includes a comprehensive, community-based drug treatment program; approximately 25 percent of all inmates in community corrections are enrolled in such programs. Inmates are generally placed with the same treatment provider used by the local Federal probation office to ensure continuity of care, potentially saving the U.S. Probation Service thousands of treatment hours during the supervision portion of the offender's sentence. An expanded drug abuse treatment module that focuses on the needs of the female offender also is under development.

Inmate employment is vital to reducing idleness that breeds unrest and violence, and prison industries provide the most important employment opportunity in Federal prisons. At the end of 1995, Federal Prison Industries employed approximately 16,780 inmates, or about 18 percent of the Federal inmate population housed in BOP facilities.

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