21                  Thursday, May 1, 1997 
22       University of Chicago Law School Auditorium 
23                    Chicago, Illinois 
 1         MR. BAIRD:  In 1789 the first Congress 
 2    mandated that there be appointed, quote, a meet 
 3    person learned in the law to act as an attorney 
 4    general for the United States. 
 5              Since that time, the holders of this 
 6    office have preserved the rule of law and 
 7    established a long and worthy tradition of 
 8    integrity and independence in the Department of 
 9    Justice. 
10              At the University of Chicago, we can 
11    take special pride in the role that our graduates 
12    have played, especially Edward Levy and his 
13    solicitor general, Robert Bork. 
14              Janet Reno continues this tradition. 
15    It is therefore a special honor to have her with 
16    us on Law Day.  It is my great privilege to 
17    introduce her to you, a meet person learned in 
18    law and our Attorney General. 
19              MS. RENO:  Thank you, Dean, very much, 
20    and good afternoon to you all. 
21              I am very, very honored to be here at 
22    one of the great law schools of the country.  I 
23    have had the opportunity to sit across the room 
24    in my conference room, and once his conference 
25    room, with Edward Levy who represents to me what 
 1    an attorney general should indeed be all about. 
 2    And it is a real wonderful opportunity for me to 
 3    be here today with you. 
 4              I love the law and I love lawyers.  But 
 5    I don't like greedy, indifferent lawyers who are 
 6    selfish and don't care about others.  This law 
 7    school has produced so many wonderful people who 
 8    have made such giving contributions to the 
 9    profession, to the nation, to their community, 
10    and to society generally; and I know that you 
11    will carry on. 
12              Do not become known for the dollars you 
13    make or the house you live in or for the name of 
14    the law firm that you join, but become known for 
15    how you use the law; how you use the law to help 
16    others; how you use the law to solve your 
17    clients' problems rather than making them; how 
18    you use the law to achieve equal justice for all; 
19    and how you use the law to contribute to your 
20    community and to your nation.  You are the 
21    lawyers that will shape the next century of one 
22    of the most complex, challenging, and clearly 
23    most successful legal systems in human history. 
24              I would like to discuss with you today 
25    two challenges that we face and that you will 
 1    face as you shape the 21st century; challenges 
 2    that will test our nation, our economy, our civil 
 3    life, and particularly our legal system. 
 4              The first challenge I would like to 
 5    discuss with you is the challenge of the 
 6    information age; how we use technology to open 
 7    new worlds of learning, of commerce, of 
 8    communication; new opportunities that stagger the 
 9    imagination and convert vanity to prayer; how we 
10    control that technology and ensure that it does 
11    not control us or threaten us; how we reach 
12    across borders and around the world to know 
13    people we have never known before without 
14    sacrificing our right -- our precious right to 
15    privacy and to be left alone. 
16              Let me begin with a description of the 
17    challenge.  Let's look a few years into the 
18    future, for as we speak, science fiction is fast 
19    becoming science fact. 
20              Not too many years from now an attorney 
21    will wake up one morning in Chicago.  Let's call 
22    her Janet.  She won't go to her door to pick up 
23    the newspaper.  She'll sit down at her computer, 
24    and she will be able to flip through the Chicago 
25    papers as well as newspapers and outlets from 
 1    London and Tokyo and beyond. 
 2              If she drives to work through a 
 3    toll booth, she won't have to stop because her car 
 4    will send an electronic signal that will 
 5    automatically deduct the toll from her bank 
 6    account.  From her car she might be able to 
 7    listen to an Australian radio program beamed to 
 8    her by satellite and call the station back to try 
 9    to become the ninth caller and win the prize. 
10              At work, assuming she still has to go 
11    to the office, Janet could log on to the computer 
12    and do some research.  She could type her brief 
13    by dictating into a microphone.  Then she could 
14    encode the document and send it to New York. 
15              At lunch she could log on to the 
16    Internet, check her finances, and sell a few 
17    shares of stock or transfer some funds from her 
18    bank account to pay her electric bill.  Then 
19    Janet could fill her doctor's prescription by 
20    calling in to the pharmacy's computer and 
21    ordering a month's dosage of medicine. 
22              At home she might surf the Internet 
23    later to buy an anniversary gift with electronic 
24    cash.  Then from her living room she and her 
25    husband could choose from a list of over 10,000 
 1    movies by pressing a few more buttons, and maybe 
 2    their children would be playing games on the 
 3    Internet. 
 4              Much of that future is already here. 
 5    The rest of it is not far behind.  In fact, it 
 6    all sounds a little ordinary.  But this 
 7    technology that she has used in this little slice 
 8    of life poses a number of novel legal issues that 
 9    lawyers are already grappling with and that you 
10    will be called upon to help resolve. 
11              The fact is, anything that presents new 
12    opportunities for Americans also presents 
13    opportunities for the criminals and challenges to 
14    the lawyers who must join with others to help to 
15    stop them. 
16              Just as money can be used to tithe or 
17    to bribe, just as cars can deliver bread or 
18    bombs, so too can computers be used to make our 
19    lives better or to threaten our basic security, 
20    our privacy, and leave law enforcement a step 
21    behind. 
22              The fact is, criminals are also 
23    preparing for the 21st century, and the 
24    computerization of America has become a 
25    double-edged sword.  Computer crime cost our 
 1    society an estimated $10 million a year.  A 
 2    recent survey showed that 42 percent of security 
 3    specialists in Fortune 500 companies reported 
 4    unauthorized use of their computer systems just 
 5    last year. 
 6              Let's return to Janet in the 21st 
 7    century.  She started her day with those on-line 
 8    newspapers.  What if, unknown to her and every 
 9    other reader, somebody had hacked into the 
10    newspapers' web site and changed some of the 
11    stories so that now John Jones was arrested for 
12    rape, not John Smith?  Maybe they even inserted a 
13    photo of Jones instead.  Can Jones sue?  Who 
14    would he sue?  And will the police or the FBI 
15    ever be able to track down the hacker. 
16              On her way to work, Janet tried calling 
17    that radio station to win a prize, but unknown to 
18    her, someone rigged the computerized phone system 
19    so that they could be the ninth caller.  Sound 
20    farfetched?  That's exactly what happened a few 
21    years ago in Los Angeles when a couple of hackers 
22    won two Porsches and $30,000 in cash before they 
23    were caught.  They went to jail.  Don't try this 
24    at home. 
25              Remember that brief Janet sent to her 
 1    partners in New York?  Turns out an unscrupulous 
 2    competitor intercepted it to get a leg up in 
 3    court.  But there is good news in this case.  The 
 4    message was encrypted, and the hacker couldn't 
 5    break the code. 
 6              At lunch, when Janet seeks to transfer 
 7    funds from her bank account, she realizes her 
 8    account is empty.  Someone has robbed her bank 
 9    account with a modem instead of a ransom note and 
10    a sack. 
11              Just last year a gang of computer 
12    hackers sat in a kitchen in Russia and broke into 
13    Citibank's financial system.  They tried to steal 
14    more than $10 million by transferring the funds 
15    to accounts in at least seven different 
16    countries.  Working together with law enforcement 
17    around the globe, we arrested the gang of 
18    hackers.  Unfortunately, to this day, $400,000 
19    remains unrecovered; stolen from a Russian 
20    kitchen table. 
21              But Janet's day is not over.  When she 
22    goes to fill her prescription, she finds out that 
23    someone has broken into the pharmacy's computer 
24    and stolen its files.  They are threatening to 
25    make the files public, damage the reputation of 
 1    the customers, and bankrupt the pharmacy if it 
 2    does not pay ransom.  Once again, science fiction 
 3    is already science fact. 
 4              Hackers from Germany recently captured 
 5    the credit card files a Miami company kept on its 
 6    customers.  The hackers then threatened to 
 7    distribute all the credit card numbers unless 
 8    they were paid ransom.  When one of the hackers 
 9    tried to pick up the money, German authorities 
10    arrested him.  If the hackers had chosen to use 
11    the numbers instead of trying extortion, law 
12    enforcement may not have been able to stop them. 
13              Now 21st-century Janet is driving home 
14    from work.  She's tired, and there's more bad 
15    news on the radio.  It seems that a group of 
16    cyber terrorists have hacked into the air traffic 
17    controller system and disrupted the entire 
18    system, and flights are delayed around the 
19    world.  Law enforcement knew that they were up to 
20    something because they had been sending frequent 
21    messages to their headquarters overseas.  The 
22    police had even obtained a court order to access 
23    the E-mails.  But because the conversations were 
24    all coded with encryption products that did not 
25    allow for data recovery and the police could not 
 1    break the code, all they saw was a garbled 
 2    message.  So they could not stop the crime in 
 3    advance. 
 4              Janet gets home and finds the perfect 
 5    anniversary gift for sale on the Internet.  She 
 6    buys it, but it never arrives and her money is 
 7    gone.  Telemarketing fraud used to be labor 
 8    intensive requiring thousands of calls to people 
 9    over several weeks.  Now scam artists can reach 
10    millions on the Internet in seconds.  Can law 
11    enforcement, using wire fraud laws, keep up? 
12              At that point Janet's 10-year-old tells 
13    her about something he saw on the Internet that 
14    afternoon.  Looks like a pedophile at work, a 
15    nice stranger inviting her son to meet him in the 
16    park. 
17              These are not just the problems of 
18    tomorrow; many of them are the problems of 
19    today.  They sound daunting, even frightening. 
20    Can the law keep up? 
21              In many cases we are already at work. 
22    For example, President Clinton established a 
23    commission to determine how best to protect the 
24    nation's critical infrastructure from computer 
25    assault so that attacks on systems like our air 
 1    traffic control network will remain science 
 2    fiction.  But this presents extraordinary 
 3    challenges to lawyers. 
 4              Lawyers have to understand the 
 5    technology.  But more importantly, lawyers have 
 6    to remember everything they've learned about the 
 7    Constitution; and we have got to make sure that 
 8    as we attempt to control the technology, we 
 9    control it according to the traditions of our 
10    Constitution, and that we make sure that that 
11    document, which has been such a living document, 
12    continues to live without abatement and that 
13    lawyers are capable of dealing with the 
14    technology. 
15              The Justice Department has set up a 
16    special section that deals with computer crimes, 
17    and every U.S. Attorney's office has designated 
18    lawyers to deal with high tech crime and provided 
19    them with special training.  The FBI has 
20    established three high tech squads.  But this is 
21    not a problem for law enforcement alone.  These 
22    are challenges for every attorney and for every 
23    American. 
24              The first challenge is to educate 
25    Americans.  For example, now that crimes can be 
 1    committed by bright children from a computer in 
 2    their bedroom, it is more important than ever to 
 3    reach out to them and teach them what is right 
 4    and wrong.  Children walking down the street past 
 5    a candy store that is closed know that it is not 
 6    right to find ways to break inside.  That same 
 7    thinking should apply when they are on the 
 8    computer as well. 
 9              But how do we do that?  It's mostly 
10    your age that are computer literate, not my age. 
11    The teachers who are teaching our children today 
12    are not literate on the computer. 
13              I was in Birmingham recently, and I 
14    asked some young people in a weed-and-seed 
15    neighborhood, If you were the Attorney General, 
16    what would you do to deal with the problem of 
17    youth violence?  And they looked at me and they 
18    said, We've got the violence under control here. 
19    Let me just talk to you about -- we need 
20    computers, and then we need somebody to come down 
21    to teach our teachers how to teach us how to use 
22    the computers. 
23              We have got to focus on how we teach 
24    the values that we have held dear in all this 
25    nation's history to our children in the context 
 1    of technology, but we must also educate adults in 
 2    other ways; for example, like every crime, 
 3    Internet fraud can be reduced by educating 
 4    consumers.  Those who shop over the computer must 
 5    use the same common sense in the cyber market 
 6    that they do in the supermarket.  If they 
 7    understand that a web site can be created at 
 8    relatively little cost, then they'll realize it 
 9    could look completely reputable even if it's 
10    not.  That is why everyone must invest the time 
11    to investigate the people with whom they 
12    interact.  Caveat emptor means as much in the 
13    computer age as it did in ancient Rome. 
14              Our second challenge is to get 
15    businesses to understand that their effort to 
16    stop computer crime can only be as successful as 
17    their partnership with law enforcement.  Too 
18    often businesses simply don't tell law 
19    enforcement because -- that they've been 
20    victimized by hackers fearing that their 
21    customers will lose confidence if they admit that 
22    their systems are vulnerable.  But if your 
23    neighbors don't tell the police that their houses 
24    have been broken into recently, you're never 
25    going to know to install that extra lock to 
 1    protect your house. 
 2              Our third challenge is to enact 
 3    21st-century laws to keep up with 21st-century 
 4    crime.  In many cases we can use traditional 
 5    tools to prosecute fraud or harassment over the 
 6    Internet.  And we worked with Congress last year 
 7    to strengthen computer crime laws, but the 
 8    Internet poses novel change to the law every 
 9    day. 
10              If the electronic transaction gone bad 
11    involved an overseas vendor, there's suddenly an 
12    international law enforcement problem.  Will that 
13    country's laws protect Janet here in the United 
14    States?  The world is becoming a world without 
15    boundaries when we deal with cyber crime. 
16              In the next few weeks, the Supreme 
17    Court will pass judgment on laws designed to keep 
18    indecent materials away from children on 
19    computers.  Regardless of the decision, there is hard 
20    work ahead to protect our children from the 
21    equivalent of a wide open door into an on-line 
22    adult bookstore. 
23              Our fourth challenge is to encourage 
24    cooperation between local, state, federal, and 
25    even international law enforcement; how will we 
 1    make sure that local law enforcement keeps up. 
 2              The other day I saw a picture in the 
 3    "Washington Post" of a vacant lot littered with 
 4    busted parking meters.  As somebody pointed out, 
 5    in five years you'll probably never see that, or 
 6    ten years, because you'll have a card by which 
 7    you pay your parking meter, and it will all be 
 8    done on computer.  And police will be having to 
 9    investigate and understand a computer theft from 
10    the parking meter authority rather than trying to 
11    figure out who it was that busted the parking 
12    meter and threw it into the vacant lot.  Police 
13    do not have that ability and that expertise, nor 
14    do they have the equipment at this time. 
15              We face a challenge in making sure that 
16    they not only have the guns and the fingerprint 
17    technology and the DNA technology, but that they 
18    have the computer forensic capability of 
19    investigating cyber crime in the future. 
20              At the international level we are 
21    working with our foreign counterparts to 
22    harmonize computer crime laws and eliminate the 
23    procedural obstacles which prevent police 
24    officers from rapidly seizing evidence located in 
25    cyberspace. 
 1              Several separate efforts are under way 
 2    to tackle these difficult issues, including 
 3    multilateral efforts with the Organization for 
 4    Economic Cooperation & Development, the P8 and 
 5    the Council of Europe. 
 6              Our fifth challenge is to find a way 
 7    for law enforcement to keep pace with changing 
 8    technology such as encryption. 
 9              Everyone should recognize that if 
10    global information infrastructure is to fulfill 
11    its promise, it is so critical for people to have 
12    access to strong encryption.  Our support for 
13    robust encryption stems from our commitment to 
14    protecting privacy and commerce.  But at the same 
15    time, citizens rely on government to protect the 
16    public safety and national security against the 
17    threats posed by terrorists and organized crime. 
18    That is why we are gravely concerned with the 
19    proliferation of unbreakable encryption which 
20    would seriously undermine our ability to perform 
21    this critical mission.  For if unbreakable encryption
22    proliferates, we could be faced with an 
23    electronic superhighway marred by bands of 
24    terrorists and other criminals.  Traditional 
25    tools like court-ordered wiretaps and searches of 
 1    computer files will be rendered useless. 
 2              Now, some people say you're just trying 
 3    to expand your authority.  Right now, law 
 4    enforcement, if it wants to get a court-ordered 
 5    wiretap, develops probable cause to believe that 
 6    a crime is being committed using wires, and the 
 7    information can be obtained if an intercept is 
 8    effected.  A court order is obtained, and the 
 9    telephone company puts a tap on the wire. 
10              If we put the tap on the wire and it's 
11    encrypted and we can't break that encryption, we 
12    are going to be much further behind, whether it 
13    be in drug trafficking, in the theft of 
14    intellectual property, in so many other areas. 
15    But right now, if I get a search warrant for a 
16    drug dealer's home, I oftentimes bring out 
17    records; a search warrant done pursuant to clear 
18    constitutional standards.  I bring out the 
19    records; the DEA analyst pores through the 
20    records, determines evidence that will result in 
21    a significant prosecution. 
22              If instead of being on paper those 
23    records are on computer disk and those computer 
24    disks are encrypted and we can't break the 
25    encryption, the search warrants obtained by law 
 1    enforcement will mean very little.  And to the 
 2    company that thinks, Well, it's not the drug 
 3    dealer that I'm worried about, it's others; if a 
 4    competitor or a former employee steals the 
 5    information from the company and encrypts it on 
 6    their own disk and we can't break that 
 7    encryption, the person that resisted our efforts 
 8    to develop key escrow will be up a creek without 
 9    a paddle.  None of this will matter if the 
10    intercepted communications are just 
11    unintelligible jumbles of noises or symbols. 
12              Finally, we need the best and the 
13    brightest lawyers in the fight against high tech 
14    crime.  Maybe some of you will consider this 
15    challenge. 
16              One of the more extraordinary 
17    opportunities I've had is to sit over a brown bag 
18    lunch with the lawyers in our computer section to 
19    hear the debate, to listen to the search and 
20    seizure questions.  It is one of the most 
21    fascinating areas of the law around now.  And 
22    what you might say is, Why should I get into 
23    public service?  I saw you yesterday sitting for 
24    six hours before a Senate committee. 
25              And I will tell you that after some 34 
 1    years, most of it in public service, yes, you do 
 2    get cussed at, fussed at, and figuratively beat 
 3    around the head.  But I have found no work in the 
 4    private sector as rewarding as trying to make the 
 5    law work for people, trying to enforce the law 
 6    the right way according to principles of due 
 7    process and fair play.  It doesn't mean you 
 8    should stay in public service all your life. 
 9    It's really good to have a variety and to 
10    understand the law from different perspectives. 
11    But if any of you are technologically literate 
12    and sophisticated and interested in this area of 
13    the law, the computer section of the Department 
14    of Justice is a fascinating place to be right 
15    now. 
16              The second challenge that I would like 
17    to talk to you about seems somewhat distant, but 
18    they are interrelated and both are absolutely 
19    critical to this nation's future.  What can we do 
20    now, and as you assume the leadership of the bar 
21    in the next century, to make sure that our legal 
22    system, our government structures, and our 
23    community processes are created, developed, and 
24    maintained in such a way that give to every child 
25    in America the opportunity to grow in a strong 
 1    and positive way, an opportunity to be educated 
 2    so that they develop the skills that will make 
 3    them a player in this next century of cyber 
 4    challenge.  How do we create communities that are 
 5    safe for our young people in the light of rising 
 6    youth violence; how do we keep our children from 
 7    dropping out of school; how do we give them the 
 8    healthcare that will enable them to grow in a 
 9    strong and positive way. 
10              You might say what is the Attorney 
11    General of the United States talking about 
12    children for.  Because as a prosecutor for 15 
13    years, I picked up presentence investigations and 
14    looked at youngsters that we had prosecuted and 
15    convicted for an armed robbery at 17 and seen 
16    three or four points along the way where we could 
17    have intervened in that child's life. 
18              As an Attorney General worried about 
19    our ability to compete in the next century in 
20    terms of technology, I want all our workforce to 
21    have the opportunity to have the skills that will 
22    make them competitive. 
23              Unless we make an investment in 
24    children, we are going to bring our healthcare 
25    institutions to their knees because of failure to 
 1    provide for preventive medical care.  We will 
 2    never be able to build enough prisons 18 years 
 3    from now unless we make an investment in our 
 4    children now. 
 5              How do we design a legal system that 
 6    makes sure that our children have appropriate 
 7    medical care?  That's yours and my challenge.  It 
 8    can be done.  What, 30 years ago, the senior 
 9    citizens of this country said, We're going to 
10    have proper medical care.  Let us make sure we do 
11    the same for our children.  Let us make sure that 
12    our children have the education needed to do the 
13    job. 
14              As I figured what to do about the 17- 
15    year-old charged with armed robbery, I went back 
16    and developed dropout prevention programs with 
17    the schools, but soon learned that that was too 
18    late; the child had already fallen grade levels 
19    behind, and it was time to look earlier in the 
20    child's life for focus.  And at that point the 
21    crack epidemic hit Miami in 1985, and the doctors 
22    took me to our public hospital to try to figure 
23    out what to do about crack-involved infants and 
24    their mothers.  And they taught me that the first 
25    three years of life were the most formative in 
 1    any human being's life, the time the child learns 
 2    the concept of reward and punishment and develops 
 3    a conscious. 
 4              What good are all the prisons going to 
 5    be 18 years from now if the child does not have a 
 6    conscious and does not appreciate punishment? 
 7    And I became convinced that whether you be a 
 8    prosecutor, an attorney general, a corporate 
 9    president, a school teacher, a doctor serving 
10    middle-class patients and having no concern about 
11    children at risk, all of us are in this together; 
12    and together we have to design a system that will 
13    make sure that our children have proper 
14    health care, that our children have proper 
15    supervision as parents 
16    work, that our children are properly educated, 
17    that they have the opportunity to learn work 
18    skills, and that they have the opportunity to be 
19    safe. 
20              We as lawyers have a challenge of how 
21    we build the structures of government, how we 
22    come together to design a legal system that can 
23    provide protection for our children in the 
24    juvenile courts as they are abused or neglected 
25    or as they are delinquent.  We have not met that 
 1    challenge in the legal profession yet.  We have 
 2    much to do, and it is a challenge that I think 
 3    all of us must undertake no matter what 
 4    profession we pursue.  This has been an 
 5    extraordinary four years and a splendid 
 6    opportunity to use the law to try to serve the 
 7    American people. 
 8              This past Monday I was in Philadelphia 
 9    for the conference on volunteerism.  I wandered 
10    through the various meetings.  I have never seen 
11    such energy, such commitment, such hope, such 
12    optimism.  The whole atmosphere was electric, of 
13    people doing things in their communities as 
14    volunteers.  Whether we be lawyers or just people 
15    providing community service, every one of us can 
16    make a difference to this nation.  But as we do 
17    it, as we reach out to others, let us never 
18    forget those that are closest to us. 
19              I think raising children is the hardest 
20    thing I know to do.  About 12 years ago a friend 
21    died, leaving me as the legal guardian of her 
22    15-year-old twins, a boy and a girl; and the 
23    girl was in love.  I've learned an awful lot 
24    about raising -- I've learned an awful lot about 
25    raising children in the last 12 years, and I've 
 1    learned it takes love, hard work, intelligence, 
 2    and an awful lot of luck; but that it is the most 
 3    rewarding experience that you can have.  When I 
 4    put that 15-year-old, then 17, on the plane to 
 5    send her off to college, and when I went to see 
 6    her graduate cum laude in three years, and on 
 7    both occasions she threw her arms around my neck 
 8    and said, "Thank you.  I couldn't have done it 
 9    without you." 
10              As you pursue your legal career, 
11    remember there is nothing as rewarding as making 
12    sure that you do right by the people you love. 
13    And so as you strike out from here either this 
14    June or in the years to come, go to that law 
15    firm, go to that government agency and say, What 
16    do you do about family leave?  What do you do 
17    about child care opportunities?  What do you do 
18    about flextime?  What do you do about 
19    telecommuting?  How much are you putting children 
20    and families first in this law firm or in this 
21    government agency?  And if you start coming out 
22    of law school asking those questions, you're 
23    going to help change the culture of America so 
24    that we put children first and so that we develop 
25    a generation 20 years from now that can cope with 
 1    any competitor in the world in terms of computers 
 2    and address these critical issues that we have 
 3    discussed today and others that we don't even 
 4    begin to dream of. 
 5              There is a strength in this nation.  I 
 6    have seen it in communities; I have seen it among 
 7    the young people.  I believe -- never before have 
 8    I believed so strongly in this nation's future, 
 9    in this nation's ability to cope with its 
10    problems.  I believe that working together 
11    addressing issues with hope, with vision, with 
12    common sense, and without a lot of  
13    partisan rhetoric, we can make a 
14    difference. 
15              Thank you. 
16                      (Proceedings were had 
17                       which were not 
18                       stenographically recorded.) 
 2                      )   SS: 
 3    COUNTY OF K A N E ) 
 4              KIMBERLY WINKLER CHRISTOPHER, being 
 5    first duly sworn on oath, says that she is a 
 6    Certified Shorthand Reporter; that she reported 
 7    in shorthand the proceedings given at the taking 
 8    of said presentation; and that the foregoing is a 
 9    true and correct transcript of her shorthand 
10    notes so taken as aforesaid and contains all the 
11    proceedings given at said presentation. 
15                        ____________________________ 
16                        Certified Shorthand Reporter 
17                        License No. 084-002752 
19    Subscribed and sworn to 
20    before me this _____ day 
21    of ___________ 1997. 
22    _______________________ 
23            Notary Public