Community Relations Service
United States Department of Justice

Hate Crime: The Violence of Intolerance

The Community Relations Service (CRS), an arm of the U.S. Department of Justice, is a specialized Federal conciliation service available to State and local officials to help resolve and prevent racial and ethnic conflict, violence and civil disorders. When governors, mayors, police chiefs, and school superintendents need help to defuse racial crises, they can turn to CRS. CRS helps local officials and residents tailor locally defined resolutions when conflict and violence threaten community stability and well-being. CRS conciliators assist in identifying the sources of violence and conflict and utilizing specialized crisis management and violence reduction techniques which work best for each community. CRS has no law enforcement authority and does not impose solutions, investigate or prosecute cases, or assign blame or fault. CRS conciliators are required by law to conduct their activities in confidence, without publicity, and are prohibited from disclosing confidential information.

The Bureau of Justice Statistics reported in "Hate Crimes Reported in NIBRS (National Incident-Based Reporting System), 1997-1999," that between 1997 and 1999, 61 percent of hate crime incidents were motivated by race and another 11 percent by ethnicity. Of incidents motivated by religion, 41 percent targeted Jewish victims. CRS responded to hundreds of bias-motivated hate crime cases that caused or intensified community racial and ethnic tensions. As authorized by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, CRS became involved only in those cases in which the alleged perpetrator was motivated, or perceived to be motivated, by the victim's race, color, or national origin.

Hate Crime

Hate crime is the violence of intolerance and bigotry, intended to hurt and intimidate someone because of their race, ethnicity, national origin, religious, sexual orientation, or disability. The purveyors of hate use explosives, arson, weapons, vandalism, physical violence, and verbal threats of violence to instill fear in their victims, leaving them vulnerable to more attacks and feeling alienated, helpless, suspicious and fearful. Others may become frustrated and angry if they believe the local government and other groups in the community will not protect them. When perpetrators of hate are not prosecuted as criminals and their acts not publicly condemned, their crimes can weaken even those communities with the healthiest race relations.

Of all crimes, hate crimes are most likely to create or exacerbate tensions, which can trigger larger community-wide racial conflict, civil disturbances, and even riots. Hate crimes put cities and towns at-risk of serious social and economic consequences. The immediate costs of racial conflicts and civil disturbances are police, fire, and medical personnel overtime, injury or death, business and residential property loss, and damage to vehicles and equipment. Long-term recovery may be hindered by a decline in property values, which results in lower tax revenues, scarcity of funds for rebuilding, and increased insurance rates.

Victims and Perpetrators

According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, in "Hate Crimes Reported in NIBRS, 1997-1999," racially motivated hate crimes most frequently target blacks. Six in 10 racially biased incidents targeted blacks, and 3 in 10 people targeted whites. Hispanics of all races were targeted in 6.7 percent of incidents and Asians in 3 percent. Younger offenders were responsible for most hate crimes and most of their victims were between 11 and 31. The age of victims of violent hate crimes drops dramatically after age 45. Thirty-one percent of violent offenders and 46 percent of property offenders were under age 18. Thirty-two percent of hate crimes occurred in a residence, 28 percent in an open space, 19 percent in a retail/commercial establishment or public building, 12 percent at a school or college, and 3 percent at a church, synagogue, or temple.

Some perpetrators commit hate crimes with their peers as a "thrill" or while under the influence of drugs or alcohol; some as a reaction against a perceived threat or to preserve their "turf'; and some out of resentment over the growing economic power of a particular racial or ethnic group engage in scapegoating.

Examples of CRS Hate Crime Cases

In Anchorage, Alaska, after white youths videotaped themselves shooting Native Alaskans with paint balls, CRS worked with community groups, citizens, as well as state and local officials to calm community concerns. In response to the incident, CRS trained Anchorage Police Department Academy recruits to increase the ability and skills when interacting with people of color. CRS provided officers with additional tools and conflict resolution skills. Participants were provided an overview of services of perspective organizations and shared strategies in strengthening police-minority community relations and methods of prevention and reduction of racial tensions.

In Springfield, Missouri, an African American male in the company of a white female was stabbed at local Denny's restaurant by a group of white males. CRS worked with the NAACP, local and federal law enforcement personnel, the Assistant District Attorney, as well as the victim and his family, to help maintain stable community relations and assure that the situation was being fully addressed.

Near San Diego, California, elderly immigrant workers were attacked by white youths. The body of a Latino immigrant youth was also discovered in the same vicinity as the attacks on the workers. To help address community concerns, CRS facilitated the distribution of factual information about the case to a wide range of interests in the community to reduce escalating tensions.

When an African American employee of a construction company in Marquette, Kansas, reported that he had been racially harassed for several months by fellow employees through racist graffiti and name-calling, CRS worked with the NAACP and the construction company to improve race relations in the workplace and develop an action plan.

After a Jewish synagogue was vandalized by four Arab- American males in the Bronx, New York , CRS met with Jewish community leaders, Arab-American community leaders, and local officials. CRS helped open lines of communication for the parties to express their concerns and discuss ways to improve relations between the local Arab and Jewish communities.

CRS Assistance on School Issues:

CRS assistance was requested by the Puyallup School District in Puyallup, Washington. CRS helped the Puyallup School District Superintendent and Diversity Task Force develop a diversity plan to be incorporated into the Puyallup School District comprehensive strategic plan. CRS provided the school district with training on race and cultural diversity, and assistance with community outreach and crisis response.

When two students were reportedly harassed with racial and sexual slurs at Bates College in Lewiston, Minnesota, CRS helped the director of the Bates College Multi-cultural program, Bates College officials, and the Lewiston Chief of Police to develop a plan of action to address racial tensions on campus.

In Duxbury, Vermont, an interracial family reported harassment of their children at a local school. To address the harassment, CRS met with school and state officials, as well as the American Civil Liberties Union, to help develop a plan of action to prevent further harassment and improve race relations.

CRS Assistance on Housing Issues:

In Modesto, California, an interracial couple reported a firebomb thrown through their bedroom window. At the request of educators, public officials, law enforcement officers, and community leaders, CRS assisted in developing a community response mechanism for responding to hate crimes to address community concerns.

At a Fair Housing Training Conference in Fairfax, Virginia, CRS facilitated cooperation and coordination between local service agencies. CRS assistance also strengthened conflict resolution mechanisms by the Fairfax County Human Rights Commission to reduce tension with refugee and immigrant groups.

When an elderly woman of African American descent was reportedly removed from her public housing dwelling in Kingsville, Texas, due to allegedly false and discriminatory accusations, CRS brought together officials from the local housing authority and leaders of the African American community to ease community tensions.

In Boston, Massachusetts, local authorities received a large number of complaints of hate crimes and discrimination facing residents of Boston's Public Housing. CRS worked with Boston's Fair Housing Center of Greater Boston to develop and implement programs to prevent and respond to community tensions.

CRS Assistance on Business Issues:

Community residents alleged that the local business climate in New Britain, Connecticut, was hostile toward Hispanic businesses. To help address the allegations, CRS organized a meeting between Hispanic community leaders and representatives from the Chamber of Commerce. At the meeting the parties agreed to develop a seminar for business leaders and incorporate the needs of Hispanic-owned businesses.

When the Black Business Association of Atlantic City, New Jersey, alleged discrimination against the African American community in the awarding of business contracts by the Casino Control Commission, CRS facilitated a meeting with representatives from the mayor's office, the Casino Control Commission, and the Black Business Association to identify concerns and prevent tensions from escalating.

CRS Assistance on Church Burnings:

CRS staff have worked directly with hundreds of rural, suburban, and urban governments to help eliminate racial distrust and polarization, promote multiracial efforts for construction of new buildings, conduct race relations training for community leaders and law enforcement officers, conduct community dialogs, and provide technical assistance in ways to bring together law enforcement agencies and minority neighborhoods.

CRS Best Practices to Prevent Hate Crimes from Escalating Racial and Ethnic Tensions into Conflict or Civil Disturbances

From years of experience with hundreds of hate crime cases that have caused or intensified community-wide racial and ethnic tensions, CRS recommends certain "best practices" to prevent hate crimes and restore harmony in the community.

Hate Crime Ordinances are a Deterrent

A core responsibility of government is to protect the civil rights of its citizens and to advance its inherent obligation to ensure good race and ethnic relations. This tenet should not be abrogated and such a commitment requires no special funding. A government can confirm its commitment to the safety and well-being of its citizens by establishing an ordinance against hate crime activity or enhancing the punishment for hate crime. It can also encourage compliance with existing equal opportunity statutes.

A local government may establish an ordinance against hate activity modeled on existing hate crime law in effect in that State. Punishment is enhanced by promulgating guidelines or amending existing guidelines to provide varying offense levels for use in sentencing. There should be reasonable consistency with other guidelines, avoidance of duplicative punishments for the same offense, and consideration of any mitigating circumstances. Compliance with existing statutes can be achieved by training law enforcement officers to enforce existing statutes, imposing fines or penalties when ordinances are violated, reviewing licenses or privileges, reviewing tax exempt status, and providing incentives or awards. A local government may also establish boards or commissions to review and analyze hate crime activity, create public service announcements, and recommend measures to counter hate activity. In September 1994, Congress also enacted a Federal hate crime penalty enhancement statute (Public Law 103-322 § 28003), which would increase the penalties for Federal crimes where the victim was selected "because of the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender, disability, or sexual orientation of any person."

Local Actions to Improve Communication

A unresolved hate crime may escalate unresolved racial and ethnic friction into a community-wide conflict or civil disturbance. Communication and interaction between majority and minority groups is often a key factor in preventing tensions or restoring harmony.

A Human Rights Commission (HRC) can facilitate and coordinate discussions, training, and events for the benefit of everyone. A HRC can create a forum for talking about racial and ethnic relations and encourage citizens to discuss their differences, commonalities, hopes and dreams. Forums could focus on the common features of community life, including economic development, education, transportation, environment, cultural and recreational opportunities, leadership, community attitudes, and racial and ethnic diversity. The Commission can use multicultural training and special events to promote harmony and stability. Also, see A Policymaker's Guide to Hate Crimes, published by the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), US. Department of Justice. Contact BJA at: 1-800-688-4252, or visit their home page at

Coalitions Create a Positive Climate

Racial and ethnic tensions increase during periods of economic downswing. Hate crimes may occur when unemployed or underemployed workers vent anger on available scapegoats from minority groups.

Coalitions of representatives from political, business, civic, religious, and community organizations help create a positive climate in the community and encourage constructive dialogue. Coalitions can recommend initiatives to help racial and ethnic communities affected by the loss of jobs, including programs and plans to help local government ensure an equitable disbursement of public and private finds, resources, and services.

Inclusion Increases Confidence in Government

Hate crimes can often be prevented by policies designed to promote good racial and ethnic relations.

Local governments can assure that everyone has access to full participation in the municipality's decision-making processes, including equal opportunity for minorities to be represented on appointed boards and commissions. Local governments might institute a policy of inclusion for appointments on boards and commissions. The policy could require listing all appointive positions and notifying all racial and ethnic groups of open seats throughout minority media.

Schools and Police Must Work Together

Racial and ethnic tensions may increase in schools when there are rapid demographic or socio-economic changes. Tensions may result from the perception of unequal educational opportunities or disparate practices in hiring faculty and school staff.

Preventing and dealing with hate crimes and hate-based gang activity in schools are the responsibility of school and police officials, who should work together to develop a plan to handle hate crimes and defuse racial tensions. Hate crimes can be school-related, community-related, or a combination of both. Officials should consider prevention and response roles, identify potential trouble sites, and plan for phased police intervention. Tension can be eased by regular communication with parents, students, media, and other community organizations. Mediation and conflict resolution classes develop the capacity of young people to peacefully settle disputes and conflicts. For more information on how to prevent and counter hate crime in schools, contact the Office for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), U.S. Department of Justice. See also OJJDP's A National Hate Crime Prevention Curriculum for Middle Schools. Contact OJJDP at: 1-800-638-8736, or visit their home page at

Rumors Fuel Racial Tensions and Conflict

Law enforcement officers believe rumors aggravate more than two-thirds of all civil disturbances. When racial or ethnic tensions may become heightened by exaggerated rumors, a temporary rumor control and verification center is an effective mechanism to ensure accurate information.

A temporary rumor control and verification center typically is operated 24 hours a day during the crisis period by a local government agency. It is staffed by professionals and trained volunteers. The media and others should publicize the telephone number.

The Media Can Be a Helpful Ally

The influence of print and broadcast media is critical in shaping public attitudes about the hate crime, its perpetrators, and the law enforcement response.

The media can play an important role in preventing hate crimes from increasing community tensions. Local officials should designate an informed single point-of-contact for hate crime information. Accurate, thorough, and responsible reporting significantly improves the likelihood that stability and harmony will be restored. The media can promote public understanding of mediation and conflict resolution processes, and help alleviate fear, suspicion, and anger.

Hate Crimes Must Be Investigated and Reported

Findings on the exact number of hate crimes and trends are difficult to establish and interpretations about hate crimes vary among individuals, law enforcement agencies, public and private organizations, and community groups.

A municipality should assure that its law enforcement agencies adopt the model policy supported by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (call 703-836-6767) for investigating and reporting hate crimes. This model policy uses the standard reporting form and uniform definition of hate crime developed by the FBI after passage of The Hate Crime Statistics Act (HCSA), 28 U.S.C. 534, enacted April 1990, as amended by the Church Arson Prevention Act of June 1996 (The HCSA also requires the collection of data on crimes based on religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity, and disability). The FBI offers training for law enforcement officers and administrators on developing data collection procedures. For more information, contact the FBI at 1-888-UCR-NIBR.CRS and the FBI recommend a two-tier procedure for accurately collecting and reporting hate crime case information. It includes: (1) the officer on the scene of an alleged bias crime making an initial determination that bias motivation is "suspected"; and (2) a second officer or unit with more expertise in bias matters making the final determination of whether a hate crime has actually occurred For more information, see the FBI's Training Guide for Hate Crime Data Collection and Hate Crime Data Collection Guidelines. Call 304-625-4995. See also Hate/Bias Crimes Train-the-Trainer Program, conducted by the Nat'l Center for State, Local and International Law Enforcement Training, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC), U.S. Treasury Dept., Contact FLETC at: 1-800-743-5382, x 3343.

Hate Crimes and Multi-jurisdictional Task Forces

Multi-jurisdictional or regional task forces are an effective means of sharing information and combining resources to counter hate crime activity.

Some local governments have institutionalized sharing of expertise and agency resources through memorandums of understanding. For example, creating a coalition of public and private agencies and community organizations will give communities in the county or region a complete and thorough range of resources and information to promote racial and ethnic relations and counter hate crimes. This network or consortium can also work with coalitions created especially to investigate and prosecute hate crimes. Such a coalition might include the district attorney, the city attorney, law enforcement agencies, and civil rights, community, and educational organizations. This partnership links prosecutory and law enforcement agencies and community-based response organizations. See also, Stopping Hate Crime: A Case History from the Sacramento Police Department by BJA, Contact BJA at: 1-800-688-4252.

Victims, Witnesses and Offenders Need Help

Nearly two thirds of all known perpetrators of hate crimes are teenagers or young adults. When appropriate, a victim-offender restitution program or offender counseling program can be an effective sanction for juveniles.

Educational counseling programs for young perpetrators of hate crime can help dispel stereotypes, prejudice, fears, and other motivators of hate crime. Counseling may include sessions with members of minority groups and visits to local correctional facilities. In addition, "restorative justice," the concept of healing both the victim and the offender while regaining the trust of the community, may be appropriate. The offenders are held accountable and are expected to repair both the physical and emotional damage caused by their actions.

To ensure a comprehensive response to hate crimes, the needs of the victims must be served.

For more information on how to meet the diverse needs of both the immediate and secondary victims of hate crimes, contact the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), US Department of Justice. OVC also provides funding for State offices to provide victim assistance and victim compensation services. See also OVC's National Bias Crimes Training: For Law Enforcement and Victim Assistance Professionals, Contact OVC at: 1-800-627-6872, 301-519-5500, TTY 1-877-712-9279; or visit OVC's home page at

CRS Services that Defuse Hate Crime Activity

Victims, Witnesses and Offenders Need Help
Nearly two-thirds of all known perpetrators of hate crimes are teenagers or young adults. When appropriate, a victim-offender restitution program or offender counseling program can be an effective sanction for juveniles. Hate crimes threaten racial and ethnic relations and can escalate community-wide tensions. CRS offers five types of services to communities as part of its assessment with elected officials and community leaders. CRS analyzed a variety of indicators, including causes, potential for violence or continued violence, extent of dialogue, communication and interest in working cooperatively to restore harmony and stability. The five services are:

Mediation and Conciliation. Mediation and conciliation are two techniques used by CRS to help communities resolve tensions and conflicts arising from hate crimes. CRS conciliators help community groups and local government leaders work together to help restore stability and harmony through orderly dialogue and clarification of the issues. CRS establishes with the parties the ground rules for discussion and facilitates the meetings.

Technical Assistance. CRS can assist local officials and community leaders on developing and implementing polices, practices, and procedures to respond to hate crimes and to garner the support of residents and organizations to ease tensions.

Training. CRS can conduct training sessions and workshops to teach police officers and residents how to recognize a hate crime, gain support of the community early in the investigation, and begin the identification of victims and witnesses to the crime. CRS can teach community leaders and volunteers how to prevent the likelihood of more hate crimes, and how to work cooperatively with law enforcement. Volunteers can help with rumor control, community watch patrols, and information programs on hate crimes and those who perpetrate such offenses.

Public Education and Awareness. CRS can also conduct hate crime prevention and education programs in schools, colleges, and the community. These programs break down barriers, build bridges of trust across racial and ethnic lines, develop mutual respect, and reduce fear. CRS helps to address conflicts and violence, reduce tensions, develop plans to avoid potential incidents, and conducts training programs for students, teachers, administrators, and parents.

School-based Programs. CRS offers school-based conflict resolution and prevention programs. One example is the Student Problem Identification and Resolution (SPIR) program, a conflict resolution program designed to identify and defuse racial tensions involving students at the middle and high school levels. SPIR assists school administrators in addressing racial and ethnic tensions through a carefully structured process that involves students, teach, administrators, and parents. A further expansion of this successful program, call Student Problem Identification and Resolving It Together (SPIRIT), involves local law enforcement agencies as key partners in the design of an action plan. CRS now trains school officials and police officers to conduct the SPIRIT Program as a part of the process to strengthen cooperation among law enforcement and school officials.

Event Contingency Planning. CRS, at the request of either local officials or demonstration organizers, can assist in contingency planning to ensure that marches, demonstrations, and similar events occur without exacerbating racial and ethnic tensions and minimizing the prospect of any confrontations. CRS assisted Federal and State officials plan the Olympic Summer Games in Atlanta, Georgia, and the national political conventions in Los Angeles, California, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. CRS can also train community residents to plan and monitor local events. CRS assistance is often requested when demonstrations and marches are scheduled. For example, CRS has helped scores of municipalities with contingency planning for successfully preparing for KKK and White Supremist rallies and counter-demonstrations.

Hate Crime Training Curriculum. CRS and the FBI's Hate Crime Unit, working with the Department of Treasury's Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, the National Association of Attorneys General, and the International Association of Directors of Law Enforcement Standards and Training and other U.S. Department of Justice agencies, have developed four model hate crime training curricula. The four curricula are specifically designed for patrol officers, investigating officers, supervising officers, and a mixed audience of officers and command staff. This effort was undertaken to provide State and local law enforcement officers with the skills and knowledge that are crucial to the identification, reporting, investigation, and prosecution of and education about hate crimes.

The new courses are approximately eight hours in length, can be taught at a training academy or on-site at a department, and were field-tested at law enforcement academies and departments across the country. The curricula contain the best policies, procedures, practices, and materials used to train law enforcement officers, and provide an equitable balance of instruction on enforcement, victim assistance, and community relations. The curriculum can be obtained from CRS' web page at:

Publications and Resources

American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee, 4201 Connecticut Ave, NW, Suite 300, Washington, D.C. 20008. Contact them at: 202/244-2990, or FAX 202/244-3196, or

American Jewish Committee, Skinheads: Who They Are And What To Do When They Come To Town and Bigotry on Campus: A Planned Response. The AJC is located at 165 East 56 Street, New York, NY 10022. Contact them at 212/751-4000 or

Anti-Defamation League, Hate Crimes Laws. The ADL is located at 823 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Contact them at: 800/343-5540 or

Center for Democratic Renewal, When Hate Groups Come to Town. Contact them at P.O. Box 50469, Atlanta, GA 30302. Contact them at: 404/221-0025, or FAX at 404/221-0045 or

Japanese American Citizens League, Walk with Pride: Taking Steps to Address Anti-Asian Violence. Contact the JACL at 1765 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94115. Contact them at: 415/921-5225 or

Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, 320 West Temple Street, Los Angeles, CA 90012. Contact them at: 213/974-7601 or

National Asian Pacific American Legal Consortium, Audit of Violence Against Asian Pacific Americans. Contact them at 1140 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 1200, Washington, D.C. 20036. Contact them at: 202/296-2300 or

National Council on Crime and Delinquency, Hate Crime Prevention Resource Guide. Contact the Council at 685 Market Street, Suite 620, San Francisco, CA 94105. Contact them at: 415/896-6223, or FAX 415/896-5109 or

People for the American Way, Democracy's Next Generation II: Study of American Youth on Race. Contact PAW at 2000 M Street, NW, Suite 400 Washington, D.C. Contact them at: 202/467-4999 or 800/326-7729 or

Sikh Mediawatch and Resource Task Force, P.O. Box 1761, Germantown, MD 20875-1761. Contact them at: 877-91-SIKHS, or FAX 202/318-4433, or

Southern Poverty Law Center, Klanwatch Intelligence Report. Contact them at 400 Washington Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36104. Contact them at: 334-956-8200 or

Study Circles, 697 Pomfret Street, Box 203, Pomfret, CT 06258. Contact them at: 860/928-2616, or FAX 860/928-3713, or

U.S. Department of Justice, Community Relations Service, Hate Crime Training Curriculum. The curriculum can be obtained from CRS' page at:

U.S. Department of Justice, Kidspage: This is a great resource for educational materials for children, parents, and teachers.

U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, www.ojp.usdoj/bjs/

CRS Customer Service Standards

Our goal is to provide sensitive and effective conflict prevention and resolution services. You can expect us to meet the following standards when we work with you:

•We will clearly explain the process that CRS uses to address racial and ethnic conflicts and our role in that process.

•We will provide opportunities for all parties involved to contribute to and work toward a solution to the racial or ethnic conflict.

•If you are a participant in a CRS training session or conference, you will receive timely and useful information and materials that will assist you in preventing or minimizing racial and ethnic tensions. If you would like more information, we will work with you to identify additional materials and resources to meet your needs within three weeks of learning your need.

•We will be prepared to respond to major racial or ethnic crisis situations within 24 hours from the time when your community notifies CRS or CRS becomes aware of the crisis.

•In non-crisis situations, we will contact you within three days of when your community notifies CRS or when CRS becomes aware of the situation to discuss your request for CRS services.

CRS Offices

CRS Headquarters

Community Relations Service
600 E Street, NW, Suite 6000
Washington, D.C. 20530
202/305-3009 FAX

CRS Regional and Field Offices

New England Regional Office
Community Relations Service
U.S. Department of Justice
408 Atlantic Avenue Room 222
Boston, MA 02201
617/424-5727 FAX

Northeast Regional Office
Community Relations Service
U.S. Department of Justice
26 Federal Plaza, Suite 36-118
New York, NY 10278
212/264-2143 FAX

Mid-Atlantic Regional Office
Community Relations Service
U.S. Department of Justice
U.S. Custom House
2nd and Chestnut Streets, Room 208
Philadelphia, PA 19106
215/597-9148 FAX

Southeast Regional Office
Community Relations Service
U.S. Department of Justice
75 Piedmont Avenue, NE, Room 900
Atlanta, GA 30303
404/331-4471 FAX

Field Office
Community Relations Service
U.S. Department of Justice
51 S.W. First Avenue, Suite 624
Miami, FL 33130
305/536-6778 FAX

Midwest Regional Office
Community Relations Service
U.S. Department of Justice
55 West Monroe Street, Suite 420
Chicago, IL 60603
312/353-4390 FAX

Field Office
Community Relations Service
U.S. Department of Justice
211 West Fort Street, Suite 1404
Detroit, MI 48226
313/226-2568 FAX

Southwest Regional Office
Community Relations Service
U.S. Department of Justice
1420 West Mockingbird Lane, Suite 250
Dallas, TX 75247
214/655-8184 FAX

Field Office
Community Relations Service
U.S. Department of Justice
515 Rusk Avenue
Houston, TX 77002
713/718-4862 FAX

Central Regional Office
Community Relations Service
U.S. Department of Justice
1100 Main Street, Suite 1320
Kansas City, MO 64105
816/426-7441 FAX

Rocky Mountain Regional Office
Community Relations Service
U.S. Department of Justice
1244 Speer Blvd. Suite 650
Denver, CO 80204-3584
303/844-2907 FAX

Western Regional Office
Community Relations Service
U.S. Department of Justice
888 South Figueroa Street, Suite 1880
Los Angeles, CA 90017
213/894-2880 FAX

Field Office
Community Relations Service
U.S. Department of Justice
120 Howard Street, Suite 790
San Francisco, CA 94105
415/744-6590 FAX

Northwest Regional Office
Community Relations Service
U.S. Department of Justice
915 Second Avenue, Room 1808
Seattle, WA 98174
206/220-6706 FAX

CRS Website:

(Publication Revised December 2001)