A Manual For Schools And Communities
The term "hate crime" is defined by various federal and state laws. In its broadest sense, the term refers to an attack on an individual or his or her property (e.g., vandalism, arson, assault, murder) in which the victim is intentionally selected because of his or her race, color, religion, national origin, gender, disability, or sexual orientation.
Every year, thousands of Americans are victims of such hate crimes. Each one of these crimes has a ripple effect in our communities. The pain and injustice of such crimes tear at the fabric of our democratic society, creating fear and tensions that ultimately affect us all.
Schools are not immune from such intolerance and violence. Teenagers and young adults account for a significant proportion of the country's hate crimes-both as perpetrators and as victims. Hate-motivated behavior, whether in the form of ethnic conflict, harassment, intimidation, or graffiti, is often apparent on school grounds. Hate violence is also perpetrated by hate groups, which actively work to recruit young people to their ranks.
The good news is that children are not born with such attitudes; they are learned. It is possible for schools, families, law enforcement, and communities to work together to prevent the development of the prejudiced attitudes and violent behavior that lead to hate crimes. Prejudice and the resulting violence can be reduced or even eliminated by instilling in children an appreciation and respect for each other's differences, and by helping them to develop empathy, conflict resolution, and critical thinking skills. By teaching children that even subtle forms of hate are inherently wrong, we can hope to prevent more extreme acts of hate in the future.
Educators have a tremendous opportunity to reduce or eliminate hate-motivated crime and violence. A number of school districts and individual schools have already taken action to create comprehensive anti-hate policies and programs that involve every facet of the school community, students, parents, teachers, staff, and administrators. These schools have worked to create a school climate where hateful acts are not tolerated, and to provide an equitable, supportive, and safe environment for all students.
Preventing Youth Hate Crime: A Manual for Schools and Communities is intended to assist more schools and communities to confront and eliminate harassing, intimidating, violent, and other hate-motivated behavior among young people. It is intended to promote discussion, planning, immediate action, and long-term responses to hate crime. By understanding what hate-motivated behavior is and how best to respond to it, schools can become a powerful force in bringing such incidents to an end.
How big a problem is hate crime?
The FBI reports that approximately 10,700 hate crimes were reported in the United States in 1996-approximately 29 such incidents per day. (Since many hate crimes are never reported to police, it is likely that the actual number of hate crimes significantly exceeds this number.) About 70 percent of all reported hate crimes were crimes against a person; about 30 percent were property crimes. Research indicates that a substantial number of these crimes were committed by males under age 20.
America's students are increasingly diverse.
School enrollment in 1997 has risen to a record 52.2 million students. Over the course of the next ten years, public high school enrollment is expected to increase by 13 percent. Many of these students will be enrolled in schools with increasing numbers of students from different races, ethnic backgrounds, and cultures. By the year 2007, Hispanic students will outnumber African American students by 2.5 percent. The numbers of Asian and Native American students are also expected to increase dramatically. The percentage of Caucasian students is expected to decline from 66 percent in 1997 to 61 percent in 2007. Within 25 years, 50 percent of all students will belong to a minority group.
ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE
A comprehensive hate prevention program will involve all school personnel in creating a school climate in which prejudice and hate-motivated behavior are not acceptable, but which also permits the expression of diverse viewpoints. Hate prevention, as used in this manual, means prevention of hate-motivated behavior and crimes.
1. Provide hate prevention training to all staff, including teachers, administrators, school security personnel, and support staff. All school employees, including teachers, administrators, support staff, bus drivers, and security staff, should be aware of the various manifestations of hate and be competent to address hate incidents. Training should include anti-bias and conflict resolution methods; procedures for identifying and reporting incidents of racial, religious, and sexual harassment, discrimination, and hate crime; strategies for preventing such incidents from occurring; and resources available to assist in dealing with these incidents.
2. Ensure that all students receive hate prevention training through age-appropriate classroom activities, assemblies, and other school-related activities. Prejudice and discrimination are learned attitudes and behaviors. Neither is uncontrollable or inevitable. Teaching children that even subtle forms of hate-such as ethnic slurs or epithets, negative or offensive name-calling, stereotyping, and exclusion-are hurtful and inherently wrong can help to prevent more extreme, violent manifestations of hate. Through structured classroom activities and programs, children can begin to develop empathy, while practicing the critical thinking and conflict resolution skills needed to recognize and respond to various manifestations of hate behavior.
3. Develop partnerships with families, community organizations, and law enforcement agencies. Hate crime prevention cannot be accomplished by schools alone. School districts are encouraged to develop partnerships with parent groups, youth serving organizations, criminal justice agencies, victim assistance organizations, businesses, advocacy groups, and religious organizations. These partnerships can help identify resources available to school personnel to address hate incidents, raise community awareness of the issue,
ensure appropriate responses to hate incidents, and ensure that youth receive a consistent message that hate-motivated behavior will not be tolerated.
4. Develop a hate prevention policy to distribute to every student, every student's family, and every employee of the school district. An effective hate prevention policy will promote a school climate in which racial, religious, ethnic, gender and other differences, as well as freedom of thought and expression, are respected and appreciated. The policy should be developed with the input of parents, students, teachers, community members, and school administrators. It should include a description of the types of behavior prohibited under the policy; the roles and responsibilities of students and staff in preventing and reporting hate incidents or crimes; the range of possible consequences for engaging in this type of behavior; and locations of resources in the school and community where students can go for help. It should respect diverse viewpoints, freedom of thought, and freedom of expression. Every student should be informed of the contents of the school district's policy on hate crime on an annual basis. School districts are advised to consult with an attorney in the course of developing such a policy.
5. Develop a range of corrective actions for those who violate school hate-prevention policies. School districts are encouraged to take a firm position against all injurious manifestations of hate, from ethnic slurs, racial epithets, and taunts, to graffiti, vandalism, discrimination, harassment, intimidation, and violence. School districts can develop a wide range of non-disciplinary corrective actions to respond to incidents, including counseling, parent conferences, community service, awareness training, or completion of a research paper on an issue related to hate, as well as disciplinary actions such as in-school suspension or expulsion. School officials should be prepared to contact local, state or federal civil rights officials to respond to more serious incidents and, in cases involving criminal activity or threat of criminal activity, should call the police.
6. Collect and use data to focus district-wide hate prevention efforts. Collection of data on the occurrence of school-based hate incidents or crimes will assist administrators and teachers to identify patterns and to more effectively implement hate prevention policies and programs. To obtain such data, school districts may include questions regarding hate crime on surveys they
conduct related to school crime and discipline, as well as collect and analyze incident-based data on specific hate incidents and crimes. In the latter case, school districts are encouraged to work closely with local law enforcement personnel to collect uniform and consistent data on hate crime.
7. Provide structured opportunities for integration.Young people can begin to interact across racial and ethnic lines through school- supported organizations and activities. Multi-ethnic teams of students can work together on community service projects, to organize extracurricular events, or to complete class projects. High school students can participate in service- learning projects in which they tutor, coach, or otherwise assist younger students from diverse backgrounds.
Which hate crime and civil rights laws apply?
A number of federal and state laws prohibit acts or threats of violence, as well as harassment and discrimination, based on race, color, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, gender and/or disability. It is important to check with an attorney to ascertain the extent to which federal and state hate crime and civil rights laws may also apply in the school context. The applicable federal laws include the following:
18 U.S.C. Section 245. Section 245, the principal federal hate crime statute, prohibits intentional use of force or threat of force against a person because of his or her race, color, religion, or national origin, and because he or she was engaged in a "federally protected activity," such as enrolling in or attending any public school or college. Legislation has been introduced which would amend Section 245 to include crimes committed because of the victim's sexual orientation, gender or disability, and to eliminate the "federally protected activity" requirement.
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title VI and regulations promulgated under Title VI prohibit discrimination by institutions that
receive federal funding, including harassment, on the basis of race, color, and national origin.
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. Title IX and regulations promulgated under Title IX prohibit discrimination by institutions that receive federal funding, including harassment, based on sex.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Section 504 and regulations promulgated under Section 504 prohibit discrimination by institutions that receive federal funding, including harassment, based on disability.
EXAMPLES OF HATE PREVENTION
The following hate prevention programs are examples of the measures that educators can take to address hatemotivated behavior in their schools and communities. These examples are not exhaustive, but are intended to assist educators in determining which programs might work best in their own schools and communities. For additional information, please contact the individuals listed.
The programs, activities, organizations, curricula, books, web sites, videos and other resources listed in this Manual are not exhaustive, nor is their inclusion intended as an endorsement by the Department of Justice or the Department of Education. Rather, these listings are intended to assist educators in determining which programs, activities, organizations, or instructional materials might be most suitable for their own classrooms, schools, and communities.
New Jersey Department of Education:
In 1995, 885 bias incidents against African Americans, Hispanics, and Jews were reported in New Jersey. In response, the State Department of Education's (NJDOE) Office of Bilingual and Equity Issues, in conjunction with the Holocaust Education Commission, the NAACP, the National Conference, the Anti-Defamation League, and county Human Relations Commissions, developed Project PRIDE (Peace, Respect, Inclusion, Diversity and Equity).
PRIDE's goal is to eliminate bias incidents from public schools. PRIDE trains parents, students, and teachers to understand the dynamics of institutional racism, discrimination, bias crime, and hate-motivated conflict. Key aspects of the Project include conflict resolution training for teachers and other school staff anti-bias and conflict resolution training for students; and school-wide support for principles of non-violence.
PRIDE is currently being used in 122 New Jersey school districts. NJDOE hopes to implement PRIDE statewide in coming years.
Iliana Okum, Project Director. 609/292-8777.
Los Angeles, California:
Educating for Diversity
In 1992, the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) approved a plan to address diversity and cultural issues in its schools. The Board of Education's action plan, Educating for Diversity: A Framework for Multicultural and Human Relations Education, was implemented in 1994 and includes guidelines, strategies, and resources for addressing these issues in the district's instructional program.
The LAUSD plan consists of a multi-prong approach that addresses the needs of teachers, administrators, students, and the community. Teams of teachers from each school site receive training on district data collection procedures. School counselors receive additional training on working with victims of hate crimes, and parents are offered a one-day orientation on family and human relations issues.
Two classroom curricula have been implemented to improve students' understanding of and respect for diversity. Sixth and ninth graders receive a 10-20 week curriculum entitled Healthy Relations, which emphasizes multicultural and human relations sensitivity, gender relations, conflict
resolution, peer mediation, and media literacy. Different and the Same, a video series on diversity and inclusion, has been provided as a teaching tool in the elementary school grades.
Evangelina Stockwell, Assistant Superintendent, Office of Intergroup Relations. 213/625-6579.
Oakland, Richmond, and Berkeley, California: Youth Together Project
The Youth Together Project was developed by a coalition of human rights groups, teachers, school administrators, parents, and students, in response to reports of increasing racial and ethnic tensions among youth in the Oakland, Richmond, and Berkeley schools.
The Project aims to foster cross-cultural understanding between different ethnic groups; establish preventive programs designed by and for youth; and influence hate crime policy within participating school districts. Students are grouped into multicultural teams to examine individual stereotypes and prejudices through group discussions and cooperative learning activities. This approach is based upon the theories that the keys to resolving ethnic tensions among students is to understand student perspectives on race, power, and privilege, and to address the institutional roots of racial violence in the schools. Teams work together to implement hate and violence prevention programs, such as a peer education program.
During its first year, the Project recruited and trained 75 students from five high schools (15 students from each school) to serve on the multicultural teams. Over a one-year period, the teams developed, conducted, and analyzed a survey of 2,500 Bay Area students' views on violence and racial tension in their schools. The team members then published educational materials on issues of race, equity, and school violence. These materials are available upon request.
Margaretta Lin, Project Director. 510/834-9455. www.arc99.com
Omaha, Staten Island, San Diego, and Los Angeles: Stop the Hate
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE Institute's Stop the Hate program, developed by the Anti-Defamation League, is being pilot tested in one high school and several feeder schools in Omaha, Staten Island, San Diego, and Los Angeles.
Stop the Hate is designed to combat hate-related incidents by altering how schools respond to inter-group tensions. The program is based on the premise that the first step that schools must take to stop hate violence is to acknowledge the reality of hate crimes. Schools then develop a voluntary "code of conduct" that clearly communicates that acts of hate will not be tolerated by the school community.
Stop the Hate provides comprehensive, anti-bias, and conflict resolution training for high school students, teachers, administrators, parents, and community members. A key component of the program is prevention training for all stakeholders-including development of the necessary skills to identify, understand, and effectively prevent hate crimes. Youth are directly involved in the program as trainers and peer leaders.
Lucia Rodriguez, Project Director. 212/885-7818. www.adl.org/AWOD/AWOD.html
Los Angeles, Revere, Memphis, New York: Facing History and Ourselves (FHAO)
For more than 20 years, FHAO has been working with middle and secondary school educators to assist them in examining issues of hate, intolerance, compassion, courage, and individual responsibility in the classroom. FHAO annually reaches more than 900,000 students in urban, suburban, and rural communities across the United States.
depth FHAO course as a foundation for learning about citizenship and building interpersonal skills. This course is integrated into the literature and history curriculum.
Margot Strom, Executive Director. 617/232-1595. www.facing.org.
Tucson, Arizona: El Hogar de la Paz (The Home of Peace)
In 1996, the Tucson Unified School District, in collaboration with five other school districts, developed a comprehensive program to address escalating ethnic and racial conflict in Tuscon and Pima Counties. Funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Education's Safe and Drug Free Schools Program, the program provides a range of services to all schools throughout the county, as well as specialized programs tailored to the unique needs of particular schools and classrooms. The program provides:
In the two years since its inception, more than 750 students, 700 school staff, 200 law enforcement personnel, and 150 local government and community staff have participated in workshops organized by El Hogar de la Paz.
Dennis W. Noonan, Project Coordinator. 520/512-3084.
Orange County, California:
Bridges of Understanding
The Orange County Human Relations Council is a nonprofit organization which counts among its members corporations, cities, foundations, the county, schools, and the courts. For over ten years, the Council has worked with schools at all levels to help build inter-ethnic communication, cohesion, a sense of community, and a safe, inclusive climate throughout the County's schools.
To accomplish these goals in a sustainable manner, the Council works collaboratively with each school on an individual basis for a minimum of three years. A leadership team works with the school community to assess that school's needs and to create a school human relations task force. In conjunction with the task force, the Council then provides training sessions for parents, students, administrators, school staff, and teachers. The Council also works with the task force to design student retreats and schoolwide projects.
These programs are supported by a county-wide summer youth leadership institute; annual middle and high school student symposia on inter-cultural cooperation; a school inter-ethnic relations round table; and a parent leadership institute designed to build the skills of non-English speaking parents so that they can be more effectively involved in their children's schools.
The Council currently provides comprehensive school inter-ethnic relations and violence prevention programs in 41 Orange County schools, and reaches over 21,000 students and teachers each year. Building Bridges of Understanding, the Council's school inter-ethnic relations program, is funded by corporate and private contributions totaling $500,000 annually.
Rusty Kennedy, Executive Director. 714/567-7470.
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES AND
The following activities illustrate the sort of classroom projects that can help students develop empathy, critical thinking skills, and an awareness and appreciation for diversity. A number of anti-bias curricula have been developed by various organizations which contain additional activities; these curricula are listed in the Bibliography at the end of this Manual.
In order to be most effective, such classroom activities should be part of a comprehensive hate prevention strategy that involves all members of the school communityincluding the student body, parents, school administration, law enforcement, and community organizations. Issues such as prejudice, discrimination, and hate crime cannot be effectively addressed in the classroom alone. Rather, classroom lessons must be reinforced by the school community, and beyond.
It can sometimes be difficult for teachers and students to discuss issues such as prejudice and discrimination, particularly in a multicultural setting. Therefore, prior to engaging in these or other anti-bias teaching activities, teachers may wish to receive diversity or conflict resolution training.
Elementary School Activities
An annotated bibliography of multicultural children's literature is available from A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE Institute, Anti-Defamation League, 823 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY, 10017. 212/885-7800; or 800/343-5540.
A web site that introduces children to concepts of prejudice and discrimination in an interactive, age-appro
priate format, Hateful Acts Hurt Kids, can be found at www.usdoj.gov/kidspage. This web site helps children learn empathy, an appreciation for diversity, and coping skills should they become victims of prejudice.
A free pamphlet on talking to young children about prejudice and discrimination is available from the National PTA, 300 North Wabash Avenue, Suite 2100, Chicago, IL, 60611. 312/670-6782.
Additional hate prevention activities for elementary grades can be found in "Teacher They Called Me A _______!", available for $12.50 from the Anti-Defamation League, 22D Hollywood Avenue, Hohokus, NJ, 07423. 800/343-5540, or 212/885-7951; Starting Small: Teaching Tolerance in Preschool and the Early Grades, available free of charge from Teaching Tolerance, 400 Washington Avenue, Montgomery, AL, 36104. 334/264-0286; and Actions Speak Louder Than Words, available free of charge from the National Conference, 71 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, 10003. 800/352-6225.
Middle and Secondary School Activities
To convey the power of community mobilization against hate crime, you might show the award-winning video Not In Our Town, which documents community resistance to anti-Semitic and other hate crimes in Billings, Montana. You may wish to ask questions such as: Who are the victims, bystanders, and perpetrators in this film? What form of resistance did the community initiate? How did the organized hate group members react to the union of Jews and non-Jews in the commu-
nity? Do you think it is true that the community "found a weapon more powerful than [the KKK's]?" What was that weapon, and what made it more powerful? Has this, or another, type of bigotry ever occurred in your community? What, if any, forms of community action were used to combat it?
Not In Our Town is available with a teaching guide from The Working Group, 510/268-9675, ext. 317. More on community mobilization projects can be found in Teaching Tolerance Magazine, a free semiannual magazine providing educators with resources for promoting interracial and intercultural understanding. Teachers and other educators can subscribe free of charge using official school letterhead. Teaching Tolerance, 400 Washington Avenue, Montgomery, AL, 36104. 334/264-0286. Fax: 334/264-7310.
You might have students research historical incidents of bigotry against particular groups, and present their reports to the class. Students can discuss what these reports show about why some people do not accept individuals who are different than themselves, and what individuals, groups, and our Nation have done to respond to acts of intolerance (e.g., civil rights laws, hate crime laws, the United Nations Manifesto on Human Rights).
Additional activities on the historical role of hate are suggested in Free At Last: A History of the Civil Rights Movement and Those Who Died in the Struggle, available free of charge from Teaching Tolerance, 400 Washington Avenue, Montgomery, AL, 36104. 334/264-0286; and in Facing History and Ourselves, from Facing History and Ourselves National Foundation, Inc., 16 Hurd Road, Brookline, MA, 02146. 617/232-1595.
More hate prevention activities for middle school students can be found in the award-winning Healing the Hate: A National Bias Crime Prevention Curriculum for Middle Schools, available for $26.00 from the Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 800/638-8736; and in The Prejudice Book, available for $18.00 from the AntiDefamation League, Hohokus, NJ. 800/343-5540.
Anti-Defamation League (ADL). The ADL is a human relations organization with 31 regional offices across the country. ADL is dedicated to promoting intergroup cooperation and interfaith understanding. ADL's WORLD OF DIFFERENCE Institute has developed several K-12 curricula, fact sheets, and research materials, and has worked with numerous schools across the country to design comprehensive, school-wide policies to foster cultural awareness and increased appreciation for diversity. Over 300,000 children have participated in ADL and WORLD OF DIFFERENCE programs. Materials may be purchased from ADL's Anti-Bias/Diversity Catalog for Classroom and Community. 823 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY, 100 17. 212/490-2525; or, to order materials, 800/343-5540.
Center for Democratic Renewal (CDR). CDR is a national clearinghouse of information on the white supremacist movement, and provides training to schools, churches, community organizations, and law enforcement agencies. Over 40 publications are available, including the resource manual, When Hate Groups Come To Town, and the bimonthly newsletter, The Monitor. P.O. Box 50469, Atlanta, GA, 30302. 404/221-0025.
U.S. Department of Education. The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) provides legal guidance, technical assistance, and materials on racial and sexual harassment in school settings. The Office of Elementary and Secondary Education's Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program (SDFSP) provides discretionary and formula grant funding to state and local education agencies, governors' offices, and public and private nonprofit organizations for a wide range of school- and community-based drug and violence prevention efforts. 600 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C., 20202. OCR800/421-3481; SDFSP-202/260-3954.
U.S. Department of Justice. The Community Relations Service (CRS), a unique component of the Department of Justice, was established by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to pre-
vent or resolve community conflicts arising from actions or policies perceived to be discriminatory on the basis of race, color, or national origin. CRS provides a variety of services to schools and other community organizations, including conflict resolution, conciliation, and mediation training for students, teachers, and school administrators. 600 E Street NW, Suite 2000, Washington, D.C., 20530. 202/305-2935.
Educators For Social Responsibility (ESR). ESR creates and disseminates publications and programs for teachers and students emphasizing dialogue, critical thinking skills, nonviolent conflict resolution, social responsibility, and cooperation. ESR provides resources addressing intergroup relations, violence prevention, and character education. Teachers guides, textbooks, and videos are available. 23 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138. 800/370-2515.
Facing History and Ourselves (FHAO). For over twenty years, FHAO has used the lessons of history to teach young people the skills and attitudes necessary to be responsible and involved citizens and to preserve freedom. From its regional offices in Chicago, Memphis, Boston, New York, and Los Angeles, FHAO has developed programs for numerous schools across the country. FHAO provides schools with programs, resources, and speakers that relate history to contemporary issues. In addition, FHAO provides one- and two-day workshops, as well as week-long institutes, for educators; assists teachers to design their own course or plan lessons to enhance courses they are already teaching; and publishes a variety of curricula and other materials. 16 Hurd Road, Brookline, MA, 02146. 617/232-1595.
Green Circle Program. Green Circle develops programs to promote awareness, understanding, and appreciation of diversity in schools and other settings across the country. These programs encourage young people ages 12 to 18 to explore the dynamics of difference and discrimination, language, stereotypes, and the impact of historical and current events. 1300 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA. 215/893-8400.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The NAACP has over 2,200 chapters nationwide. Its principal objective is to ensure the educational, political, social, and economic equality of minority group citizens of the United States. The NAACP is committed to achieving these goals through non-violence. 4805 Mount Hope Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21215. 410/359-8900.
National Conference (NC). Formerly known as the National Conference of Christians and Jews, the NC was
founded in 1927 to combat racism and religious bigotry, and to improve communications between different American communities. Its publication, Actions Speak Louder Than Words: A Skills-Based Curriculum for Building Inclusivity, available free of charge, is designed for use in elementary and middle schools. 71 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, 10003. 212/807-8440, or 800/352-6225.
National Education Association (NEA). The NEA:s Human and Civil Rights Division (HCR) has primary responsibility for the Association's Safe Schools Program. An important component of the program is preventing and responding to hate-motivated incidents in schools. In addressing school safety in general, and hate-motivated behavior in particular, HCR provides training, technical assistance, and information to Association members and the public. 1201 16th Street, NW, Washington, D.C., 20036-3290. 202/822-7453.
National Hate Crime Prevention Project. The Project is funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the U.S. Department of Education's Safe and Drug Free Schools Program. The Project has developed Preventing Hate Crime: A Multidisciplinary Approach, which brings together educators, law enforcement and victim assistance professionals, policymakers, members of the religious community, and youth to develop strategies to prevent hate crime in their communities. The Project has also worked with the Congress of National Black Churches to respond to the arsons of African American churches, formed a Hate Crime Prevention Information Sharing Network, and developed Healing the Hate: A National Bias Crime Curriculum for Middle Schools. Educational Development Center, 55 Chapel Street, Newton, MA, 02158-1060. 800/225-4276; 617/969-7 100, x. 2534.
National Youth Advocacy Coalition (NYAC). NYAC, established in 1993, seeks to end discrimination against young people who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender. Among other activities, NYAC works with schools to address anti-gay behavior on campus, and provides hotline, resource, and referral information to students. 1711 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 206, Washington, D.C., 20009. 202/319-7596,
Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG).PFLAG recognizes that sexual minority youth often feel unsafe in their school or community because they are targets of anti-gay attitudes. PFLAG aims to give these young people safe places to learn and grow, and mentoring relationships with caring adults. PFLAG is organized in over 400 communities in every state. Local volunteers offer peer support for gay. lesbian, bisexual, and transgender youth,
their parents, family members and friends, and work with school and community leaders to address the needs of families with gay or lesbian members. 1011 14th Street, NW, Suite 1030, Washington, D.C., 20005. 202/638-4200.
Study Circles Resource Center (SCRC). SCRC helps communities use study circles-small, democratic, highly participatory discussions-to discuss and engage in problem solving on issues such as race, crime, education, youth issues, and American diversity. SCRC is currently working with over 50 communities nationwide to plan and implement study circle programs on race relations. Several SCRC materials are available free of charge for use in middle and upper grades: Can't We All Just Get Along?; Youth Issues, Youth Voices; and Towards a More Perfect Union. P.O. Box 203, Pomfret, CT, 06258. 860/928-2616.
Teaching Tolerance. Teaching Tolerance is a national education project dedicated to helping teachers foster equity, respect, and understanding in the classroom and beyond. A project of the Southern Poverty Law Center, Teaching Tolerance offers free or low-cost resources to educators at all levels, including the free video-and-text teaching kits, America s Civil Rights Movement and The Shadow o Hate, and Starting Small, a teacher-training kit for early childhood educators. The organization also publishes the free, semi-annual magazine Teaching Tolerance, which addresses classroom themes of tolerance, respect, and community-building and is distributed to more than one-half million educators throughout the U.S. and in 70 other countries. 400 Washington Avenue, Montgomery, AL, 36104. 334/264-0286. Fax: 334/264-7310.
U.S. Department of Education: Office for Civil Rights
Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program
U.S. Department of justice:
"Hateful Acts Hurt Kids"
Federal Bureau of Investigation Hate Crimes Report
Montgomery County, Maryland,
Committee on Hate Violence
Washington State Safe Schools Coalition
Non-Profit and Educational Sites
Facing History and Ourselves National Foundation
Improving America's Schools Education Reform
Institute: Creating A Better School Environment
Institute on Race and Poverty: Center on Speech, Equity and Harm
Not in Our Town
Curricula and Instructional Materials
"1997 Hate Crimes Laws." Anti-Defamation League (1997). 800/343-5540; 212/885-7591.
A Policymaker's Guide to Hate Crimes. Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington D.C. (March, 1997). 800/688-4252.
An American Testament: Letters to the Burned Churches. Includes discussion guide with activities suitable for elementary and secondary school students. Anti-Defamation League (1996). 800/343-5540; 212/885-7591.
Facing History and Ourselves. Suitable for grades 7-12. Facing History and Ourselves National Foundation, Inc., Brookline, MA (1995). 617/232-1595.
Flirting or Hurting? A Teacher's Guide on Student-to-Student Sexual Harassment. Suitable for grades 6-12. Wellesley College Center for Women, Wellesley, MA (1994). 617/283-2510.
Hands Across Campus. Suitable for grades 6-12. American Jewish Committee, Washington DC (1996). 202/785-4200.
Hate Crime: A Sourcebook for Schools Confronting Bigotry, Harassment, Vandalism, and Violence. Bodingerdelbriarte, Christina and Sancho, Anthony. Philadelphia: Research for Better Schools (1992). Southwest Regional Laboratory. 562/598-7661.
Hate Crime: The Violence of Intolerance. U.S. Department of Justice, Community Relations Service, Washington, D.C. (1997). 202/305-2935.
Healing the Hate: A National Bias Crime Prevention Curriculum for Middle Schools. Suitable for grades 7-12. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Washington D.C. (January, 1997). 800/638-8736.
PEARLS (People Empowered to Address Real Life Situations): Violence Prevention and Victim Assistance for Adolescents. Suitable for grades 8-12. Victim Services, New York, NY (1992). 718/624-2066.
Prejudice Reduction and Hate Crimes Prevention: An Annotated Bibliography of Resources for Teachers and School Administrators. New Jersey Department of Education, Division of Student Services, Office of Bilingual Education and Equity Issues. (August, 1997). 609/292-8777.
Pride in Who We Are: Compendium of Model Programs. New Jersey Department of Education, Division of Student Services, Office of Bilingual Education and Equity Issues (1997). 609/373-4089.
Project TEAMWORK-Athletes Against Violence Initiative: Empowering Students to More Effectively Deal with Racism, Prejudice, Bias and Conflict. Suitable for grades 6-12. Northeastern University's Center for the Study of Sport in Society, Boston, MA. 617/373-4025/4566.
Starting Small: Teaching Tolerance in Preschool and the Early Grades. Teaching Tolerance, Montgomery, AL. 334/264-7310.
Stop the Hate: A Community Brochure. El Hogar de la Paz. Tucson Police Dept., Pima County/Tucson AntiHate Crimes Task Force, Tucson Unified School District (1997). 520/791-4444.
Talking to Our Children About Racism, Prejudice, and Diversity. Suitable for grades K-3. Leadership Conference Education Fund, 1629 K Street, NW, Suite 1010, Washington D.C., 20006. 202/466-3434.
"Teacher They Called Me A ______!" Suitable for
grades K-6. Anti-Defamation League, Hohokus, NJ.
Teaching Tolerance Magazine. Free semiannual magazine. Teachers and other educators can subscribe free of charge using official school letterhead. Teaching Tolerance, Montgomery, AL. 334/264-7310.
The Prejudice Book. Suitable for grades K-6. AntiDefamation League, Hohokus, NJ. 800/343-5540.
Tolerance for Diversity of Beliefs: A Secondary Curriculum Unit. Social Science Education Consortium, Boulder, CO. Suitable for grades 8-12. 303/492-8154.
WE: Lessons on Equal Worth and Dignity, the United Nations and Human Rights. Elliott, RoAnne and Simon, Ken. United Nations Association of the United States, Minneapolis, MN (1992). Suitable for grades 4-9.612/473-7813.
Ethnic Conflicts in Schools. Banfield, S. Springfield, NJ: Enslow Books (1995).
Facing Racial and Cultural Conflicts: Tools For Rebuilding Community. Washington D.C.: Program for Community Problems (1992).
Hate Crimes: The Rising Tide of Bigotry and Bloodshed. Levin, J., and McDevitt, J. New York: Plenum Press (1993).
It's Our World, Too: Stories of Young People Who Are Making A Difference. Hoose, Phillip. New York: Little, Brown and Co. (1993).
Multicultural Education in a Pluralistic Society. Gollnick, D.M., and Chinn, P.C. Columbus, OH: Merrill (1990).
Multiethnic Education: Theory and Practice. Banks, J.A. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon (1988)
Perpetrators, Victims, Bystanders. Hilberg, Raul. Harper Collins (1992).
Preventing Prejudice: A Guide for Counselors and Educators. Ponterotto, G.J. and Pederson, B.P. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications (1993).
The Hate Crime. Karas, P. New York: Avon Books (1995).
The White Power Movement: America's Racist Hate Groups. Landau, E. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press.
Suitable for elementary school:
Starting Small. A video-and-text teacher training kit including exemplary tolerance education programs for use by early childhood educators. Free, one per school upon written request on letterhead from an elementary principal, day care director, or teacher education department chairperson. 58 Minutes. Teaching Tolerance, 400 Washington Avenue, Montgomery, AL, 36104. 334/264-0286. Fax: 334/264-7310.
Suitable for middle school and high school:
Babakiueria. A satire in which the roles of blacks and whites are reversed. A fleet of black settlers arrive to colonize an area inhabited by white natives. Designed to foster empathy. International. 30 Minutes. Landmark Films, Inc., 3450 Slade Run Drive, Falls Church, VA, 22042. 800/342-4336.
Names Can Really Hurt Us. A series of vignettes in which high school students describe hurtful incidents of prejudice and discrimination. Anti-Defamation League Materials Library, 22-D Hollywood Ave., Hohokus, NJ, 07423. 800/343-5540.
Not in Our Town. Award-winning PBS documentary showing how the town of Billings, Montana responded to
an anti-Semitic hate incident with a community-wide show of support for the intended victims. The Working Group, 5867 Ocean View Drive, Oakland, CA, 94618. 510/268-9675, ext. 317.
The Shadow of Hate. A video-and-classroom guide for secondary students. This Academy Award-nominated documentary traces the history of violence and prejudice in U.S. history against various racial and ethnic groups and women. Free, one per school upon written request on letterhead from a principal, university department, or community organization. 40 Minutes. Teaching Tolerance, 400 Washington Avenue, Montgomery, AL, 36104. 334/264-7310.
Skin. A dramatization of real life incidents, showing the problems minority teenagers encounter in their relationships with teachers, other students, and employers, because of their race or ethnicity. Landmark Films, Inc., 3450 Slade Run Drive, Falls Church, VA, 22042. 800/342-4336.
Skin Deep. Chronicles the experiences of a diverse and divided group of college freshmen as they explore their prejudices and try to understand each other's racial attitudes. California Newsreel, 149 Ninth Street, #420, San Francisco, CA, 94103. 415/621-6196.
Suspect. An African American businessman's encounter with a Latino cab driver who is reluctant to take him to his home in Harlem reveals prejudice and perceptions between minorities. Landmark Films, Inc., 3450 Slade Run Drive, Falls Church, VA, 22042. 800/342-4336.
A Time for Justice. An Academy Award winning documentary that surveys the civil rights movement through historical footage. Video and classroom guide. 38 Minutes. Direct Cinema Limited, P.O. Box 10003, Santa Monica, CA, 90410-10003. 310/636-8200. Fax: 310/636-8228.
Trouble Behind. Addresses the underlying causes and persistence of racism in an American town. Free facilitator's guide available. 56 Minutes. California Newsreel, 149 Ninth Street, #420, San Francisco, CA. 94103. 415/621-6196.
The full text of this public domain publication is available at the U.S. Department of Education's Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program home page at www.ed.gov/offices/OESE/SDFS, and at the U.S. Department of Justice's home page at www.usdoj.gov/topical.htm]. The text is also available in alternate formats upon request. For more information, please contact us at:
U.S. Department of Education
Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program
600 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, D.C. 20202-6123
Telephone: (202) 260-3954
TDD: 1-800-877-8339, 8 a.m. - 8 p.m., ET, M-F