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Report to the Deputy Attorney General on the Events at Waco, Texas

U.S. Department of Justice
Washington, D.C. 20530

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Report to the Deputy Attorney
General on the Events at Waco, Texas
February 28 to April 19, 1993



October 8, 1993

Redacted Version







Richard Scruggs
Assistant to the Attorney General
Victor Gonzalez
Inspector, Federal Bureau of
Steven Zipperstein
Special Counsel to the Assistant
Attorney General, Criminal Division
Herbert Cousins
Assistant Inspector, Federal
Bureau of Investigation
Robert Lyon
Assistant Counsel, Office of
Professional Responsibility
Roderick Beverly
Assistant Inspector, Federal
Bureau of Investigation





Executive Summary

I. Introduction

  1. The Branch Davidians
  2. The FBI's Response to Crisis Situations
II. Chronology: February 28 to April 19, 1993

III. The FBI's Management of the Standoff at Mt. Carmel

  1. Introduction
  2. The FBI's Strategy for Handling the Standoff
  3. The Role of FBI Headquarters in the Standoff
  4. The Negotiations
    1. Organization of the Negotiation Teams
    2. Negotiation Strategy
    3. Significant Negotiation Events During the Standoff
      a) Early Negotiations: February 28 - March 5
      b) Negotiation Team Themes
      c) Negotiations From March 6 to 13
      d) Negotiations From March 14 to 22
      • The Negotiators' Conclusions
      • Differences in Opinions Within The Crisis Management Team
      • Meetings Between the Branch Davidians and Private Counsel
  5. Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) and SWAT Teams
    1. HRT
    2. HRT Tactics
    3. Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) Program
  6. Technical Assistance
  7. Security of the Perimeter Surrounding the Branch Davidian Compound
IV. The Role of Experts During the Standoff
  1. Introduction
  2. Forensic Psychologists/Psychiatrists/Psycholinguists
    1. Dr. Roger Bell
    2. Dr. Park Dietz
    3. Dr. C. Di Giovanni
    4. Dr. Anthony J. Pinizotto
    5. Dr. Mike Webster
    6. Bruce D. Perry
    7. Dr. Murray S. Miron
    8. Dr. Joseph L. Krofcheck
    9. FBI Behavioral Scientists
  3. Religious/Theological Experts
    1. Dr. Philip Arnold
    2. Dr. Bill Austin
    3. Jeriel Bingham
    4. Reverend Trevor Delafield
    5. Dr. Robert Wallace and Dr. John Fredericks
    6. Dr. Michael Haynes
    7. Dr. Glenn Hilburn
  4. Medical Experts
  5. "Cult Experts"
V. Family and Other Outside Contacts
  1. Introduction
  2. Contacts Between Persons Inside the Compound and Family Members
  3. Miscellaneous Contacts
  4. FBI Contacts With Family Members
VI. Attitudes of Koresh and others in the Compound
  1. Introduction
  2. Religion/Devotion to Koresh
  3. Intention to Stay Inside the Compound
  4. Law Enforcement/Government
  5. Death and Suicide
    1. Suicide Possible
    2. Suicide Not Possible
    3. Expert Opinions Regarding Suicide
VII. Child Abuse
  1. A. Introduction
  2. Evidence of Historical Child Sexual and Physical Abuse
    1. Sexual Abuse
    2. Physical Abuse
    3. Circumstantial Evidence of Ongoing Abuse During the Standoff
    4. Public Statements About Child Abuse After the Standoff
VIII. The Role of Other Law Enforcement Organizations
  1. The Texas Rangers
  2. The United States Attorney's Office
  3. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms 233
IX. The Justice Department's Role: February 28 - March 12, 1993
  1. Introduction
  2. The Justice Department During the Transition Period 235
  3. Acting Attorney General Gerson's Handling of Waco:
    February 28 - March 12, 1993 236
X. Role of the White House

XI. Planning and Decision-making Between March 23 and April 19, 1993

  1. Coordination of the Prosecutive and Investigative Teams
  2. The CS Gas-Insertion Plan
    1. Tactical Concerns
    2. The Strategy
  3. Week of April 12, 1993
    1. April 12 Meetings
    2. April 14 Meetings
    3. April 15 Meetings
    4. April 16 Meetings
    5. April 17 Events
    6. April 18 Events
    7. The Attorney General's Concerns
    8. The Attorney General's Retrospective
  4. Details of the Tear Gas Plan

XII. The Events of April 19, 1993

  1. Introduction
  2. Preparations to Implement the Plan
  3. Initial Implementation of the Tear Gas Plan
  4. The Gassing Escalates
  5. The Fire
    1. Infrared Aerial Video and Still Photos
    2. Eyewitness Observations from outside the Compound
    3. Reports of Shooting During the Fire
    4. Davidians Escaping and Being Rescued During the Fire
    5. Statements of Surviving Davidians
    6. Firefighting Efforts
    7. False Accusations that the FBI Started the Fire

XIII. The Aftermath of the April 19 Fire

  1. Introduction
  2. Processing the Crime Scene
  3. Identification of Bodies/Medical Examiner Reports
    1. Branch Davidians Killed During February 28 Shootout
    2. Identified Branch Davidians From April 19 Fire
    3. Unidentified Branch Davidians From April 19 Fire
  4. The Arson Investigation
    1. Introduction
    2. The Arson Report
    3. The Fire Development Analysis

XIV. Prosecutions

  1. Introduction
  2. Prosecutive Efforts During the Standoff
  3. Initial Series of Indictments
    1. United States v. Kathy Schroeder, Brad Branch and Kevin Whitecliff
    2. United States v. Norman Washington Allison (aka Delroy Nash) and Woodrow Kendrick
    3. United States v. Schroeder, Whitecliff, Branch, Jaime Castillo and Clive Doyle
    4. United States v. Paul Fatta
    5. United States v. Graeme Craddock
    6. United States v. Schroeder, Branch, Whitecliff, Doyle Castillo and Livingstone Fagan
  4. The Omnibus Indictment
  5. Schroeder's Guilty Plea



  1. Photographs of Compound
  2. List of Military Personnel and Equipment
  3. List of Demands by Davidians During Standoff and FBI Responses
  4. Arson Report
  5. Koresh Letters
  6. Copy of Indictment
  7. List of Children Released During Standoff
  8. Intelligence on Sanitary Conditions Inside Compound
  9. Intelligence on Davidians, water supply
  10. Riot Control Agent, CS
    Information Obtained from British and U.S. Studies

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Updated February 15, 2018