Elder Abuse and Elder Financial Exploitation Statutes

The federal government, states, commonwealths, territories and the District of Columbia all have laws designed to protect older adults from elder abuse and guide the practice of adult protective services agencies, law enforcement agencies, and others. These laws vary considerably from state to state.
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Citation Statute
Criminal Financial Exploitation
KRS § 209.020(4) & (9) (2020)

Title XVII. Economic Security and Public Welfare
Chapter 209. Protection of Adults
§ 209.020 Definitions for Chapter

As used in this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires:

(9) “Exploitation” means obtaining or using another person's resources, including but not limited to funds, assets, or property, by deception, intimidation, or similar means, with the intent to deprive the person of those resources;


(4) “Adult” means a person eighteen (18) years of age or older who, because of mental or physical dysfunctioning, is unable to manage his or her own resources, carry out the activity of daily living, or protect himself or herself from neglect, exploitation, or a hazardous or abusive situation without assistance from others, and who may be in need of protective services.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
KRS § 209.990(5)-(8) (2020)

Title XVII. Economic Security and Public Welfare
Chapter 209. Protection of Adults
Penalties
§ 209.990 Penalties

 (5) Any person who knowingly exploits an adult, resulting in a total loss to the adult of more than three hundred dollars ($300) in financial or other resources, or both, is guilty of a Class C felony.

(6) Any person who wantonly or recklessly exploits an adult, resulting in a total loss to the adult of more than three hundred dollars ($300) in financial or other resources, or both, is guilty of a Class D felony.

(7) Any person who knowingly, wantonly, or recklessly exploits an adult, resulting in a total loss to the adult of three hundred dollars ($300) or less in financial or other resources, or both, is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.

(8) If a defendant is sentenced under subsection (5), (6), or (7) of this section and fails to return the victim's property as defined in KRS 218A.405 within thirty (30) days of an order by the sentencing court to do so, or is thirty (30) days or more delinquent in a court-ordered payment schedule, then the defendant shall be civilly liable to the victim of the offense or the victim's estate for treble damages, plus reasonable attorney fees and court costs. Any interested person or entity, as defined in KRS 387.510, shall have standing to bring a civil action on the victim's behalf to enforce this section. The sentencing judge shall inform the defendant of the provisions of this subsection at sentencing.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
La. R.S. § 14:283.3(B)(1) (2020)

Title 14. Criminal law (Chs. 1 — 3)
Chapter 2. Miscellaneous crimes and offenses (Pts. 1 — 7)
Part 2. Offenses affecting public morals (§§ 14:281 — 14:286)

§ 14:283.3. Abuse of persons with infirmities through electronic means

B. For purposes of this Section:
(1) “Person with an infirmity” means a person who suffers from a mental or physical disability, including those associated with advanced age, which renders the person incapable of adequately providing for his personal care. A person with an infirmity may include but is not limited to a person who is a resident of a nursing home, facility for persons with intellectual disabilities, mental health facility, hospital, or other residential facility or recipients of home and community-based care.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
La. R.S. § 14:93.3(C) (2020)

Title 14. Criminal law (Chs. 1 — 3)
Chapter 1. Criminal code (Pts. 1 — 8)
Part 5. Offenses affecting the public morals (Subpts. A — B)
Subpart B. Offenses affecting general morality (§§ 14:90 — 14:93.20)
3. Offenses affecting the health and safety of persons with infirmities (§§ 14.93.3 — 14:93.5)                                              

§14. 93.3. Cruelty to persons with infirmities                                                

C. For the purposes of this Section, a person who is aged is any individual sixty years of age or older.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
La. R.S. § 14:93.4.(A) (2020)

Title 14. Criminal Law
Chapter 1. Criminal Code
Part V. Offenses Affecting the Public Morals
Subpart B. Offenses Affecting General Morality
3. Offenses Affecting the Health and Safety of Persons with Infirmities
§ 93.4. Exploitation of persons with infirmities

A. Exploitation of persons with infirmities is:
(1) The intentional expenditure, diminution, or use by any person, including a caregiver, of the property or assets of a person with an infirmity, an adult with a disability, or a person who is aged, including but not limited to a resident of a nursing home, facility for persons with intellectual disabilities, mental health facility, hospital, or other residential facility without the express voluntary consent of the resident or the consent of a legally authorized representative of an incompetent resident, or by means of fraudulent conduct, practices, or representations.
(2) The use of the power of attorney or guardianship of a person with an infirmity, a person who is aged, or an adult with a disability for one's own profit or advantage by means of fraudulent conduct, practices, or representations.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
MCA § 45-6-333(1)-(2) & (4) (2020)

Title 45. Crimes
Chapter 6. Offenses Against Property
Part 3. Theft and Related Offenses
§ 45-6-333. Exploitation of older person, incapacitated person, or person with developmental disability

(1) A person commits the offense of exploitation of an older person, an incapacitated person, or a person with a developmental disability if the person:
(a) purposely or knowingly obtains or uses or attempts to obtain or use an older person's, incapacitated person's, or developmentally disabled person's funds, assets, or property with the intent to temporarily or permanently deprive the older person, incapacitated person, or developmentally disabled person of the use, benefit, or possession of funds, assets, or property or to benefit someone other than the older person, incapacitated person, or developmentally disabled person by means of deception, duress, menace, fraud, undue influence, or intimidation; and
(b)(i) stands in a position of trust or confidence with the older person, incapacitated person, or developmentally disabled person; or
(ii) has a business relationship with the older person, incapacitated person, or developmentally disabled person.

(2) A person commits the offense of exploitation of an older person, an incapacitated person, or a person with a developmental disability if the person:
(a) purposely or knowingly obtains personal identifying information of another person and uses that information for any unlawful purpose, including to obtain or attempt to obtain credit, goods, services, financial information, or medical information in the name of the other person without the consent of the other person; and
(b)(i) stands in a position of trust or confidence with the older person, incapacitated person, or developmentally disabled person; or
(ii) has a business relationship with the older person, incapacitated person, or developmentally disabled person.


(4) As used in this section, the following definitions apply:
(a) “Developmental disability”
has the meaning provided in 53-20-102.
(b) “Incapacitated person” has the meaning provided in 72-5-101.
(c) “Older person” means a person who is 65 years of age or older.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
MCL § 400.11(b)-(c) & (f) (2020)

Chapter 400. Social Services
The Social Welfare Act
State Department of Social Services
§ 400.11. Definitions; sections 400.11a to 400.11f

Sec. 11. As used in this section and sections 11a to 11f:

(c) “Exploitation” means an action that involves the misuse of an adult's funds, property, or personal dignity by another person.


(b) “Adult in need of protective services” or “adult” means a vulnerable person not less than 18 years of age who is suspected of being or believed to be abused, neglected, or exploited.

(f) “Vulnerable” means a condition in which an adult is unable to protect himself or herself from abuse, neglect, or exploitation because of a mental or physical impairment or because of advanced age.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
MCL § 750.145m(u) (2020)

Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code
The Michigan Penal Code
Chapter Xxa. Vulnerable Adults
§ 750.145m. Definitions

Sec. 145m. As used in this chapter:

(u) “Vulnerable adult” means 1 or more of the following:
(i) An individual age 18 or over who, because of age, developmental disability, mental illness, or physical disability requires supervision or personal care or lacks the personal and social skills required to live independently.
(ii) An adult as defined in section 3(1)(b) of the adult foster care facility licensing act, MCL 400.703.
(iii) An adult as defined in section 11(b) of the social welfare act, MCL 400.11.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
MCL § 750.174a(1) & (15)(c) (2020)

Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code
The Michigan Penal Code
Chapter XXXI. Embezzlement
§ 750.174a. Vulnerable adult; prohibited conduct; violation; penalty; enhanced sentence; exceptions; consecutive sentence; definitions; report by office of services to the aging to department of human services

Sec. 174a. (1) A person shall not through fraud, deceit, misrepresentation, coercion, or unjust enrichment obtain or use or attempt to obtain or use a vulnerable adult's money or property to directly or indirectly benefit that person knowing or having reason to know the vulnerable adult is a vulnerable adult.


Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code
The Michigan Penal Code
Chapter XXXI. Embezzlement
§ 750.174a. Vulnerable adult; prohibited conduct; violation; penalty; enhanced sentence; exceptions; consecutive sentence; definitions; report by office of services to the aging to department of human services

(15) As used in this section:
(c) “Vulnerable adult”
means that term as defined in section 145m,2 whether or not the individual has been determined by the court to be incapacitated.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
Md. CRIMINAL LAW Code Ann. § 3-604(a)(1), (10) (2020)

Maryland Criminal Law
Title 3. Other Crimes Against the Person
Subtitle 6. Abuse and Other Offensive Conduct
§ 3-604. Abuse or neglect of vulnerable adult

Definitions
(a)(1) In this section and §§ 3-605 and 3-606 of this subtitle the following words have the meanings indicated.

(10) “Vulnerable adult” means an adult who lacks the physical or mental capacity to provide for the adult's daily needs.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
Md. CRIMINAL LAW Code Ann. § 8-801(a)(1), (8) & (b)(1)-(2) (2020)

Maryland Criminal Law
Title 8. Fraud and Related Crimes
Subtitle 8. Financial Crimes Against Vulnerable Adults
§ 8-801. Financial crimes against vulnerable adults

Prohibited conduct
(b)(1) A person may not knowingly and willfully obtain by deception, intimidation, or undue influence the property of an individual that the person knows or reasonably should know is a vulnerable adult with intent to deprive the vulnerable adult of the vulnerable adult's property.
(2) A person may not knowingly and willfully obtain by deception, intimidation, or undue influence the property of an individual that the person knows or reasonably should know is at least 68 years old, with intent to deprive the individual of the individual's property.


Definitions
(a)(1) In this section the following words have the meanings indicated.
(8) “Vulnerable adult”
has the meaning stated in § 3-604 of this article.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
Minn. Stat. § 609.232 (2020)

Crimes; Expungement; Victims
Chapter 609. Criminal Code
Crimes Against the Person
§ 609.232. Crimes against vulnerable adults; definitions

Subd. 11. Vulnerable adult. “Vulnerable adult” means any person 18 years of age or older who:
(1) is a resident inpatient of a facility;
(2) receives services at or from a facility required to be licensed to serve adults under sections 245A.01 to 245A.15, except that a person receiving outpatient services for treatment of chemical dependency or mental illness, or one who is committed as a sexual psychopathic personality or as a sexually dangerous person under chapter 253B, is not considered a vulnerable adult unless the person meets the requirements of clause (4);
(3) receives services from a home care provider required to be licensed under sections 144A.43 to 144A.482; or from a person or organization that exclusively offers, provides, or arranges for personal care assistance services under the medical assistance program as authorized under sections 256B.0625, subdivision 19a, 256B.0651 to 256B.0654, and 256B.0659; or
(4) regardless of residence or whether any type of service is received, possesses a physical or mental infirmity or other physical, mental, or emotional dysfunction:
(i) that impairs the individual's ability to provide adequately for the individual's own care without assistance, including the provision of food, shelter, clothing, health care, or supervision; and
(ii) because of the dysfunction or infirmity and the need for assistance, the individual has an impaired ability to protect the individual from maltreatment.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
Minn. Stat. § 609.2335 (2020)

Crimes; Expungement; Victims
Chapter 609. Criminal Code
Crimes Against the Person
§ 609.2335. Financial exploitation of vulnerable adult

Subdivision 1. Crime. Whoever does any of the following acts commits the crime of financial exploitation:

(1) in breach of a fiduciary obligation recognized elsewhere in law, including pertinent regulations, contractual obligations, documented consent by a competent person, or the obligations of a responsible party under section 144.6501 intentionally:
(i) fails to use the real or personal property or other financial resources of the vulnerable adult to provide food, clothing, shelter, health care, therapeutic conduct, or supervision for the vulnerable adult;
(ii) uses, manages, or takes either temporarily or permanently the real or personal property or other financial resources of the vulnerable adult, whether held in the name of the vulnerable adult or a third party, for the benefit of someone other than the vulnerable adult; or
(iii) deprives either temporarily or permanently a vulnerable adult of the vulnerable adult's real or personal property or other financial resources, whether held in the name of the vulnerable adult or a third party, for the benefit of someone other than the vulnerable adult; or

(2) in the absence of legal authority:
(i) acquires possession or control of an interest in real or personal property or other financial resources of a vulnerable adult, whether held in the name of the vulnerable adult or a third party, through the use of undue influence, harassment, or duress;
(ii) forces, compels, coerces, or entices a vulnerable adult against the vulnerable adult's will to perform services for the profit or advantage of another; or
(iii) establishes a relationship with a fiduciary obligation to a vulnerable adult by use of undue influence, harassment, duress, force, compulsion, coercion, or other enticement.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
Miss. Code Ann. § 43-47-19(1) (2020)

Title 43. Public Welfare
Chapter 47. Mississippi Vulnerable Persons Act
§ 43-47-19. Abuse, neglect and exploitation forbidden

(1) It shall be unlawful for any person to abuse, neglect or exploit any vulnerable person.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
Miss. Code Ann. § 43-47-5(i) & (q) (2020) 

Title 43. Public Welfare
Chapter 47. Mississippi Vulnerable Persons Act
§ 43-47-5. Definitions

For the purposes of this chapter, the following words shall have the meanings ascribed herein unless the context otherwise requires:

(i) “Exploitation” means the illegal or improper use of a vulnerable person or his resources for another's profit, advantage or unjust enrichment, with or without the consent of the vulnerable person, and may include actions taken pursuant to a power of attorney. “Exploitation” includes, but is not limited to, a single incident.


(q) “Vulnerable person” means a person, whether a minor or adult, whose ability to perform the normal activities of daily living or to provide for his or her own care or protection from abuse, neglect, exploitation or improper sexual contact is impaired due to a mental, emotional, physical or developmental disability or dysfunction, or brain damage or the infirmities of aging. The term “vulnerable person” also includes all residents or patients, regardless of age, in a care facility. The department shall not be prohibited from investigating, and shall have the authority and responsibility to fully investigate, in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, any allegation of abuse, neglect or exploitation regarding a patient in a care facility, if the alleged abuse, neglect or exploitation occurred at a private residence.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-112.2(a)-(c) (2020)

Chapter 14. Criminal Law
Subchapter V. Offenses Against Property
Article 19. False Pretenses and Cheats
§ 14-112.2. Exploitation of an older adult or disabled adult

(b) It is unlawful for a person: (i) who stands in a position of trust and confidence with an older adult or disabled adult, or (ii) who has a business relationship with an older adult or disabled adult to knowingly, by deception or intimidation, obtain or use, or endeavor to obtain or use, an older adult's or disabled adult's funds, assets, or property with the intent to temporarily or permanently deprive the older adult or disabled adult of the use, benefit, or possession of the funds, assets, or property, or to benefit someone other than the older adult or disabled adult.

(c) It is unlawful for a person to knowingly, by deception or intimidation, obtain or use, endeavor to obtain or use, or conspire with another to obtain or use an older adult's or disabled adult's funds, assets, or property with the intent to temporarily or permanently deprive the older adult or disabled adult of the use, benefit, or possession of the funds, assets, or property, or benefit someone other than the older adult or disabled adult. This subsection shall not apply to a person acting within the scope of that person's lawful authority as the agent for the older adult or disabled adult.


(a) The following definitions apply in this section:
(1) Disabled adult.--
A person 18 years of age or older or a lawfully emancipated minor who is present in the State of North Carolina and who is physically or mentally incapacitated as defined in G.S. 108A-101(d).
(2) Older adult.--A person 65 years of age or older.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
N.D. Cent. Code, § 12.1-31-07(1)(b) (2019)

Title 12.1. Criminal Code
Chapter 12.1-31. Miscellaneous Offenses
§ 12.1-31-07. Endangering an eligible adult--Penalty

1. In this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires:

b. “Eligible adult” means an individual who is at least sixty-five years old or a vulnerable adult as defined in section 50-25.2-01.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
N.D. Cent. Code, § 12.1-31-07.1(1) (2019)

Title 12.1. Criminal Code
Chapter 12.1-31. Miscellaneous Offenses
§ 12.1-31-07.1. Exploitation of an eligible adult--Penalty

1. A person is guilty of exploitation of an eligible adult if:
a. The person stands in a position of trust and confidence or has a business relationship with the eligible adult and knowingly, by deception, intimidation, or undue influence, obtains or uses, or attempts to obtain or use, the eligible adult's funds, assets, or property with the intent to temporarily or permanently deprive the eligible adult of the use, benefit, or possession of the property, for the benefit of someone other than the eligible adult; or
b. The person knows the eligible adult lacks the capacity to consent, and obtains or uses, or attempts to obtain or use, or assists another in obtaining or using or attempting to obtain or use, the eligible adult's funds, assets, or property with the intent to temporarily or permanently deprive the eligible adult of the use, benefit, or possession of the property for the benefit of someone other than the eligible adult.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 200.5092(3), (6) & (8) (2020)

Title 15. Crimes and Punishments
Chapter 200. Crimes Against the Person
Abuse, Neglect, Exploitation, Isolation or Abandonment of Older Persons and Vulnerable Persons 
§ 200.5092. Definitions

As used in NRS 200.5091 to 200.50995, inclusive, unless the context otherwise requires:

3. “Exploitation” means any act taken by a person who has the trust and confidence of an older person or a vulnerable person or any use of the power of attorney or guardianship of an older person or a vulnerable person to:
(a) Obtain control, through deception, intimidation or undue influence, over the older person's or vulnerable person's money, assets or property with the intention of permanently depriving the older person or vulnerable person of the ownership, use, benefit or possession of his or her money, assets or property; or


6. “Older person” means a person who is 60 years of age or older.

8. “Vulnerable person” means a person 18 years of age or older who:
(a) Suffers from a condition of physical or mental incapacitation because of a developmental disability, organic brain damage or mental illness; or
(b) Has one or more physical or mental limitations that restrict the ability of the person to perform the normal activities of daily living.

(b) Convert money, assets or property of the older person or vulnerable person with the intention of permanently depriving the older person or vulnerable person of the ownership, use, benefit or possession of his or her money, assets or property.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
O.C.G.A. § 16-5-100(3), (4) & (6) (2020)

Title 16. Crimes and Offenses
Chapter 5. Crimes Against the Person
Article 8. Protection of Elder Persons
§ 16-5-100. Definitions

As used in this article, the term:

(6) “Exploit” means illegally or improperly using a disabled adult or elder person or that person's resources through undue influence, coercion, harassment, duress, deception, false representation, false pretense, or other similar means for one's own or another person's profit or advantage, including, but not limited to, the illegal taking of resources belonging to a disabled adult or elder person when access to the resources was obtained due to the disabled adult's or elder person's mental or physical incapacity.


(3) "Disabled adult" means a person 18 years of age or older who is mentally or physically incapacitated or has Alzheimer's disease or dementia.                                                                    

(4) “Elder person” means a person 65 years of age or older.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
O.C.G.A. § 16-5-102(a) (2020)

Title 16. Crimes and Offenses
Chapter 5. Crimes Against the Person
Article 8. Protection of Elder Persons
§ 16-5-102. Punishment for any person who exploits, threatens, intimidates, or attempts to intimidate a disabled adult or elder person

(a) Any person who knowingly and willfully exploits a disabled adult, elder person, or resident, willfully inflicts physical pain, physical injury, sexual abuse, mental anguish, or unreasonable confinement upon a disabled adult, elder person, or resident, or willfully deprives of essential services a disabled adult, elder person, or resident shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than one nor more than 20 years, a fine of not more than $50,000.00, or both.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
OH ST § 2913.01(CC) & (DD) (2020)

Title XXIX. Crimes—Procedure 
Chapter 2913. Theft and Fraud
OH ST § 2913.01 Definitions

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires that a term be given a different meaning:

(CC) “Elderly person” means a person who is sixty-five years of age or older.
(DD) “Disabled adult” means a person who is eighteen years of age or older and has some impairment of body or mind that makes the person unable to work at any substantially remunerative employment that the person otherwise would be able to perform and that will, with reasonable probability, continue for a period of at least twelve months without any present indication of recovery from the impairment, or who is eighteen years of age or older and has been certified as permanently and totally disabled by an agency of this state or the United States that has the function of so classifying persons.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
OH ST § 2913.02 (2020)

Title XXIX. Crimes—Procedure 
Chapter 2913. Theft and Fraud 
OH ST § 2913.02 Theft and Fraud

(A) No person, with purpose to deprive the owner of property or services, shall knowingly obtain or exert control over either the property or services in any of the following ways:
(1) Without the consent of the owner or person authorized to give consent;
(2) Beyond the scope of the express or implied consent of the owner or person authorized to give consent;
(3) By deception;
(4) By threat;
(5) By intimidation.
(B)(1) Whoever violates this section is guilty of theft.
(2) Except as otherwise provided in this division or division (B)(3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), or (9) of this section, a violation of this section is petty theft, a misdemeanor of the first degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars or if the property stolen is any of the property listed in section 2913.71 of the Revised Code, a violation of this section is theft, a felony of the fifth degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, a violation of this section is grand theft, a felony of the fourth degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more and is less than seven hundred fifty thousand dollars, a violation of this section is aggravated theft, a felony of the third degree. If the value of the property or services is seven hundred fifty thousand dollars or more and is less than one million five hundred thousand dollars, a violation of this section is aggravated theft, a felony of the second degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is one million five hundred thousand dollars or more, a violation of this section is aggravated theft of one million five hundred thousand dollars or more, a felony of the first degree.
(3) Except as otherwise provided in division (B)(4), (5), (6), (7), (8), or (9) of this section, if the victim of the offense is an elderly person, disabled adult, active duty service member, or spouse of an active duty service member, a violation of this section is theft from a person in a protected class, and division (B)(3) of this section applies. Except as otherwise provided in this division, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the fifth degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the fourth degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the third degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the second degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the first degree. If the victim of the offense is an elderly person, in addition to any other penalty imposed for the offense, the offender shall be required to pay full restitution to the victim and to pay a fine of up to fifty thousand dollars. The clerk of court shall forward all fines collected under division (B)(3) of this section to the county department of job and family services to be used for the reporting and investigation of elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation or for the provision or arrangement of protective services under sections 5101.61 to 5101.71 of the Revised Code.
(4) If the property stolen is a firearm or dangerous ordnance, a violation of this section is grand theft. Except as otherwise provided in this division, grand theft when the property stolen is a firearm or dangerous ordnance is a felony of the third degree, and there is a presumption in favor of the court imposing a prison term for the offense. If the firearm or dangerous ordnance was stolen from a federally licensed firearms dealer, grand theft when the property stolen is a firearm or dangerous ordnance is a felony of the first degree. The offender shall serve a prison term imposed for grand theft when the property stolen is a firearm or dangerous ordnance consecutively to any other prison term or mandatory prison term previously or subsequently imposed upon the offender.
(5) If the property stolen is a motor vehicle, a violation of this section is grand theft of a motor vehicle, a felony of the fourth degree.
(6) If the property stolen is any dangerous drug, a violation of this section is theft of drugs, a felony of the fourth degree, or, if the offender previously has been convicted of a felony drug abuse offense, a felony of the third degree.
(7) If the property stolen is a police dog or horse or an assistance dog and the offender knows or should know that the property stolen is a police dog or horse or an assistance dog, a violation of this section is theft of a police dog or horse or an assistance dog, a felony of the third degree.
(8) If the property stolen is anhydrous ammonia, a violation of this section is theft of anhydrous ammonia, a felony of the third degree.
(9) Except as provided in division (B)(2) of this section with respect to property with a value of seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and division (B)(3) of this section with respect to property with a value of one thousand dollars or more, if the property stolen is a special purpose article as defined in section 4737.04 of the Revised Code or is a bulk merchandise container as defined in section 4737.012 of the Revised Code, a violation of this section is theft of a special purpose article or articles or theft of a bulk merchandise container or containers, a felony of the fifth degree.
(10) In addition to the penalties described in division (B)(2) of this section, if the offender committed the violation by causing a motor vehicle to leave the premises of an establishment at which gasoline is offered for retail sale without the offender making full payment for gasoline that was dispensed into the fuel tank of the motor vehicle or into another container, the court may do one of the following:
(a) Unless division (B)(10)(b) of this section applies, suspend for not more than six months the offender's driver's license, probationary driver's license, commercial driver's license, temporary instruction permit, or nonresident operating privilege;
(b) If the offender's driver's license, probationary driver's license, commercial driver's license, temporary instruction permit, or nonresident operating privilege has previously been suspended pursuant to division (B)(10)(a) of this section, impose a class seven suspension of the offender's license, permit, or privilege from the range specified in division (A)(7) of section 4510.02 of the Revised Code, provided that the suspension shall be for at least six months.
(c) The court, in lieu of suspending the offender's driver's or commercial driver's license, probationary driver's license, temporary instruction permit, or nonresident operating privilege pursuant to division (B)(10)(a) or (b) of this section, instead may require the offender to perform community service for a number of hours determined by the court.
(11) In addition to the penalties described in division (B)(2) of this section, if the offender committed the violation by stealing rented property or rental services, the court may order that the offender make restitution pursuant to section 2929.18 or 2929.28 of the Revised Code. Restitution may include, but is not limited to, the cost of repairing or replacing the stolen property, or the cost of repairing the stolen property and any loss of revenue resulting from deprivation of the property due to theft of rental services that is less than or equal to the actual value of the property at the time it was rented. Evidence of intent to commit theft of rented property or rental services shall be determined pursuant to the provisions of section 2913.72 of the Revised Code.
(C) The sentencing court that suspends an offender's license, permit, or nonresident operating privilege under division (B)(10) of this section may grant the offender limited driving privileges during the period of the suspension in accordance with Chapter 4510. of the Revised Code.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
ORS § 163.205(1)(b)(D) & 2(b)-(c) (2020)

Title 16. Crimes and Punishments
Chapter 163. Offenses Against Persons
Assault and Related Offenses
§ 163.205. Criminal mistreatment in the first degree

(1) A person commits the crime of criminal mistreatment in the first degree if:

(b) The person, in violation of a legal duty to provide care for a dependent person or elderly person, or having assumed the permanent or temporary care, custody or responsibility for the supervision of a dependent person or elderly person, intentionally or knowingly:

(D) Hides the dependent person's or elderly person's money or property or takes the money or property for, or appropriates the money or property to, any use or purpose not in the due and lawful execution of the person's responsibility;


(2) As used in this section:
(b) “Dependent person”
means a person who because of either age or a physical or mental disability is dependent upon another to provide for the person’s physical needs.
(c) “Elderly person” means a person 65 years of age or older.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
R.I. Gen. Laws Section 11-68-1(4) (2020)

Title 11. Criminal Offenses
Chapter 68. Exploitation of Elders
§ 11-68-1. Definitions

As used in this chapter:

(4) “Elder person” means a person sixty-five (65) years of age or older.

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