Elder Abuse and Elder Financial Exploitation Statutes

The federal government, states, commonwealths, territories and the District of Columbia all have laws designed to protect older adults from elder abuse and guide the practice of adult protective services agencies, law enforcement agencies, and others. These laws vary considerably from state to state.
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Citation Statute
Civil Financial Exploitation
MCLS § 400.11  (2016)

Chapter 400  SOCIAL SERVICES

Section 400.11 THE SOCIAL WELFARE ACT (EXCERPT) Act 280 of 1939

§ 400.11 Definitions.

(c) “Exploitation” means an action that involves the misuse of an adult's funds, property, or personal dignity by another person.


(b) "Adult in need of protective services" or "adult" means a vulnerable person not less than 18 years of age who is suspected of being or believed to be abused, neglected, or exploited.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
MICH. COMP. LAWS ANN. § 400.11 (2016)

 
Chapter 400  Social Services  
Act 280 of 1939  The Social Welfare Act  
State Department of Social Services

§ 400.11.  Definitions.

Sec. 11.   As used in this section and sections 11a to 11f:

     (a) "Abuse" means harm or threatened harm to an adult's health or welfare caused by another person. Abuse includes, but is not limited to, nonaccidental physical or mental injury, sexual abuse, or maltreatment.

     (b) "Adult in need of protective services" or "adult" means a vulnerable person not less than 18 years of age who is suspected of being or believed to be abused, neglected, or exploited.

     (c) "Exploitation" means an action that involves the misuse of an adult's funds, property, or personal dignity by another person.

     (d) "Neglect" means harm to an adult's health or welfare caused by the inability of the adult to respond to a harmful situation or by the conduct of a person who assumes responsibility for a significant aspect of the adult's health or welfare. Neglect includes the failure to provide adequate food, clothing, shelter, or medical care. A person shall not be considered to be abused, neglected, or in need of emergency or protective services for the sole reason that the person is receiving or relying upon treatment by spiritual means through prayer alone in accordance with the tenets and practices of a recognized church or religious denomination, and this act shall not require any medical care or treatment in contravention of the stated or implied objection of that person.

     (e) "Protective services" includes, but is not limited to, remedial, social, legal, health, mental health, and referral services provided in response to a report of alleged harm or threatened harm because of abuse, neglect, or exploitation.

     (f) "Vulnerable" means a condition in which an adult is unable to protect himself or herself from abuse, neglect, or exploitation because of a mental or physical impairment or because of advanced age.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
MICH. COMP. LAWS ANN. § 750.174a (2016)

 

Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code 
Chapter XXXI. Embezzlement

750.174a Vulnerable adult; prohibited conduct; violation; penalty; enhanced sentence; exceptions; consecutive sentence; definitions; report by office of services to the aging to department of human services.

Sec. 174a.

(1) A person shall not through fraud, deceit, misrepresentation, coercion, or unjust enrichment obtain or use or attempt to obtain or use a vulnerable adult's money or property to directly or indirectly benefit that person knowing or having reason to know the vulnerable adult is a vulnerable adult.

(2) If the money or property used or obtained, or attempted to be used or obtained, has a value of less than $200.00, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 93 days or a fine of not more than $500.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property used or obtained or attempted to be used or obtained, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine.

(3) If any of the following apply, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 1 year or a fine of not more than $2,000.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property used or obtained or attempted to be used or obtained, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine:

(a) The money or property used or obtained, or attempted to be used or obtained, has a value of $200.00 or more but less than $1,000.00.

(b) The person violates subsection (2) and has 1 or more prior convictions for committing or attempting to commit an offense under this section.

(4) If any of the following apply, the person is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 5 years or a fine of not more than $10,000.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property used or obtained or attempted to be used or obtained, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine:

(a) The money or property used or obtained, or attempted to be used or obtained, has a value of $1,000.00 or more but less than $20,000.00.

(b) The person violates subsection (3)(a) and has 1 or more prior convictions for committing or attempting to commit an offense under this section. For purposes of this subdivision, however, a prior conviction does not include a conviction for a violation or attempted violation of subsection (2) or (3)(b).

(5) If any of the following apply, the person is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 10 years or a fine of not more than $15,000.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property used or obtained or attempted to be used or obtained, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine:

(a) The money or property used or obtained, or attempted to be used or obtained, has a value of $20,000.00 or more but less than $50,000.00.

(b) The person violates subsection (4)(a) and has 2 or more prior convictions for committing or attempting to commit an offense under this section. For purposes of this subdivision, however, a prior conviction does not include a conviction for a violation or attempted violation of subsection (2) or (3)(b).

(6) If any of the following apply, the person is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 15 years or a fine of not more than $15,000.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property used or obtained or attempted to be used or obtained, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine:

(a) The money or property used or obtained, or attempted to be used or obtained, has a value of $50,000.00 or more but less than $100,000.00.

(b) The person violates subsection (5)(a) and has 2 or more prior convictions for committing or attempting to commit an offense under this section. For purposes of this subdivision, however, a prior conviction does not include a conviction for a violation or attempted violation of subsection (2) or (3)(b).

(7) If any of the following apply, the person is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 20 years or a fine of not more than $50,000.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property used or obtained or attempted to be used or obtained, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine:

(a) The money or property used or obtained, or attempted to be used or obtained, has a value of $100,000.00 or more.

(b) The person violates subsection (6)(a) and has 2 or more prior convictions for committing or attempting to commit an offense under this section. For purposes of this subdivision, however, a prior conviction does not include a conviction for a violation or attempted violation of subsection (2) or (3)(b).

(8) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the values of money or property used or obtained or attempted to be used or obtained in separate incidents pursuant to a scheme or course of conduct within any 12-month period may be aggregated to determine the total value of money or personal property used or obtained or attempted to be used or obtained. If the scheme or course of conduct is directed against only 1 person, no time limit applies to aggregation under this subsection.

(9) If the prosecuting attorney intends to seek an enhanced sentence based upon the defendant having 1 or more prior convictions, the prosecuting attorney shall include on the complaint and information a statement listing the prior conviction or convictions. The existence of the defendant's prior conviction or convictions shall be determined by the court, without a jury, at sentencing or at a separate hearing for that purpose before sentencing. The existence of a prior conviction may be established by any evidence relevant for that purpose, including, but not limited to, 1 or more of the following:

(a) A copy of the judgment of conviction.

(b) A transcript of a prior trial, plea-taking, or sentencing.

(c) Information contained in a presentence report.

(d) The defendant's statement.

(10) If the sentence for a conviction under this section is enhanced by 1 or more prior convictions, those prior convictions shall not be used to further enhance the sentence for the conviction under section 10, 11, or 12 of chapter IX of the code of criminal procedure, 1927 PA 175, MCL 769.10, 769.11, and 769.12.

(11) A financial institution or a broker or a director, officer, employee, or agent of a financial institution or broker is not in violation of this section while performing duties in the normal course of business of a financial institution or broker or a director, officer, employee, or agent of a financial institution or broker.

(13) The court may order a sentence imposed for a violation of subsection (4), (5), (6), or (7) to be served consecutively to any other sentence imposed for a violation of this section.

(14) This section does not prohibit a person from being charged with, convicted of, or punished for any other violation of law the person commits while violating this section.

(15) As used in this section:

(a) "Broker" means that term as defined in section 8102 of the uniform commercial code, 1962 PA 174, MCL 440.8102.

(b) "Financial institution" means a bank, credit union, saving bank, or a savings and loan chartered under state or federal law or an affiliate of a bank, credit union, saving bank, or savings and loan chartered under state or federal law.

(c) "Vulnerable adult" means that term as defined in section 145m, whether or not the individual has been determined by the court to be incapacitated.

(16) If the office of services to the aging becomes aware of a violation of this section, the office of services to the aging shall promptly report the violation to the department of human services.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
MICH. COMP.LAWS ANN. § § 750.145m (2016)

 

Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code 
§ 750.145m

"Vulnerable adult" means 1 or more of the following:

         (i) An individual age 18 or over who, because of age, developmental disability, mental illness, or physical disability requires supervision or personal care or lacks the personal and social skills required to live independently.

         (ii) An adult as defined in section 3(1)(b) of the adult foster care facility licensing act, MCL 400.703.

         (iii) An adult as defined in section 11(b) of the social welfare act, MCL 400.11.

Civil Elder Abuse
MCLS §§ 400.11 through 400.11f  (2017)

MCLS § 400.11  (2017)

Chapter 400  Social Services Act 280 of 1939  The Social Welfare Act  State Department of Social Services

  (a) "Abuse" means harm or threatened harm to an adult's health or welfare caused by another person. Abuse includes, but is not limited to, nonaccidental physical or mental injury, sexual abuse, or maltreatment.

   (c) "Exploitation" means an action that involves the misuse of an adult's funds, property, or personal dignity by another person.

  (d) "Neglect" means harm to an adult's health or welfare caused by the inability of the adult to respond to a harmful situation or by the conduct of a person who assumes responsibility for a significant aspect of the adult's health or welfare. Neglect includes the failure to provide adequate food, clothing, shelter, or medical care. A person shall not be considered to be abused, neglected, or in need of emergency or protective services for the sole reason that the person is receiving or relying upon treatment by spiritual means through prayer alone in accordance with the tenets and practices of a recognized church or religious denomination, and this act shall not require any medical care or treatment in contravention of the stated or implied objection of that person.

Criminal Elder Abuse
Mich. Comp. Laws § 750.145m 

Sec. 145m.

As used in this chapter:

(a) “Adult foster care facility” means that term as defined in section 3 of the adult foster care facility licensing act, MCL 400.703.

(b) “Adult foster care facility licensing act” means 1979 PA 218, MCL 400.701 to 400.737.

(c) “Caregiver” means an individual who directly cares for or has physical custody of a vulnerable adult.

(d) “Developmental disability” means that term as defined in section 500 of the mental health code, MCL 330.1500.

(e) “Facility” means an adult foster care facility, a home for the aged, or a nursing home.

(f) “Home for the aged” means that term as defined in section 20106 of the public health code, MCL 333.20106.

(g) “Licensee” means that term as defined in section 5 of the adult foster care facility licensing act, MCL 400.705, or as defined in section 20108 of the public health code, MCL 333.20108. Licensee does not include a hospital, as that term is defined in section 20106 of the public health code, MCL 333.20106, except that part of a hospital that is a hospital long-term care unit, as that term is defined in section 20106 of the public health code, MCL 333.20106.

(h) “Mental health code” means 1974 PA 258, MCL 330.1001 to 330.2106.

(i) “Mental illness” means that term as defined in section 400 of the mental health code, MCL 330.1400.

(j) “Nursing home” means that term as defined in section 20109 of the public health code, MCL 333.20109 and a hospital long-term care unit as defined in section 20106 of the public health code, MCL 333.20106.

(k) “Other person with authority over a vulnerable adult” includes, but is not limited to, a person with authority over a vulnerable adult in that part of a hospital that is a hospital long-term care unit, but does not include a person with authority over a vulnerable adult in that part of a hospital that is not a hospital long-term care unit. As used in this subdivision, “hospital” and “hospital long-term care unit” mean those terms as defined in section 20106 of the public health code, MCL 333.20106.

(l) “Part 213, 215, or 217 of the public health code” means MCL 333.21301 to 333.21333, 333.21501 to 333.21568, and 333.21701 to 333.21799e.

(m) “Personal care” means assistance with eating, dressing, personal hygiene, grooming, or maintenance of a medication schedule as directed and supervised by a vulnerable adult's physician.

(n) “Physical harm” means any injury to a vulnerable adult's physical condition.

(o) “Public health code” means 1978 PA 368, MCL 333.1101 to 333.25211.

(p) “Reckless act or reckless failure to act” means conduct that demonstrates a deliberate disregard of the likelihood that the natural tendency of the act or failure to act is to cause physical harm, serious physical harm, or serious mental harm.

(q) “Resident” means an individual who resides in a facility.

(r) “Serious physical harm” means a physical injury that threatens the life of a vulnerable adult, that causes substantial bodily disfigurement, or that seriously impairs the functioning or well-being of the vulnerable adult.

(s) “Serious mental harm” means a mental injury that results in a substantial alteration of mental functioning that is manifested in a visibly demonstrable manner.

(t) “Social welfare act” means 1939 PA 280, MCL 400.1 to 400.119b.

(u) “Vulnerable adult” means 1 or more of the following:

(i) An individual age 18 or over who, because of age, developmental disability, mental illness, or physical disability requires supervision or personal care or lacks the personal and social skills required to live independently.

(ii) An adult as defined in section 3(1)(b) of the adult foster care facility licensing act, MCL 400.703.

(iii) An adult as defined in section 11(b) of the social welfare act, MCL 400.11.


History: Add. 1994, Act 149, Eff. Oct. 1, 1994 ;-- Am. 1998, Act 38, Imd. Eff. Mar. 18, 1998

http://www.legislature.mi.gov/(S(l1ped1rdozve4wkdf...
Criminal Elder Abuse
Mich. Comp. Laws § 750.174

(1) A person who as the agent, servant, or employee of another person, governmental entity within this state, or other legal entity or who as the trustee, bailee, or custodian of the property of another person, governmental entity within this state, or other legal entity fraudulently disposes of or converts to his or her own use, or takes or secretes with the intent to convert to his or her own use without the consent of his or her principal, any money or other personal property of his or her principal that has come to that person's possession or that is under his or her charge or control by virtue of his or her being an agent, servant, employee, trustee, bailee, or custodian, is guilty of embezzlement.

(2) If the money or personal property embezzled has a value of less than $200.00, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 93 days or a fine of not more than $500.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property embezzled, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine.

(3) If any of the following apply, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 1 year or a fine of not more than $2,000.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property embezzled, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine:

(a) The money or personal property embezzled has a value of $200.00 or more but less than $1,000.00.

(b) The person violates subsection (2) and has 1 or more prior convictions for committing or attempting to commit an offense under this section or a local ordinance substantially corresponding to this section.

(c) The person violates subsection (2) and the victim is a nonprofit corporation or charitable organization under federal law or the laws of this state.

(4) If any of the following apply, the person is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 5 years or a fine of not more than $10,000.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property embezzled, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine:

(a) The money or personal property embezzled has a value of $1,000.00 or more but less than $20,000.00.

(b) The person violates subsection (3)(a) or (c) and has 1 or more prior convictions for committing or attempting to commit an offense under this section. For purposes of this subdivision, however, a prior conviction does not include a conviction for a violation or attempted violation of subsection (2) or (3)(b).

(c) The person violates subsection (3)(a) and the victim is a nonprofit corporation or charitable organization under federal law or the laws of this state.

(5) If any of the following apply, the person is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 10 years or a fine of not more than $15,000.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property embezzled, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine:

(a) The money or personal property embezzled has a value of $20,000.00 or more but less than $50,000.00.

(b) The person violates subsection (4)(a) or (c) and has 2 or more prior convictions for committing or attempting to commit an offense under this section. For purposes of this subdivision, however, a prior conviction does not include a conviction for a violation or attempted violation of subsection (2) or (3)(b).

(c) The person violates subsection (4)(a) and the victim is a nonprofit corporation or charitable organization under federal law or the laws of this state.

(6) If the money or personal property embezzled has a value of $50,000.00 or more but less than $100,000.00, the person is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 15 years or a fine of not more than $25,000.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property embezzled, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine.

(7) If the money or personal property embezzled has a value of $100,000.00 or more, the person is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 20 years or a fine of not more than $50,000.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property embezzled, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine.

(8) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the values of money or personal property embezzled in separate incidents pursuant to a scheme or course of conduct within any 12-month period may be aggregated to determine the total value of money or personal property embezzled. If the scheme or course of conduct is directed against only 1 person, governmental entity within this state, or other legal entity, no time limit applies to aggregation under this subsection.

(9) If the prosecuting attorney intends to seek an enhanced sentence based upon the defendant having 1 or more prior convictions, the prosecuting attorney shall include on the complaint and information a statement listing the prior conviction or convictions. The existence of the defendant's prior conviction or convictions shall be determined by the court, without a jury, at sentencing or at a separate hearing for that purpose before sentencing. The existence of a prior conviction may be established by any evidence relevant for that purpose, including, but not limited to, 1 or more of the following:

(a) A copy of the judgment of conviction.

(b) A transcript of a prior trial, plea-taking, or sentencing.

(c) Information contained in a presentence report.

(d) The defendant's statement.

(10) In a prosecution under this section, the failure, neglect, or refusal of the agent, servant, employee, trustee, bailee, or custodian to pay, deliver, or refund to his or her principal the money or property entrusted to his or her care upon demand is prima facie proof of intent to embezzle.

(11) If the sentence for a conviction under this section is enhanced by 1 or more prior convictions, those prior convictions shall not be used to further enhance the sentence for the conviction under section 10, 11, or 12 of chapter IX of the code of criminal procedure, 1927 PA 175, MCL 769.10, 769.11, and 769.12.

(12) The court may order a term of imprisonment imposed for a felony violation of this section to be served consecutively to any term of imprisonment imposed for any other criminal offense if the victim of the violation of this section was any of the following:

(a) A nonprofit corporation or charitable organization under federal law or the laws of this state.

(b) A person 60 years of age or older.

(c) A vulnerable adult as defined in section 174a.


History: 1931, Act 328, Eff. Sept. 18, 1931 ;-- CL 1948, 750.174 ;-- Am. 1957, Act 69, Eff. Sept. 27, 1957 ;-- Am. 1998, Act 312, Eff. Jan. 1, 1999 ;-- Am. 2006, Act 573, Eff. Mar. 30, 2007
Former Law: See sections 1 and 2 of Act 48 of 1927, being CL 1929, §§ 16980 and 16981.

http://www.legislature.mi.gov/(S(q5zwdkzfjhnk1y1w2...
Criminal Elder Abuse
Mich. Comp. Laws § 750.145n

(1) A caregiver is guilty of vulnerable adult abuse in the first degree if the caregiver intentionally causes serious physical harm or serious mental harm to a vulnerable adult. Vulnerable adult abuse in the first degree is a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 15 years or a fine of not more than $10,000.00, or both.

(2) A caregiver or other person with authority over the vulnerable adult is guilty of vulnerable adult abuse in the second degree if the reckless act or reckless failure to act of the caregiver or other person with authority over the vulnerable adult causes serious physical harm or serious mental harm to a vulnerable adult. Vulnerable adult abuse in the second degree is a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 4 years or a fine of not more than $5,000.00, or both.

(3) A caregiver is guilty of vulnerable adult abuse in the third degree if the caregiver intentionally causes physical harm to a vulnerable adult. Vulnerable adult abuse in the third degree is a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 2 years or a fine of not more than $2,500.00, or both.

(4) A caregiver or other person with authority over the vulnerable adult is guilty of vulnerable adult abuse in the fourth degree if the reckless act or reckless failure to act of the caregiver or other person with authority over a vulnerable adult causes physical harm to the vulnerable adult or the caregiver or other person with authority over the vulnerable adult knowingly or intentionally commits an act that under the circumstances poses an unreasonable risk of harm or injury to a vulnerable adult, regardless of whether physical harm results. Vulnerable adult abuse in the fourth degree is a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 1 year or a fine of not more than $1,000.00, or both.

(5) This section does not prohibit a caregiver or other person with authority over a vulnerable adult from taking reasonable action to prevent a vulnerable adult from being harmed or from harming others.

(6) This section does not apply to an act or failure to act that is carried out as directed by a patient advocate under a patient advocate designation executed in accordance with sections 5506 to 5515 of the estates and protected individuals code, 1998 PA 386, MCL 700.5506 to 700.5515.


History: Add. 1994, Act 149, Eff. Oct. 1, 1994 ;-- Am. 2000, Act 66, Eff. Apr. 1, 2000 ;-- Am. 2004, Act 559, Imd. Eff. Jan. 3, 2005 ;-- Am. 2016, Act 480, Eff. Apr. 6, 2017

http://www.legislature.mi.gov/(S(l41hfragk4vtqiubf...
Criminal Elder Abuse
Mich. Comp. Laws § 750.174a

(1) A person shall not through fraud, deceit, misrepresentation, coercion, or unjust enrichment obtain or use or attempt to obtain or use a vulnerable adult's money or property to directly or indirectly benefit that person knowing or having reason to know the vulnerable adult is a vulnerable adult.

(2) If the money or property used or obtained, or attempted to be used or obtained, has a value of less than $200.00, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 93 days or a fine of not more than $500.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property used or obtained or attempted to be used or obtained, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine.

(3) If any of the following apply, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 1 year or a fine of not more than $2,000.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property used or obtained or attempted to be used or obtained, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine:

(a) The money or property used or obtained, or attempted to be used or obtained, has a value of $200.00 or more but less than $1,000.00.

(b) The person violates subsection (2) and has 1 or more prior convictions for committing or attempting to commit an offense under this section.

(4) If any of the following apply, the person is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 5 years or a fine of not more than $10,000.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property used or obtained or attempted to be used or obtained, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine:

(a) The money or property used or obtained, or attempted to be used or obtained, has a value of $1,000.00 or more but less than $20,000.00.

(b) The person violates subsection (3)(a) and has 1 or more prior convictions for committing or attempting to commit an offense under this section. For purposes of this subdivision, however, a prior conviction does not include a conviction for a violation or attempted violation of subsection (2) or (3)(b).

(5) If any of the following apply, the person is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 10 years or a fine of not more than $15,000.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property used or obtained or attempted to be used or obtained, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine:

(a) The money or property used or obtained, or attempted to be used or obtained, has a value of $20,000.00 or more but less than $50,000.00.

(b) The person violates subsection (4)(a) and has 2 or more prior convictions for committing or attempting to commit an offense under this section. For purposes of this subdivision, however, a prior conviction does not include a conviction for a violation or attempted violation of subsection (2) or (3)(b).

(6) If any of the following apply, the person is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 15 years or a fine of not more than $15,000.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property used or obtained or attempted to be used or obtained, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine:

(a) The money or property used or obtained, or attempted to be used or obtained, has a value of $50,000.00 or more but less than $100,000.00.

(b) The person violates subsection (5)(a) and has 2 or more prior convictions for committing or attempting to commit an offense under this section. For purposes of this subdivision, however, a prior conviction does not include a conviction for a violation or attempted violation of subsection (2) or (3)(b).

(7) If any of the following apply, the person is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 20 years or a fine of not more than $50,000.00 or 3 times the value of the money or property used or obtained or attempted to be used or obtained, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine:

(a) The money or property used or obtained, or attempted to be used or obtained, has a value of $100,000.00 or more.

(b) The person violates subsection (6)(a) and has 2 or more prior convictions for committing or attempting to commit an offense under this section. For purposes of this subdivision, however, a prior conviction does not include a conviction for a violation or attempted violation of subsection (2) or (3)(b).

(8) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the values of money or property used or obtained or attempted to be used or obtained in separate incidents pursuant to a scheme or course of conduct within any 12-month period may be aggregated to determine the total value of money or personal property used or obtained or attempted to be used or obtained. If the scheme or course of conduct is directed against only 1 person, no time limit applies to aggregation under this subsection.

(9) If the prosecuting attorney intends to seek an enhanced sentence based upon the defendant having 1 or more prior convictions, the prosecuting attorney shall include on the complaint and information a statement listing the prior conviction or convictions. The existence of the defendant's prior conviction or convictions shall be determined by the court, without a jury, at sentencing or at a separate hearing for that purpose before sentencing. The existence of a prior conviction may be established by any evidence relevant for that purpose, including, but not limited to, 1 or more of the following:

(a) A copy of the judgment of conviction.

(b) A transcript of a prior trial, plea-taking, or sentencing.

(c) Information contained in a presentence report.

(d) The defendant's statement.

(10) If the sentence for a conviction under this section is enhanced by 1 or more prior convictions, those prior convictions shall not be used to further enhance the sentence for the conviction under section 10, 11, or 12 of chapter IX of the code of criminal procedure, 1927 PA 175, MCL 769.10, 769.11, and 769.12.

(11) A financial institution or a broker or a director, officer, employee, or agent of a financial institution or broker is not in violation of this section while performing duties in the normal course of business of a financial institution or broker or a director, officer, employee, or agent of a financial institution or broker.

(13) The court may order a sentence imposed for a violation of subsection (4), (5), (6), or (7) to be served consecutively to any other sentence imposed for a violation of this section.

(14) This section does not prohibit a person from being charged with, convicted of, or punished for any other violation of law the person commits while violating this section.

(15) As used in this section:

(a) "Broker" means that term as defined in section 8102 of the uniform commercial code, 1962 PA 174, MCL 440.8102.

(b) "Financial institution" means a bank, credit union, saving bank, or a savings and loan chartered under state or federal law or an affiliate of a bank, credit union, saving bank, or savings and loan chartered under state or federal law.

(c) "Vulnerable adult" means that term as defined in section 145m, whether or not the individual has been determined by the court to be incapacitated.

(16) If the office of services to the aging becomes aware of a violation of this section, the office of services to the aging shall promptly report the violation to the department of human services.


History: Add. 2000, Act 222, Eff. Sept. 25, 2000 ;-- Am. 2004, Act 255, Eff. Sept. 1, 2004 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 172, Imd. Eff. June 19, 2012 ;-- Am. 2013, Act 34, Imd. Eff. May 21, 2013

http://www.legislature.mi.gov/(S(ykdcmr5ry4hr50kk1...