Elder Abuse and Elder Financial Exploitation Statutes

The federal government, states, commonwealths, territories and the District of Columbia all have laws designed to protect older adults from elder abuse and guide the practice of adult protective services agencies, law enforcement agencies, and others. These laws vary considerably from state to state.
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Citation Statute
Civil Financial Exploitation
ORC Ann. 5101.60  (2020)

CHAPTER 5101.  DEPARTMENT OF JOB AND FAMILY SERVICES -- GENERAL PROVISIONS 
PROTECTIVE SERVICES FOR ADULTS
§ 5101.60. Definitions

(J) “Exploitation” means the unlawful or improper act of a person using, in one or more transactions, an adult or an adult's resources for monetary or personal benefit, profit, or gain when the person obtained or exerted control over the adult or the adult's resources in any of the following ways:

(1) Without the adult's consent or the consent of the person authorized to give consent on the adult's behalf;
(2) Beyond the scope of the express or implied consent of the adult or the person authorized to give consent on the adult's behalf;
(3) By deception;
(4) By threat;
(5) By intimidation.



(C) “Adult” means any person sixty years of age or older within this state who is handicapped by the infirmities of aging or who has a physical or mental impairment which prevents the person from providing for the person's own care or protection, and who resides in an independent living arrangement.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
OH ST § 2913.01(CC) & (DD) (2020)

Title XXIX. Crimes—Procedure 
Chapter 2913. Theft and Fraud
OH ST § 2913.01 Definitions

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires that a term be given a different meaning:

(CC) “Elderly person” means a person who is sixty-five years of age or older.
(DD) “Disabled adult” means a person who is eighteen years of age or older and has some impairment of body or mind that makes the person unable to work at any substantially remunerative employment that the person otherwise would be able to perform and that will, with reasonable probability, continue for a period of at least twelve months without any present indication of recovery from the impairment, or who is eighteen years of age or older and has been certified as permanently and totally disabled by an agency of this state or the United States that has the function of so classifying persons.

Criminal Financial Exploitation
OH ST § 2913.02 (2020)

Title XXIX. Crimes—Procedure 
Chapter 2913. Theft and Fraud 
OH ST § 2913.02 Theft and Fraud

(A) No person, with purpose to deprive the owner of property or services, shall knowingly obtain or exert control over either the property or services in any of the following ways:
(1) Without the consent of the owner or person authorized to give consent;
(2) Beyond the scope of the express or implied consent of the owner or person authorized to give consent;
(3) By deception;
(4) By threat;
(5) By intimidation.
(B)(1) Whoever violates this section is guilty of theft.
(2) Except as otherwise provided in this division or division (B)(3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), or (9) of this section, a violation of this section is petty theft, a misdemeanor of the first degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars or if the property stolen is any of the property listed in section 2913.71 of the Revised Code, a violation of this section is theft, a felony of the fifth degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, a violation of this section is grand theft, a felony of the fourth degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more and is less than seven hundred fifty thousand dollars, a violation of this section is aggravated theft, a felony of the third degree. If the value of the property or services is seven hundred fifty thousand dollars or more and is less than one million five hundred thousand dollars, a violation of this section is aggravated theft, a felony of the second degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is one million five hundred thousand dollars or more, a violation of this section is aggravated theft of one million five hundred thousand dollars or more, a felony of the first degree.
(3) Except as otherwise provided in division (B)(4), (5), (6), (7), (8), or (9) of this section, if the victim of the offense is an elderly person, disabled adult, active duty service member, or spouse of an active duty service member, a violation of this section is theft from a person in a protected class, and division (B)(3) of this section applies. Except as otherwise provided in this division, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the fifth degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the fourth degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the third degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the second degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the first degree. If the victim of the offense is an elderly person, in addition to any other penalty imposed for the offense, the offender shall be required to pay full restitution to the victim and to pay a fine of up to fifty thousand dollars. The clerk of court shall forward all fines collected under division (B)(3) of this section to the county department of job and family services to be used for the reporting and investigation of elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation or for the provision or arrangement of protective services under sections 5101.61 to 5101.71 of the Revised Code.
(4) If the property stolen is a firearm or dangerous ordnance, a violation of this section is grand theft. Except as otherwise provided in this division, grand theft when the property stolen is a firearm or dangerous ordnance is a felony of the third degree, and there is a presumption in favor of the court imposing a prison term for the offense. If the firearm or dangerous ordnance was stolen from a federally licensed firearms dealer, grand theft when the property stolen is a firearm or dangerous ordnance is a felony of the first degree. The offender shall serve a prison term imposed for grand theft when the property stolen is a firearm or dangerous ordnance consecutively to any other prison term or mandatory prison term previously or subsequently imposed upon the offender.
(5) If the property stolen is a motor vehicle, a violation of this section is grand theft of a motor vehicle, a felony of the fourth degree.
(6) If the property stolen is any dangerous drug, a violation of this section is theft of drugs, a felony of the fourth degree, or, if the offender previously has been convicted of a felony drug abuse offense, a felony of the third degree.
(7) If the property stolen is a police dog or horse or an assistance dog and the offender knows or should know that the property stolen is a police dog or horse or an assistance dog, a violation of this section is theft of a police dog or horse or an assistance dog, a felony of the third degree.
(8) If the property stolen is anhydrous ammonia, a violation of this section is theft of anhydrous ammonia, a felony of the third degree.
(9) Except as provided in division (B)(2) of this section with respect to property with a value of seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and division (B)(3) of this section with respect to property with a value of one thousand dollars or more, if the property stolen is a special purpose article as defined in section 4737.04 of the Revised Code or is a bulk merchandise container as defined in section 4737.012 of the Revised Code, a violation of this section is theft of a special purpose article or articles or theft of a bulk merchandise container or containers, a felony of the fifth degree.
(10) In addition to the penalties described in division (B)(2) of this section, if the offender committed the violation by causing a motor vehicle to leave the premises of an establishment at which gasoline is offered for retail sale without the offender making full payment for gasoline that was dispensed into the fuel tank of the motor vehicle or into another container, the court may do one of the following:
(a) Unless division (B)(10)(b) of this section applies, suspend for not more than six months the offender's driver's license, probationary driver's license, commercial driver's license, temporary instruction permit, or nonresident operating privilege;
(b) If the offender's driver's license, probationary driver's license, commercial driver's license, temporary instruction permit, or nonresident operating privilege has previously been suspended pursuant to division (B)(10)(a) of this section, impose a class seven suspension of the offender's license, permit, or privilege from the range specified in division (A)(7) of section 4510.02 of the Revised Code, provided that the suspension shall be for at least six months.
(c) The court, in lieu of suspending the offender's driver's or commercial driver's license, probationary driver's license, temporary instruction permit, or nonresident operating privilege pursuant to division (B)(10)(a) or (b) of this section, instead may require the offender to perform community service for a number of hours determined by the court.
(11) In addition to the penalties described in division (B)(2) of this section, if the offender committed the violation by stealing rented property or rental services, the court may order that the offender make restitution pursuant to section 2929.18 or 2929.28 of the Revised Code. Restitution may include, but is not limited to, the cost of repairing or replacing the stolen property, or the cost of repairing the stolen property and any loss of revenue resulting from deprivation of the property due to theft of rental services that is less than or equal to the actual value of the property at the time it was rented. Evidence of intent to commit theft of rented property or rental services shall be determined pursuant to the provisions of section 2913.72 of the Revised Code.
(C) The sentencing court that suspends an offender's license, permit, or nonresident operating privilege under division (B)(10) of this section may grant the offender limited driving privileges during the period of the suspension in accordance with Chapter 4510. of the Revised Code.

Civil Elder Abuse
ORC Ann. 5101.60 through 5101.72  (2017)

ORC Ann. 5101.60  (2017)

Title 51:  Public Welfare  Chapter 5101:  Department of Job and Family Services -- General Provisions  Adult Protective Services

     (A) "Abandonment" means desertion of an adult by a caretaker without having made provision for transfer of the adult's care.

     (B) "Abuse" means the infliction upon an adult by self or others of injury, unreasonable confinement, intimidation, or cruel punishment with resulting physical harm, pain, or mental anguish.

  (J) "Exploitation" means the unlawful or improper act of a person using, in one or more transactions, an adult or an adult's resources for monetary or personal benefit, profit, or gain when the person obtained or exerted control over the adult or the adult's resources in any of the following ways:         (1) Without the adult's consent or the consent of the person authorized to give consent on the adult's behalf;         (2) Beyond the scope of the express or implied consent of the adult or the person authorized to give consent on the adult's behalf;         (3) By deception;         (4) By threat;         (5) By intimidation.

(O) "Neglect" means any of the following:         (1) Failure of an adult to provide for self the goods or services necessary to avoid physical harm, mental anguish, or mental illness;         (2) Failure of a caretaker to provide such goods or services;         (3) Abandonment.

Criminal Elder Abuse
ORC Ann. 2913.01 (2020)

(CC) “Elderly person” means a person who is sixty-five years of age or older.

Criminal Elder Abuse
ORC Ann. 2913.02 (2020)

(A) No person, with purpose to deprive the owner of property or services, shall knowingly obtain or exert control over either the property or services in any of the following ways:

(1) Without the consent of the owner or person authorized to give consent;

(2) Beyond the scope of the express or implied consent of the owner or person authorized to give consent;

(3) By deception;

(4) By threat;

(5) By intimidation.

(B)

(1) Whoever violates this section is guilty of theft.

(3) Except as otherwise provided in division (B)(4), (5), (6), (7), (8), or (9) of this section, if the victim of the offense is an elderly person, disabled adult, active duty service member, or spouse of an active duty service member, a violation of this section is theft from a person in a protected class, and division (B)(3) of this section applies. Except as otherwise provided in this division, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the fifth degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the fourth degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the third degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the second degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the first degree. If the victim of the offense is an elderly person, in addition to any other penalty imposed for the offense, the offender shall be required to pay full restitution to the victim and to pay a fine of up to fifty thousand dollars. The clerk of court shall forward all fines collected under division (B)(3) of this section to the county department of job and family services to be used for the reporting and investigation of elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation or for the provision or arrangement of protective services under sections 5101.61 to 5101.71 of the Revised Code.