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Republic of Burundi

Citizenship and Country Documents

US Government Reports

Foreign Government Reports
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • ZZZ200728.FE - Access to Rwandan nationality and dual citizenship with Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Uganda (2019–September 2021) - Sept. 2021
    • BDI106404.FE - Requirements and procedure to obtain a birth certificate or a birth certificate extract; appearance and security features of such documents; administrative transactions that can be performed with each document - Feb. 2020
    • BDI106403.FE - Requirements and procedure to obtain or replace a national identity card (carte nationale d’identité, CNI), including age-related restrictions; CNI appearance and security features (2016-January 2020) - Jan. 2020
    • BDI106073.FE - Burundi: Airport security screening procedures for passengers boarding international flights; reports of persons sought by the authorities being stopped at the airport by security services - Mar. 2018
    • ZZZ105753.E - Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda: Ability to travel from Burundi to neighbouring countries, including obstacles and resettlement - Mar. 2017
    • BDI105709.FE - Burundi: Issuance, appearance and content of civil status documents, including death, birth and marriage certificates and excerpts of such certificates; issuance, appearance and content of a death certificate excerpt issued by the Civil Registrar - Jan. 2017
    • BDI104778.FE - Burundi: The requirements and procedures to obtain a national identity card; description of the national identity card - Mar. 2014
    • BDI104779.FE - Burundi: Membership cards of the National Liberation Forces (Forces nationales de libération, FNL) party - Mar. 2014
    • BDI104777.FE - Burundi: The requirements and procedures for obtaining a biometric passport, from within Burundi or from abroad; description of biometric passports - Mar. 2014
    • BDI104233.FE - Burundi: Procedure for obtaining a medical report from inside Burundi and from outside the country; whether there is a nation-wide standard format for medical reports; whether physicians are required to notify the police of injuries sustained as a result of acts of violence - Jan. 2013
    • ZZZ104039.E - Democratic Republic of the Congo/Burundi/Rwanda: Travel between these countries, including whether a passport is required to travel between them, and other documents used for travel - Mar. 2012
    • BDI103895.E - Burundi: The format of the date of birth on a passport and whether it ever varies - Nov. 2011
    • BDI103301.FE - Burundi: The format of the birth date in Burundian passports; whether more than three letters are sometimes used to abbreviate the month - Oct. 2009

Intergovernmental Organization Reports

European Union Agency for Asylum (EUAA)
  • COI Query - Official Documents issued by the Republic of Burundi - Mar. 2023

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Children

US Government Reports Foreign Government Reports
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • BDI106384.FE - The treatment of Tutsi, including women and youth, by the authorities and Imbonerakure members – Dec. 2019
    • BDI104438.FE - Burundi: Frequency of forced and early marriages, as well as legislation; protection and assistance provided by the state and civil society - June 2013
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Human Rights Watch
    • Paying the Price: Violations of the Rights of Children in Detention in Burundi - Mar. 2007
    • Child Soldier Use 2003 - Jan. 2004

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Corruption

Non-Government Organization Reports
  • International Crisis Group

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Elections

US Government Reports Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Amnesty International
    • Burundi: Locked down: A shrinking of political space - July 2014
  • International Crisis Group
    • A First Step Toward Reform: Ending Burundi's Forced Contribution System - Apr. 2020
    • Running Out of Options in Burundi - June 2019
    • Burundi: A Dangerous Third Term - May 2016
    • Elections in Burundi: Moment of Truth - Apr. 2015
    • Burundi: Bye Bye Arysha? - Oct. 2012
    • Burundi: From Electoral Boycott to Political Impasse - Feb. 2011
    • Burundi: Ensuring Credible Elections - Feb. 2010
    • Burundi: Democracy and Peace at Risk - Nov. 2006
    • End of the Transition in Burundi: The Home Stretch - July 2004

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Ethnic Groups / Race

Foreign Government Reports
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • BDI105629.E - Burundi: List of all the neighbourhoods of Bujumbura, including the ethnicity and socio-economic status of the inhabitants of those neighbourhoods (2014 - September 2016) - September 

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Minority Rights Group International
    •  State of the Worlds Minorities - 2016
  • World Directory of Minorities - Overview - 2015

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Hutus

Foreign Government Reports
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • BDI106059.FE - Burundi: Treatment of people born of mixed Hutu-Tutsi couples by members of these two groups; state protection - Feb. 2018
Non-Government Reports
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • Information on the current situation between Hutus and Tutsis - May 2011

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Tutsis

Foreign Government Reports
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • BDI106384.FE - The treatment of Tutsi, including women and youth, by the authorities and Imbonerakure members – Dec. 2019
    • BDI106059.FE - Burundi: Treatment of people born of mixed Hutu-Tutsi couples by members of these two groups; state protection - Feb. 2018
    • BDI105750.FE - Burundi: The situation of the Tutsi, including the Tutsi elite; their treatment by the authorities and by society;and protection provided to them - Mar. 2017
    • BDI104281.FE - Burundi: The situation of Tutsis, including their treatment by society and the authorities; state protection and support services available to them - Mar. 2013
    • BDI100039.FE - Burundi: Situation of members of the Tutsi ethnic group, including members of the Union for National Progress (Union nationale pour le progrès, UPRONA); the measures taken by the Tutsi government to ensure their protection against extremist Hutu militias - May 2005
 

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Twa

Non-Government Organization Reports
  • World Directory of Minorities - Twa

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Gender

Foreign Government Reports
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • BDI106384.FE - The treatment of Tutsi, including women and youth, by the authorities and Imbonerakure members – Dec. 2019
    • BDI104437.FE - Burundi: Protection and resources for women victims of spousal abuse - June 2013
    • BDI103370.FE - Burundi: The frequency of forced marriages in Burundi; state protection available - Feb. 2010

Intergovernmental Organization Reports

  • COI Query - Situation of women in Burundi - Mar. 2023

1. Forced marriage in Burundi

1.1. Prevalence of forced marriages 
1.2. Legal framework 
1.3. Implementation of the law and treatment by the state, including access to shelters for victims and general treatment by society

2. Domestic violence in Burundi

2.1. Prevalence of domestic violence 
2.2. Legal framework 
2.3. Implementation of the law and treatment by the state, including information on availability of shelters for victims 

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International
    • We are facing extinction: Escalating anti-LGBTI sentiment, the weaponization of law and their human rights implications in select African countries - Jan. 2024
    • Burundi: No protection from rape in war and peace - Oct. 2007
  • Human Rights Watch Profiles
    • Policy Paralysis: A Call for Action on HIV/AIDS-Related Human Rights Abuses Against Women and Girls in Africa - Dec. 2003
    • Seeking Protection: Addressing Sexual and Domestic Violence in Tanzania's Refugee Camps - Oct. 2000

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Human Rights

US Government Reports

Foreign Government Reports

  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • BDI106061.FE - Burundi: At what age are people considered elderly; treatment of the elderly by society and the authorities, including those who are political militants - Feb. 2018

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International
    • Amnesty International Reports: The state of the World’s Human Right - Apr. 2024
    • We are facing extinction: Escalating anti-LGBTI sentiment, the weaponization of law and their human rights implications in select African countries - Jan. 2024
    • Burundi: No End In Sight For Clampdown On Free Speech - July 2023
    • Amnesty International Report 2022/23: The state of the world’s human right - Mar. 2023
    • Genuine Reopening Of Civic Space Requires Accountability – Mar. 2021
    • The State of African Regional Human Rights Bodies and Mechanisms 2019-2020 - Oct. 2020
    • Vital role of the Commission of Inquiry in prompting meaningful human rights progress - Aug. 2020
    • Locked down: A shrinking of political space - July 2014
  • Freedom House
    • Transnational Repression Report - 2021
  • Human Rights Watch - 20242023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 20192018201720162015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011
  • Human Rights Watch Profiles
    • “We Will Beat You to Correct You” Abuses Ahead of Burundi’s Constitutional Referendum - May 2018
    • "You Will Not Have Peace While You Are Living" The Escalation of Political Violence in Burundi - May 2012
    • Closing Doors? The Narrowing of Democratic Space in Burundi - Nov. 2010
    • Burundi: Missteps at a Crucial Moment - Nov. 2005
    • Everyday Victims: Civilians in the Burundian War - Dec. 2003
    • To Protect the People: The Government-sponsored "Self-defense" Program in Burundi - Dec. 2001
  • Norwegian Refugee Council
    • The world's most neglected displacement crises in 2022 - May 2023 

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Justice System

Foreign Government Reports Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Amnesty International Reports
    • We are facing extinction: Escalating anti-LGBTI sentiment, the weaponization of law and their human rights implications in select African countries - Jan. 2024
    • Amnesty International's Oral Statement to the 45th Session of the UN Human Rights Council (14 September to 6 October 2020) - Sept. 2020
  • Human Rights Watch Profiles
    • "We'll Tie You Up and Shoot You" Lack of Accountability for Political Violence in Burundi - May 2010
    • Mob Justice in Burundi: Official Complicity and Impunity - Mar. 2010
    • "Every Morning They Beat Me" Police Abuses in Burundi - May 2008
    • "We flee when we see them" Abuses with Impunity at the National Intelligence Service in Burundi - Oct. 2006
    • Warning Signs: Continuing Abuses in Burundi - Feb. 2006

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Maps


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Medical Availability

Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Human Rights Watch Profiles
    • A High Price to Pay: Detention of Poor Patients in Burundian Hospitals - Sept. 2006

Intergovernmental Organization Reports

  • World Health Organization Page

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Political Figures and Parties

UForeign Government Reports
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • BDI106250.FE - Burundi: Treatment of members of the Movement for Solidarity and Democracy (Mouvement pour la solidarité et la démocratie, MSD) by the authorities; MSD membership card, including the party’s logo – Mar. 2019
    • BDI106060.FE - Burundi: The Imbonerakure, including their activities and their ties to the authorities, specifically with the Bujumbura police; whether they are able to find a person in all parts of the country and abroad or prevent a person from exiting the country - Mar. 2018
    • BDI105752.FE - Burundi: The National Liberation Forces political party; the treatment of FNL members by the authorities - Mar. 2017
    • BDI105710.FE - Burundi: Membership cards of the National Council for the Defence of Democracy - Forces for the Defence of Democracy (Conseil national pour la défense de la démocratie - Forces pour la défense de la démocratie, CNDD-FDD) and their issuance (2004-2016) - Dec. 2016
    • BDI104498.FE - Burundi: Movement for Solidarity and Democracy (Mouvement pour la solidarité et la démocratie, MSD) in the commune of Ngagara, including its structure; the names of its mobilizers and treasurer; treatment of members by the authorities - July 2013
    • BDI104562.FE - Burundi: Ties between the Imbonerakure and the provincial police commissioner in Bubanza - Aug. 2013
    • BDI104343.FE - Burundi: The Imbonerakure, including their profile, activities and ties to the authorities, particularly the police in Bujumbura; whether they are able to locate a person anywhere in the country or to prevent a person from leaving the country - Mar. 2013
    • BDI104297.E - Burundi: Front for Democracy in Burundi (Frodebu), including treatment of its members and their families by government authorities - Feb. 2013
    • BDI104286.FE - Burundi: Movement for Solidarity and Democracy (MSD), including its structure and membership card; participation at the meeting organized by the Frodebu party on 18 November 2012; treatment of the party and its members by the authorities - Feb. 2013
    • BDI43522.FE - Whether a group called "Amasekaya" exists and, if so, its objectives, structure, and participation in demonstrations in Bujumbura, particularly in those that took place in March and May 2004 - April 2005

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International
    • Conform or flee: Repression and insecurity pushing Burundians into exile  - Sept. 2017
  • Human Rights Watch Profiles
    • "We Let Our Children Go Hungry to Pay": Abuses Related to the 2020 Election Levy in Burundi - Dec. 2019
    • Pursuit of Power: Political Violence and Repression in Burundi - June 2009
  • International Crisis Group
    • Helping the Burundian People Cope with the Economic Crisis - Aug. 2018

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Refugees / IDPs

Foreign Government Reports

  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • ZZZ105754.E - Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda: Activities of Burundian militias in Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo,Tanzania and Uganda, including relationship with Burundian refugees - Mar. 2017
    • ZZZ105753.E - Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda: Ability to travel from Burundi to neighbouring countries, including obstacles and resettlement - Mar. 2017
  • Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC)
    • The world's most neglected displacement crises in 2021 - June 2022

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International
    • We are facing extinction: Escalating anti-LGBTI sentiment, the weaponization of law and their human rights implications in select African countries - Jan. 2024
  • Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
    • Country Report on internal displacement in 2021 - December 2021
    • Severity of internal displacement Report - Nov. 2021
    • Africa Report on Internal Displacement - 2019
  • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
    • Fact sheet on the breakdown of refugees, aslyum-seekers and IDPs in Southern Africa (as of April 2023) - July 2023

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Religion

US Government Reports Foreign Government Reports
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • BDI104471.E - Burundi: Treatment of the followers of the religious leader Eusébie Ngendakumana (also known as Zebiya) by authorities - June 2013

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Sexual Orientation

Foreign Government Reports
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • BDI104527.FE - Burundi: Treatment by the state and by society of activists who promote the rights of sexual minorities, without being member of a sexual minority themselves; the law, and whether the state can take action against these activists under legislation; treatment of sexual minorities and activists by the Imbonerakure - Aug. 2013
    • BDI104299.FE - Burundi: Treatment of sexual minorities, including legislation, state protection and support services - Feb. 2013

Intergovernmental Organization Reports

European Union Agency for Asylum (EUAA)
  • COI Query - Situation of LGBTIQ persons in Burundi - Mar. 2023

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International 
    • We are facing extinction: Escalating anti-LGBTI sentiment, the weaponization of law and their human rights implications in select African countries - Jan. 2024
    • Burundi: No End In Sight For Clampdown On Free Speech - July 2023
  • Human Rights Watch Profiles
    • Forbidden: Institutionalizing Discrimination against Gays and Lesbians in Burundi - July 2009

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Specific Country Issues - Burundi Civil War

Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Human Rights Watch
    • Proxy Targets: Civilians in the War in Burundi - Mar. 1998
  • International Crisis Group
    • A Framework for Responsible Aid for Burundi - Feb. 2003
    • Burundi after Six Months of Transition: Continuing the War or Winning Peace? - May 2002

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Specific Country Issues - Peace Process

Non-Government Organization Reports
  • International Crisis Group
    • The Mandela Effect: Prospects for Peace in Burundi - April 2000
    • Burundi: The Issues at Stake, Political Parties, Freedom of the Press and Political Prisoners - July 2000
    • Burundian Refugees in Tanzania: The Key Factor to the Burundi Peace Process - Nov. 1999
    • Burundi: Internal and Regional Implications of the Suspension of Sanctions - May 1999
    • Burundi: Proposals for the Resumption of Bilateral and Multilateral Co-operation - May 1999
    • Burundi's Peace Process, The Road from Arusha - July 1998

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Speech / Press / Internet

Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Amnesty International
    • We are facing extinction: Escalating anti-LGBTI sentiment, the weaponization of law and their human rights implications in select African countries - Jan. 2024
  • Freedom House

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Timeline

Trafficking

US Government Reports
 

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Terrorism

US Government Reports
Updated April 30, 2024