Eritrea

Citizenship and Country Documents

US Government Reports
  • State Department - Country Documents
  • US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) - Eritrea: Information on whether Eritrean nationality has changed in light of deportations from Ethiopia. - July 1999 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report
  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • ERI105741.E - Information on exit procedures, including type of exit document issued and validity period of the document; whether exit stamps that were issued in 2012 or prior, were valid for 2016 - Mar. 2017 (PDF)
    • ERI105812.E - Requirements and procedures to obtain a birth certificate, both within and outside the country; information on regional differences - June 2017 (PDF)
    • ERI105158.E - Appearance of national identity cards, including description of security features and size; whether the acronym "PGE" is printed on the border of the laminate - May 2015 (PDF)
    • ERI105012.E - Birth certificates issued by the Public Registration Office of Zoba Maekel [Maakel] (Central Zone); including whether the certificate has a standard format and appearance - December 2014 (PDF)
    • ERI104942.E - Eritrea: Military identification cards and permits, including appearance - Sept. 2014 (PDF)
    • ERI104940.E - Eritrea: Truck driver's licenses, including issuance procedures and appearance - Sept. 2014 (PDF)
    • ERI104939.E - Eritrea: Prevalence of fraudulent identity documents, including national identity cards - Sept. 2014 (PDF)
    • ERI104539.E - Identification documents, including national identity cards and birth certificates; requirements and procedures for obtaining and renewing identity documents, both within the country and abroad (2009-August 2013) - September 2013
    • ERI103223.E - Procedures for obtaining Eritrean nationality for persons born outside Eritrea; whether new nationality legislation is being drafted or enacted - Sept 2009 (PDF)
    • ERI102851.E - Procedure for applying for a national identity card, including which office issues such documents and whether an office is located on Fiat street in Asmara; whether the applicant must bring three witnesses with him or her; whether the background of the card has a pattern consisting of the word "Eritrea" repeated 8 times per line; whether "PGE" is printed on the border of the laminate and, if so, its significance; whether the card identifies the bearer's occupation; whether the place of residence appearing on the card is the current place of residence of the bearer or the ancestral place of residence - July 2008 (PDF)
    • ERI102852.E - Prevalence of fraudulent national identity cards - July 2008 (PDF)
    • ERI102025.E - Information on official identity documents and the names of agencies that issue them (2005 - 2006) - February 2007 (PDF)
    • ERI43036.E - whether an Ethiopian born in Addis Ababa in 1978 whose mother was also born in Addis Ababa in 1954, whose maternal grandfather was born in Eritrea and who has currently some distant relatives in Eritrea can apply for Eritrean nationality; what the procedures are for obtaining Eritrean citizenship for such a person - October 2004 (PDF)
  • Norway Country of Origin Information Centre (Landinfo)
    • Eritrea: Exit visas and illegal exit - Apr. 2015 (PDF)

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Children

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Children - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
  • Department of Labor - Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF) 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) report - Children - Sept 2013 (PDF), Aug 2012 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Coalition to Stop the use of Child Soldiers - Child Soldiers Global Report - 2008 (PDF)
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Centre
    • Information on Sawa military camp in Eritrea where students are trained and attend classes as part of their 12th year in school. Information on how easy or hard it is for students to enter or exit Sawa military camp - May 2010 (PDF)

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Corruption

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Corruption and Lack of Transparency in Government - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF)

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) report - Corruption - Sept 2013 (PDF)

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Disabilities

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Disabilities - 2017 (PDF),  2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)

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Elections

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Elections - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports

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Ethnic Groups / Race

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - National / Racial / Ethnic Minorities - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Ethnic groups - Sept 2013 (PDF), Aug 2012 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • World Directory of Minorities - Overview (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Afar

Non-Government Organization Reports

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Jeberti

Foreign Government Reports
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • ERI104540.E - Treatment of Jeberti people by government authorities, including Jeberti returnees (2010-August 2013) - September 2013
    • ERI103224.E - Treatment of the Jeberti people by government authorities (2005 - August 2009) - Sept 2009 (PDF)
    • ERI100844.E - Treatment of Jebertis by government authorities - Dec 2005 (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Kunama and Nara

Non-Government Organization Reports

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Gender

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Women - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Women - Sept 2013 (PDF), Aug 2012 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • ERI102154.E - Information on the protection, services and legal recourse available to women who are victims of domestic violence (2005 - 2006) - February 2007 (PDF)

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Human Rights

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Human Rights - Sept 2013 (PDF), Aug 2012 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs) -
    • ERI103143.E - Eritrea: Whether the Eritrean government has a surveillance system or agents of surveillance in the United States (US) to monitor Eritrean citizens who live in the United States and who are involved in activities, including demonstrations and meetings, against the Eritrean government - April 2009 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports

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Justice System

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Arbitrary Arrest or Detention - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Office Report - Judiciary - Sept 2013 (PDF), Aug 2012 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • ERI104861.E - Eritrea: Issuance and delivery procedures for police orders or summonses in Asmara for suspected offenders or those violating reporting conditions, including whether the order or summons has to be delivered to the specified individual or can be left with a relative; format of the order or summons - May 2014 (PDF)

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Law

  • A Proclamation to Abolish Female Circumcision - 2007 (PDF)
  • The Constitution of Eritrea - May 1997 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Constitution - Sept 2013 (PDF), Aug 2012 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Eritrea: National (incl. Military) Service

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International
    • Making Love a Crime: Criminalization of Same-Sex Conduct in Sub-Saharan Afica - April 2013 (PDF)

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Maps

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Map - Sept 2013 (PDF), Aug 2012 (PDF)

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Medical Availability

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Medical Issues - Sept 2013 (PDF), Aug 2012 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Centre
    • Information on health care - July 2009 (PDF)

Intergovernmental Organization Reports

  • World Health Organization Page

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Political Figures and Parties

US Government Reports Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • ERI105696.E - The Eritrean People's Democratic Party (EPDP)-Zete, including objectives, leaders and membership procedure; treatment of members and supporters by authorities - Dec. 2016 (PDF)
    • ERI101669.E - Activities of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF), specifically whether the EPLF committed human rights violations; whether certain actions of the EPLF were condemned by the international community or human rights organizations (1977 - 1994) - October 2006 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Human Rights Watch Report
    • Ten Long Years: A Briefing on Eritrea's Missing Political Prisoners - September 2011 (PDF)

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Refugees / IDPs

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Protection of Refugees - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International
    • Just Deserters: Why National Service in Eritrea Has Created a Generation of Refugees - December 2015 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch - 2018 (PDF)

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Religion

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Freedom of Religion - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
  • State Department International Religious Freedom Report - 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
  • United States Commission on International Religious Freedom -  2017 (PDF),  2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF), 2008 (PDF), 2007 (PDF), 2006 (PDF)
  • USCIS - Status of Jehovah's Witnesses in Eritrea - December 1997 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Religious Freedom - Sept 2013 (PDF), Aug 2012 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office - Eritrea: Religious Groups - Feb. 2018 (PDF), Oct. 2014 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • ERI105724.E - Information on the Tehadiso movement, including core teachings and tenets; status of the movement in Eritrea; treatment of members by authorities - Jan. 2017 (PDF)
    • ERI105095.E - The Medhane Alem movement in Eritrea, including religious affiliation and history; treatment of members by authorities - March 2015 (PDF)
    • ERI104987.E - Treatment of Evangelical and Pentecostal Christians by authorities; including members of the Mulu Wongel [Full Gospel] Church; incidents of arrests and detention of Mulu Wongel Church members in Asmara - Oct. 2014 (PDF)
    • ERI104541.E - Treatment of Christians by the authorities, including denominations not recognized by the state (2011-August 2013) - Sep. 2013 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Human Rights Watch - 2018 (PDF)
  • Institute on Religion and Public Policy Report (PDF)
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Centre
    • Are Catholics allowed to practice their religion freely in Eritrea? - Aug 2010 (PDF)
    • Treatment of Pentecostals - January 2010 (PDF)
    • General reports on glossolalia from a scientific perspective. - July 2009 (PDF)

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Sexual Orientation

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Sexual Orientation - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Persons - Sept 2013 (PDF), Aug 2012 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs) -
    • ERI102153.E - Legislation and legal protection available to homosexuals; their treatment by society and government authorities - February 2007 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International
    • Making Love a Crime: Criminalization of Same-Sex Conduct in Sub-Saharan Afica - April 2013 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Border Crossing

Foreign Government Reports
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • ZZZ105031.E - Eritrea and Sudan: Situation of the border region between the two countries, including military and police patrols, as well as legal crossing points; information on physical obstacles to prevent crossing, such as fences and mines; number of people legally and irregularly crossing the border – Dec. 2014 (PDF)
    • ZZZ104862.E - Eritrea and Sudan: Situation of the border region between the two countries, including military and police patrols, as well as legal crossing points; information on physical obstacles to prevent crossing, such as fences and mines; number of people legally and irregularly crossing the border - May 2014 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Female Genital Mutilation

US Government Reports Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) - Sept 2013 (PDF)
  • UK Country of Origin Information Report - Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) - Eriteria - June 2008 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Ethiopians in Eritrea

US Government Reports
  • US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) - Information on expulsion from Eritrea of individuals of mixed Ethiopian-Eritrean origin - October 2000 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Ethiopians in Eritrea - Sept 2013 (PDF), Aug 2012 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs) -
    • ZZZ102027.E - Possibility of repatriation of Ethiopian and Eritrean civilians to their homelands (2006) - February 2007 (PDF)
    • ERI100843.E - Whether deportations of Ethiopians still occur - Dec 2005 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Treatment of Returnees

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Failed Asylum Seekers and Refugees - Sept 2013 (PDF), Aug 2012 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Eritrea: Illegal Exit - Penalties for Leaving Illegally and Treatment on Return - March 2015 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • ERI105801.E - Situation of people returning to the country after they either spent time, claimed refugee status, or were seeking asylum abroad - June 2017 (PDF)
    • ERI105226.E - Situation of people returning to the country after they either spent time abroad, claimed refugee status, or were seeking asylum - Nov. 2015 (PDF)
    • ERI104941.E - Eritrea: Situation of people returning to the country after they spent time abroad, claimed refugee status, or sought asylum - Sept. 2014 (PDF)
    • ERI104540.E - Treatment of Jeberti people by government authorities, including Jeberti returnees (2010-August 2013) - September 2013
    • ERI103142.E - Situation of people returning after spending time abroad or seeking asylum or refugee status - April 2009 (PDF)
    • ERI100842.E - Situation of people returning after spending time abroad or seeking asylum or refugee status - Dec 2005 (PDF)
  • Norway Country of Origin Information Centre (Landinfo)
    • Eritrea: Reactions towards returned asylum seekers - Apr. 2016 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Report
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Centre
    • Treatment of returned failed asylum seekers - Jan 2010 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Military Service

US Government Reports
  • USCIS - Information on Eritreans who have completed National Service being recalled for military duty during the current border dispute with Ethiopia - Nov 1998 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - National Service (including Military Service) - Sept 2013 (PDF), Aug 2012 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Eritrea: National (incl. Military) Service - National Service Law - July 2018 (PDF), March 2015 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • ERI105740.E - Information on exemption from National Service, including for Eritrean citizens living outside the country - Feb. 2017 (PDF)
    • ERI105580.E - Information on military structure, including ranks; reason and process for advancement among ranks and transferring between areas, particularly to the Sudan border area; information on the logistics unit and the unit responsible for patrolling the Sudan border area, including duties, ranking officers, unit names and training provided - July 2016 (PDF)
    • ERI104179.E - Eritrea: Military service, including age of recruitment, length of service, grounds for exemption, penalties for desertion from and evasion of military service, and availability of alternative service - September 2012 (PDF)
    • ERI102684.E - The Eritrean Army structure, including its units, ranks, functions; whether all divisions of the army are involved in military operations; military activity in Asab, Gash and Tsorona - February 2008 (PDF)
    • ERI102728.E - Whether persons serving in the military are issued military identification documents; if not, procedure to confirm that persons are serving in the military when they are off their military base - January 2008 (PDF)
    • ERI102729.E - Whether women serving in the military are discharged when they marry; if so, evidence required to prove marriage - January 2008 (PDF)
    • ERI102026.E - Military service, including age of recruitment, length of service, grounds for exemption, penalties for desertion from and evasion of military service and availability of alternative service - Feb 2007 (PDF)
    • ERT43430.E - Information on the activities of UNIT 2001 of the Eritrean army, commanded by officer Ghebregzabhier Wuchu, during the border war between Eritrea and Ethiopia (1998-2000) - March 2005 (PDF)
  • Norway Country of Origin Information Centre (Landinfo)
    • Eritrea: National Service - May 2016 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Human Rights Watch Report - 2018 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch
    • Service for Life: State Repression and Indefinite Conscription in Eritrea - 2009 (PDF)
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Centre
    • Treatment of military deserters and their families - Jan 2010 (PDF)
    • Is there any evidence that since 1998 all males in Eritrea (apart from the elderly and sick) have been permanently contracted by the army and that they have continuously worked for the ministry of defence since 1998 to this day with only a small holiday of about 10 days every year? Are those drafted to the Eritrean Army paid a salary? If so, how much do they receive per month approximately? - March 2009 (PDF)

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Speech / Press / Internet

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Freedom of Speech and Press - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Freedom of Speech and Media - Sept 2013 (PDF), Aug 2012 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Freedom House
  • Human Rights Watch - 2018 (PDF)

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Timeline

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Recent Events - Sept 2013 (PDF), Aug 2012 (PDF)
Media

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Trafficking

US Government Reports Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Tracking - Sept 2013 (PDF), Aug 2012 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Human Rights Watch Reports
    • "I Wanted to Lie Down and Die" Trafficking and Torture of Eritreans in Sudan and Egypts - Feb. 2014 (PDF)

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Terrorism

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Terrorism - 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF)

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Torture

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF)

 

Updated August 6, 2018

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