Somali Republic

Citizenship and Identification Documents

US Government Reports
  • State Department - Country Documents
  • RIC Report - Somalia: Birth certificates - May 2000 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origins Information (COI) Report - Citizenship and Nationality - Aug. 2013 (PDF), Jan. 2012 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SOM105248.E - Identification documents, including national identity cards, passports, driver's licenses, and any other document required to access government services; information on the issuing agencies and the requirements to obtain documents - March 2016 (PDF)
    • SOM104487.FE - Possibility for people outside the country without identity documents to establish their Somali nationality, in particular, those who have left Somalia since 1991; fraudulent identity documents (2012-July 2013) - July 2013 (PDF)
    • SOM104486.FE - Birth registration, including the issuance of birth certificates; the registration of children attending school; title deeds; whether the owner of a home or business must obtain a title deed - June 2013 (PDF)
    • SOM104445.E - Identification documents, including passports and driver's licenses; whether driver's licenses are/have been issued, including language of documents - June 2013 (PDF)
    • ZZZ103025.E - Lefe Isa; the administrative zone and region within which it is located; whether people born in Lefe Isa after 1987 are citizens of Ethiopia or Somalia; whether people born there after 1987 have been issued yellow cards, and if so, the rights that the holders of these cards possess; the identity documents used there since 1987 and whether one of them is frequently used as the main identity document; the authorities that issue these identity documents - Feb. 2009 (PDF)
    • SOM102797.E - Information on the types of identity documents which have been issued in Mogadishu within the past two years, including the authority responsible for their issuance, and any significant physical and security features; availability of fraudulent documents - April 2008 (PDF)
    • SOM102473.E - Documentation and other means of identification of Somalis in United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps in Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya and Yemen - May 2007 (PDF)
    • SOM102470.E - Means, apart from the Somali government and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), to obtain documentation from sources inside or outside Canada that could assist in the identification process for Somalis - May 2007 (PDF)
    • ZZZ100422.E - Citizenship of children born in Somalia 1960 - 1976 to Djibouti nationals - January 1960 - December 1976 - Nov. 2005 (PDF)
    • ZZZ100323.E - The "traditional way" used by Somali organizations in Canada to determine who is a Somali citizen; the methodology used by these organizations to determine identity - 2000 - July 2005 (PDF)
    • SOM42806.E - Identity documents and travel documents (January 2000 - June 2004 - July 2004 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • Availability of documentary evidence of identity/nationality - Feb. 2009 (PDF)

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Passports

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origins Information (COI) Report - Passports - Aug. 2013 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SOM102471.E - Passports and other documentation that could assist with identification - May 2007 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • Were Somali passports being issued in Nairobi in June 2000? - Oct. 2010 (PDF)

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Children

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Children - 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
  • US Department of Labor - Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - 2015 (PDF),  2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Children - Aug. 2013 (PDF), Jan. 2012 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SOM100906.E - Treatment of children of mixed ethnicity (mother Issaq and father Tumal), when child is brought up by Issaq family members - Dec. 2005 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service
    • Human rights and security in central and southern Somalia - Jan. 2004 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Amnesty International
    • In the Line of Fire: Somalia's Children Under Attack - July 2011 (PDF)
  • Coalition to Stop the use of Child Soldiers - Child Soldiers Global Report - 2008 (PDF)

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Children Subsection - Child Soldiers

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Child soldiers - Jan. 2012 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service Report
    • Human rights and security in central and southern Somalia - Forced recruitment, child soldiers and forced labour - March 2007 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Child Soldiers: Global Report - Somalia (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch Report
    • No Place for Children: Child Recruitment, Forced Marriage, and Attacks on Schools in Somalia - Feb. 2012 (PDF)

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Corruption

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Corruption and Lack of Transparency in Government - 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF)

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Disabilities

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Persons with Disabilities - 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Human Rights Watch
    • "Chained Like Prisoners" Abuses Against People with Psychosocial Disabilities in Somaliland - October 2015 (PDF)

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Elections

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Elections - 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports

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Ethnic Groups / Race / Clan

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - National / Racial / Ethnic Minorities - 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
  • Congressional Research Service - Somalia: Current Conditions and Prospects for a Lasting Peace - Major Somali Clans and Subclans - Aug. 2011 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report
  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - South and central Somalia: Majority clans and minority groups - March 2015 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SOM42807.E - Determination of clan affiliation - Aug. 2004 (PDF)
    • SOM42808.E - The situation of minority groups and their members (January 2002 - August 2004) - Aug. 2004 (PDF)
    • Issue Paper - Victims and Vulnerable Groups in Southern Somalia - May 1995 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service Report - Report on the fact-finding mission to Somalia and Kenya - July 1998
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • Whether Mogadishu is an ethnically mixed city and whether Medina in Mogadishu is a predominantly Reer Hamar area. - July 2010 (PDF)
  • Minority Rights Group International
    • Overview (PDF)
    • State of the World's Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF)
    • No Redress: Somalia's Forgotten Minorities - Nov. 2010 (PDF)
  • World Directory of Minorities - Overview (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Asharaf

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origins Information (COI) Report - Asharaf - Jan. 2012 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • SOM36945 - July 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide general information about the Asharaf (and Ashraf) clan, including its defining features, how the clan is distinguished from other clans in Somalia, key historical facts and significant leaders/figures of the clan. Please also advise of the difference (if any) between the Asharaf and the Ashraf clan.
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SOM103613.E - Information on the Ashraf clan, including the location of their traditional homeland, affiliated clans, risks they face from other tribes; whether the name Sharif is given to a male at birth - November 2010 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Austrian Centre for country of Origin and Asylum research and Documentation (ACCORD)
    • Clans in Somalia - (Asharaf) - May 2009 (PDF)
  • Minority Rights International
    • No Redress: Somalia's Forgotten Minorities - Nov. 2010 (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Bantu

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origins Information (COI) Report - Bantu - Jan. 2012 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • Issue Paper - Victims and Vulnerable Gropus in Southern Somalia - May 1995 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service Report
    • Human rights and security in central and southern Somalia - Jan. 2004 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Austrian Centre for country of Origin and Asylum research and Documentation (ACCORD)
    • Clans in Somalia - (Bantus (Jareer)) - May 2009 (PDF)
  • Minority Rights International
    • No Redress: Somalia's Forgotten Minorities - Nov. 2010 (PDF)
  • World Directory of Minorities - Bantu (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - 'Caste' Groups (Sab) - Midgan (Gabooye), Tumal, Yibir, Galgola

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origins Information (COI) Report
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SOM104589.E - Distinguishing characteristics of the Gabooye (Midgan) people; whether it is possible for a member of the minority clan living in Mogadishu to hide that they are part of the Gabooye from his or her spouse and in-laws, who are members of a majority clan - October 2013
    • SOM104239.E - The Gabooye (Midgan) people, including the location of their traditional homeland, affiliated clans, and risks they face from other clans - Dec. 2012 (PDF)
    • Issue Paper - Victims and Vulnerable Gropus in Southern Somalia - May 1995 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Austrian Centre for country of Origin and Asylum research and Documentation (ACCORD)
    • Clans in Somalia - (Sab) - May 2009 (PDF)
    • Clans in Somalia - (Gabooye/Midgan) - May 2009 (PDF)
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • Information on the treatment of people from the Tumal clan. - Feb. 2010 (PDF)
  • World Directory of Minorities - Gabooye (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Digil and Mirifle (Rahanweyn), Jido

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origins Information (COI) Report - Majority Clans: Digil and Mirifle (Rahanweyn) - Jan. 2012 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SOM43286.E - The Jido (Jiido) clan; traditional areas of occupation; affiliated clans; protection available to members of this clan; whether members of the clan have any conflicts with the Hawiye clan - Jan. 2005
    • Issue Paper - Victims and Vulnerable Gropus in Southern Somalia - May 1995 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service Report
    • Report on Minority Groups in Somalia - Sep. 2000 (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Eyle

Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Danish Immigration Service Report
    • Report on Minority Groups in Somalia - Sep. 2000 (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Majority Clans - Darood, Hawiye, Isaaq, Dir, Biymaal, Dulbahante, Marehan, Marjeteen, Sheikhal

US Government Reports
  • RIC Report - Somali Government Policy Towards The Isaaq Clan - Jan. 1998
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origins Information (COI) Report - Majority Clans: Darood, Hawiye, Dir and Isaaq - Jan. 2012 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SOM105305.E - The Biyomal [Biimaal, Biyomaal, Biymaal, Biyamal] clan, including work, history, religious affiliation, location within the country, particularly Nus Dunya; the Rahanweyn [Rahanwen] clan, including location in the country; treatment of the Biyomal clan by the Rahanwen clan - Octtober 2015 (PDF)
    • SOM104765.E - The Hawrarsame clan, including its current situation and relationship with other clans - February 2014 (PDF)
    • SOM43029.E - Dulbahante sub-clan of the Darod tribe; location of their traditional homeland; risks they face from other tribes, particularly from the Hawiye tribe - Oct. 2004 (PDF)
    • SOM42952.E - Update to SOM25493.E of 31 October 1996 on the traditional homelands of the Dulbahante and on the circumstances of the Dulbahante in and outside of their traditional homelands - Sep. 2004 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service Report
    • Human rights and security in central and southern Somalia - Sheikhal - Jan. 2004 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Austrian Centre for country of Origin and Asylum research and Documentation (ACCORD)
    • Clans in Somalia - (Nomadic Groups) - May 2009 (PDF)
    • Clans in Somalia - (Biymaal) - May 2009 (PDF)
    • Clans in Somalia - (Sheikhal (Sheikhash)) - May 2009 (PDF)
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • Information required on the Somali clans/tribes Marehan and Marjeteen, particularly their relations with the Bajuni Noufail Are the Bajuni Noufail being discriminated against by the other two clans? - July 2010 (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Reer Brava (aka Bravanese or Baravani) and Tunni

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origins Information (COI) Report
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SOM105011.E - The Tunni ethnic group, including regions where its members reside; treatment by society, authorities and Al Shabaab; relationship with other clans - December 2014 (PDF)
    • SOM104240.E - The Bravanese (Barawan) ethnic group, including the location of their traditional homeland, affiliated clans and risks they face from other clans. - Dec. 2012 (PDF)
    • SOM102640.E - The sect of Islam followed by the Bravanese ethnic group. - Oct. 2007 (PDF)
    • SOM100401.E - Treatment of members of the Tunni clan by members of the Habr Gidir and Abgal clans in Mogadishu and whether, in 2003, they were subjected to attacks that resulted in the rape and death of women. - Aug. 2005 (PDF)
    • Issue Paper - Victims and Vulnerable Gropus in Southern Somalia - May 1995 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service Report
    • Human rights and security in central and southern Somalia - Jan. 2004 (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Swahili - Benadiri, Amarani, Bajuni, Rer'Hamar

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origins Information (COI) Report
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SOM104241.E - The Reer Hamar and/or Benadiri, including the location of their traditional homeland, affiliated clans and risks they face from other clans - Dec. 2012 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service
    • Report on Minority Groups in Somalia - Sep. 2000 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Austrian Centre for country of Origin and Asylum research and Documentation (ACCORD)
    • Clans in Somalia - (Bantus (Jareer)) - May 2009 (PDF)
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • Information required on the Somali clans/tribes Marehan and Marjeteen, particularly their relations with the Bajuni Noufail Are the Bajuni Noufail being discriminated against by the other two clans? - July 2010 (PDF)
    • Information regarding the treatment of the Bajuni clan in Somalia - Nov. 2009 (PDF)
  • Minority Rights International
    • No Redress: Somalia's Forgotten Minorities - Nov. 2010 (PDF)
  • World Directory of Minorities - Swahilis (PDF)

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Gender

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Women - 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Women - Aug. 2013 (PDF), Jan. 2012 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office - Country Information and Guidance
    • Women fearing gnender based harm and violence - August 2016 (PDF)
    • Somalia: Women fearing gender-based harm/violence - Women - February 2015 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • SOM35661 - Oct. 2009 (PDF)
      1. Do older men marry younger women in Somalia?
      2. Is it customary for a man's mother to arrange the marriage for her son?
      3. Is it customary for the man to speak to his intended wife's brother and father to seek permission to marry her?
      4. Is it customary for a Somali couple to have a short meeting (15 minutes) and then marry each other and therefore know very little about their spouse's prior life?
      5. Is it customary for both spouses to be very keen to have children?
      6. Is it customary that at the wedding the male and female and their guests hold separate celebrations?
      7. Is it significant if the bride is dressed in an evening gown and the groom in white traditional garb?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SOM103869.E - The situation of women without male support - Nov. 2011 (PDF)
    • SOM102612.E - Prevalence of forced or arranged marriages in Somalia; consequences for a young woman who refuses to participate in a forced or arranged marriage - Sep. 2007 (PDF)
    • SOM32804.EX - Update on the situation of women - Sep. 1999 (PDF)
    • Issue Paper - Victims and Vulnerable Gropus in Southern Somalia - May 1995 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service Report
    • Human rights and security in central and southern Somalia - Women - March 2007 (PDF)
    • Human rights and security in central and southern Somalia - Jan. 2004 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Human Rights Watch Reports
    • "The Power These Men Have Over Us" - Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by African Union Forces in Somalia - Sept. 2014 (PDF)
    • "Here, Rape is Normal" A Five-Point Plan to Curtail Sexual Violence in Somalia - Feb. 2014 (PDF)
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • Information on whether young women who have children born out of wedlock are in danger of attack by Al Shabab or any other terror grouping in Somalia - Feb. 2010 (PDF)
  • Minority Rights Group International - Looma Ooyaan – No One Cries for Them: The Situation Facing Somalia’s Minority Women – Feb. 2015 (PDF)

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Human Rights

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
  • Congressional Research Service - Somalia: Current Conditions and Prospects for a Lasting Peace - The Current Humanitarian Crisis - Aug. 2011 (PDF)
  • RIC Report
    • Information on the Digfeer Nursing School in Mogadishu - Oct. 1999 (PDF)
    • Immigration & Naturalization Service - ALERT SERIES SOMALIA THINGS FALL APART (Godka), Mogadishu, Somalia - Dec. 1992 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Human Rights - Jan. 2012 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SOM42809.E - The security situation in Somalia; the effectiveness of peace process initiatives; whether protection is available to victims of violence and ill treatment (January 2001 - August 2004) - Aug. 2004 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service Report
    • Human rights and security in central and southern Somalia (14 - 27 March 2007) - Monitoring human rights in central and southern Somalia - March 2007 (PDF)
    • Human rights and security in central and southern Somalia - Jan. 2004 (PDF)
    • Report on Minority Groups in Somalia (17 to 24 September 2000) - Security and human rights situation - Sep. 2000 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Amnesty International Report - 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF)
  • Amnesty International
    • Fatal Insecurity: Attacks on Aid Workers and Rights Defenders in Somalia - Oct. 2008 (PDF)
    • Human Rights Challenges: Somaliland Facing Elections - March 2009 (PDF)
  • Freedom House - 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
  • Freedom House
    • Worst of the Worst 2012: The World's Most Repressive Societies - 2012 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch - 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch Report
    • Somalia faces the future Human rights in a Fragmented Society - April 1995 (PDF)
    • Beyond the Warlords The Need for a Verdict on Human Rights Abuses - March 1993 (PDF)
    • SOMALIA NO MERCY IN MOGADISHU: The Human Cost of the Conflict & The Struggle for Relief Africa Watch Physicians for Human Rights - March 1992 (PDF)
    • World Report - 2012 (PDF)
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • 9th European Country of Origin Information Seminar - Oct. 2007 (PDF)
    • COI regarding the current situation in Somalia, including the drought and severe humanitarian situation - Sep. 2010 (PDF)

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Justice System

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Arbitrary Arrest or Detention - 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
  • RIC Report - National Security Service Prison (Godka), Mogadishu, Somalia - Jan. 1998 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report
  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Somalia: Prison Conditions - February 2015 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Amnesty International
    • International Military and Policing Assistance Should Be Reviewed - Jan. 2010 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch
    • The Courts of "Abolute Power" - Fair Trial Violations by Somalia's Military Court - May 2014

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Law

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Constitution - Jan. 2012 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International
    • Making Love a Crime: Criminalization of Same-Sex Conduct in Sub-Saharan Afica - April 2013 (PDF)

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Maps

US Government Reports
  • Congressional Research Service - Somalia: Current Conditions and Prospects for a Lasting Peace - Map of Somalia - Aug. 2011 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report
    • Map of Somalia - Jan. 2012 (PDF)
    • Map of Somalia showing IDP and refugee distribution Maps - May 2011 (PDF)

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Medical Availability

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Medical Issues - Aug. 2013 (PDF), Jan. 2012 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service Report
    • Human rights and security in central and southern Somalia (14 - 27 March 2007) - Persons affected by HIV/AIDS - March 2007 (PDF)
International Government Organization Reports
  • World Health Organization Page
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • Information about people who are HIV+ in Somalia: - May 2010 (PDF)
    • What level of treatment is available for people - is it easy to access and available to everyone - May 2010 (PDF)
    • Is there social stigma attached to people with AIDS/HIV - May 2010 (PDF)

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Political Figures and Parties

US Government Reports Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origins Information (COI) Report
    • Political Affiliation and Expression - Aug. 2013 (PDF)
    • Political organisations and other groups - Jan. 2012 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • Information on the current political situation - Jan. 2010 (PDF)
  • International Crisis Group
    • Somalia: The Tough Part is Ahead - Jan. 2007 (PDF)
    • Can the Somali Crisis Be Contained? - Aug. 2006 (PDF)
    • Somalia: Continuation of War by Other Means - Dec. 2004 (PDF)

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Refugees / IDPs

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Protection of Refugees - 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
  • RIC Report - Somalia: Information on repatriation of Somali refugees - Feb. 2001 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origins Information (COI) Report
    • Internally Displaced Persons - Aug. 2013 (PDF), Jan. 2012 (PDF)
    • Map of Somalia showing IDP and refugee distribution Maps - May 2011 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SOM103870.E - Somaliland, including government structure, security, and access for internally displaced persons (IDPs) from Somalia - Nov. 2011 (PDF)
    • ZZZ103868.E - Somali citizens who live in Kenyan refugee camps, including information on employment, education, health services and identity documentation - Nov. 2011 (PDF)
    • SOM103891.E - Puntland, including government structure, security, and access for internally displaced persons (IDPs) from Somalia - Nov. 2011 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service Report
    • Human rights and security in central and southern Somalia - (14 - 27 March 2007) - Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) - March 2007 (PDF)
    • Human rights and security in central and southern Somalia - Jan. 2004 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Amnesty International
    • No Place like Home: Returns and Relocations of Somalia's Displaced - Feb. 2014 (PDF)
    • The treatment of Somalia Refugees and asylum seekers - Dec. 2010 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch
    • Hostages of the Gatekeepers: Abuses Against Internally Displaced in Mogadishu, Somalia - Jan. 2013 (PDF)

International Government Organization Reports

  • UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) - International Protection Considerations with Regard to people fleeing Southern and Central Somalia - January 2014

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Religion

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Freedom of Religion - 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
  • State Department International Religious Freedom Report - 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), July - Dec. 2010 (PDF)
  • US Commission on International Religious Freedom- Annual Report - Somalia - 2016 (PDF), 2012 (PDF)
  • Law Library of Congress - Somalia: Treatment of Religious Minorities - July 2016 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Freedom of Religion - Aug. 2013 (PDF), Jan. 2012 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SOM104995.E - Somalia: Situation of practitioners of Sufism in Mogadishu; incidents of violence involving al Shabaab [Al-Shabaab] and practitioners of Sufism; security situation and availability of state protection in Mogadishu - November 2014 (PDF)
    • SOM104854.E - Somalia: Treatment of non-Muslims, including those who commit apostasy, by society and extremist groups, including al-Shabaab - April 2014 (PDF)

  • Danish Immigration Service Report
    • Human rights and security in central and southern Somalia (14 - 27 March 2007) - Religious conversion and situation for Christians - March 2007 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • The rules of interaction between young Muslim women and men and whether there is interaction between female students and male teachers. - July 2010 (PDF)

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Sexual Orientation

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Sexual Orientation - 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Persons - Aug. 2013 (PDF), Jan. 2012 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service Report
    • Human rights and security in central and southern Somalia (14 - 27 March 2007) - Homosexuals - March 2007 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International
    • Making Love a Crime: Criminalization of Same-Sex Conduct in Sub-Saharan Afica - April 2013 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Al-Shabaab

US Government Reports
  • Congressional Research Service -
    • Somalia: Current Conditions and Prospects for a Lasting Peace - Al-Shabaab and the Islamic Movements in Somalia - Aug. 2011 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origins Information (COI) Report - Al-Shabaab - Jan. 2012 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office - Country Information and Guidance - South and Central Somalia: Fear of Al-Shabaab - March 2016 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • SOM37002 - July 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide sources reporting the practice of forced recruitment by Al-Shabaab of young men, particularly in relation to threats of physical harm
    • SOM36945 - July 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide general information about Al-Shabaab, including its recruitment tactics. Please particularly look into whether Al-Shabaab is known to target males aged 14 - 40 and/or members of the Asharaf or other minority clans.
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SOM104662.E - Information on al-Shabaab, including areas of control, recruitment, and affiliated groups (2012-Nov. 2013) - November 2013
    • SOM103871.E - Information about Al-Shabaab, including areas of control, recruitment procedures and affiliated groups - Nov. 2011 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • International Crisis Group
    • Somalia: Al-Shabaab - It Will Be a Long War - June 2014 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Armed Conflict

US Government Reports
  • Congressional Research Service - Somalia: Current Conditions and Prospects for a Lasting Peace - Hizbul Islam Leader Sheik Sharif Hassan Aweys - Aug. 2011 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origins Information (COI) Report
    • Security Situation - Aug. 2013 (PDF)
    • Armed Conflict - Jan. 2012 (PDF)
    • Nonstate Armed Forces - May 2011 (PDF)
    • Bulletin: Security Situation in Southern and Central Somalia - Aug. 2012 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • Issue Paper - VICTIMS AND VULNERABLE GROUPS IN SOUTHERN SOMALIA - May 1995 (PDF)
    • Issue Paper - SOMALIA UPDATE ON THE SITUATION IN THE NORTH (SOMALILAND) - Jan. 1995 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service Report
    • Human rights and security in central and southern Somalia - Political developments, armed conflict and security in central and southern Somalia - March 2007 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Armed Conflict Report - Jan. 2009
  • Austrian Centre for country of Origin and Asylum research and Documentation (ACCORD)
    • The political economy of conflict in Southern Somalia - June 2001 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch
    • "The Power These Men Have Over Us" - Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by African Union Forces in Somalia - Sept. 2014 (PDF)
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • Information on the safety of returns to the Mogadishu area of Somalia, including any dangers on the route of return. - Jan. 2011 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Female Genital Mutilation

US Government Reports Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Female Genital Mutilation - Aug. 2013 (PDF), Jan. 2012 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance
    • Women fearing gnender based harm and violence - August 2016 (PDF)
    • Somalia: Women fearing gender-based harm/violence - Female Genital Mutilation - February 2015 (PDF)
  • UK Country of Origins Report - Female Genital Mutilation - June 2008 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service
    • Human rights and security in central and southern Somalia - Jan. 2004 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Islamists

Non-Government Organization Reports
  • International Crisis Group

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Specific Country Issues - Puntland

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance
    • Women fearing gnender based harm and violence - August 2016 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service Report
    • Report on Minority Groups in Somalia - Sep. 2000 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • International Crisis Group
    • Somalia the Trouble with Puntland - Aug. 2009 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Somaliland

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - THE REPUBLIC OF SOMALILAND CONSTITUTION - May 2011 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance
    • Women fearing gnender based harm and violence - August 2016 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • Issue Paper - SOMALIA UPDATE ON THE SITUATION IN THE NORTH (SOMALILAND) - Jan. 1995 (PDF)
    • SOM103870.E - Somaliland, including government structure, security, and access for internally displaced persons (IDPs) from Somalia - Nov. 2011 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service
    • Report on Minority Groups in Somalia - Sep. 2000 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Freedom House - 2016 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch
    • "Chained Like Prisoners" Abuses Against People with Psychosocial Disabilities in Somaliland - October 2015 (PDF)
  • International Crisis Group
    • Somaliland: A Way Out of the Electoral Crisis - Dec. 2009 (PDF)
    • Somaliland: Time for African Union Leadership - May 2006 (PDF)
    • Somaliland: Democratisation and Its Discontents - July 2003 (PDF)
Law

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Specific Country Issues - Treatment of Returnees

Foreign Government Reports

  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SOM105094.E - Somalia: Frequency of members of the diaspora returning to live in the country, and particularly in Mogadishu; availability of housing and employment to diaspora returnees, including difficulties related to clan membership and economic opportunities – March 2015 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International
    • Nowhere Else To Go: Forced Returns of Somali Refugees from Dadaab Refugee Camp, Kenya – Nov. 2016 (PDF)
    • Forced returns to south and central Somalia, including to al-Shabaab areas: A blatant violation of international law - Oct. 2014 (PDF)

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Speech / Press / Internet

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Freedom of Speech and Press - 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Freedom of Speech and Media - Aug. 2013 (PDF), May 2011 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SOM105092.E - Somalia: Prevalence of cell phones and Internet cafes in Mogadishu, including the ability to use cell phones for financial transfers – March 2015 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Amnesty International
    • Hard News: Journalists' Lives in Danger in Somalia - July 2010 (PDF)
  • Freedom House
  • Human Rights Watch
    • “Like Fish in Poisonous Waters” Attacks on Media Freedom in Somalia - May 2016 (PDF)


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Timeline

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origins Information (COI) Report
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • Issue Paper - Chronology of Events April 1995 - January 1997 - Feb. 1997 (PDF)
    • Issue Paper - Chronology of Events June 1994 - April 1995 - July 1995 (PDF)
Media

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Trafficking

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Trafficking in Persons - 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
  • Trafficking in Persons Report - Somalia - 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Border Agency Country of Origin Information (COI) Report - Trafficking - Aug. 2013 (PDF), Jan. 2012 (PDF)

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Terrorism

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Terrorism - 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF)
Non-Government Organizational Reports
  • International Crisis Group
    • Counter-Terrorism in Somalia: Losing Hearts and Minds' - July 2005 (PDF)
    • Somalia: Countering Terrorism in a Failed State - May 2002 (PDF)

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Updated December 7, 2016