Guidance Documents

Guidance Documents

Executive Order 13891 requires agencies to put their guidance documents on easily searchable websites so individuals are able to access them, and Department of Justice policy prohibits using guidance as a substitute for regulation.  Guidance may not be used to impose new requirements on persons outside the Executive Branch except as expressly authorized by law or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement. See JM 1-19.000.

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

Component Document Issued Posted ID Topic Overview Notice
U.S. Trustee Program Not specified February 28, 2020 UST-1319881 Business Reorganization (Bankruptcy) USTP Region 4, Western District of Virginia. Six Month Operating Report

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

U.S. Trustee Program Not specified February 28, 2020 UST-1319886 Business Reorganization (Bankruptcy) USTP Region 4, West Virginia. Chapter 11 Operating Guidelines and Reporting Requirements

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

U.S. Trustee Program Not specified February 28, 2020 UST-1319891 Business Reorganization (Bankruptcy) USTP Region 4, West Virginia. Chapter 11 Individual Monthly Operating Report

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

U.S. Trustee Program Not specified February 28, 2020 UST-1319896 Business Reorganization (Bankruptcy) USTP Region 4, West Virginia. Chapter 11 Non-Small Business Monthly Operating Report

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

U.S. Trustee Program Not specified February 28, 2020 UST-1319901 Business Reorganization (Bankruptcy) USTP Region 4, West Virginia. Chapter 11 Post-Confirmation Report

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

U.S. Trustee Program Not specified February 28, 2020 UST-1319921 Business Reorganization (Bankruptcy) Form notice to debtors of UPST intent to use taxpayer identification number for purposes of collecting statutory quarterly fees in Region 2

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Not specified February 28, 2020 DOJ-1316651 General This informational pamphlet is aimed at health care professionals. It is a guide to show how they can recognize drug addiction with co-workers and/or a drug impaired co-workers. The information alerts the reader to certain signs, behaviors or symptoms that the drug impaired co-worker may exhibit. The material discusses things such as absenteeism, frequent disappearances, not meeting deadlines and work performances alternating between low and high periods of productivity. The material also identifies responsibilities and things that can be done to help the co-worker. The guide also provides signs that an individual maybe diverting controlled substances.

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Not specified February 28, 2020 DOJ-1316656 Controlled Substance Prescriptions This information alerts the reader to certain signs, behaviors or symptoms that the drug impaired co-worker may exhibit. The material discusses things such as absenteeism, frequent disappearances, not meeting deadlines and work performances alternating between low and high periods of productivity. The material also gives the reader what are his/her responsibilities and things they can do to help to co-worker. The guide also provides signs that an individual maybe diverting controlled substances.

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Not specified February 28, 2020 DOJ-1316661 General This pamphlet is directed to medical practitioners to assist them in recognizing a drug abuser, give them actions to take when confronted by a suspected drug abuser, and responsibilities regarding proper prescribing to prevent diversion. This includes common characteristics of the drug abuser and modus operandi often used by a drug-abusing patient.

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Not specified February 28, 2020 DOJ-1316666 General Summary of the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 (CMEA). Preventing the Retail Diversion of Pseudoephedrine, including CMEA requirements, methamphetamine background information, and DEA’s goals in combating the methamphetamine epidemic.

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Not specified February 28, 2020 DOJ-1316676 Controlled Substance Security This document identified a DEA regulation that may create unintended consequences for a formerly incarcerated individual that is attempting to successfully reenter society. Specifically, 21 CFR 1301.90 has been identified as such because this regulation sets forth specific questions in order for a non-practitioner to comprehensively screen employees. It also states DEA’s position on employee screening by non-practitioners in which “….obtaining information by non-practitioners is vital to fairly assess the likelihood of an employee committing a drug security breach. In this regard, it is believed that conviction of crimes and unauthorized use of controlled substances are activities that are properly subjects for injury.” Although 21 CFR 1301.90 has been identified, DEA would like to clarify that such regulation is only applicable to screening procedures for prospective employees at a non-practitioner DEA registered location where controlled substances are stored, distributed, manufactured, or otherwise handled and not applicable to prospective employees who will be employed at non-registered locations (ie corporate headquarters or sales offices).

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Not specified February 28, 2020 DOJ-1316691 Controlled Substance Prescriptions

All records for prescribing of an FDA-approved narcotic for the treatment of opioid addiction need to be kept in accordance with 21 CFR 1304.03(c), 21 CFR 1304.21(b).

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Not specified February 28, 2020 DOJ-1316711 General The document discusses ways for practitioners to be aware of signs that patients are trying to access drugs for diversion, such as giving vague symptoms, exaggerating pain, or avoiding tests and accessing medical history. The document also discusses ways for practitioners to avoid giving out prescriptions that could lead to diversion. Practitioners must assure they conduct medical examinations and tests while also looking out for signs of abuse when dealing with patients.

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

Office of Justice Programs (OJP) Not specified February 28, 2020 DOJ-1316776 Grants Guidance for states on the use and disposition requirements for VOI/TIS-funded facilities. 

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

Office of Justice Programs (OJP) Not specified February 28, 2020 DOJ-1316896 Grants Civil rights compliance information specific to State Administering Agencies for OJP awards during or prior to FY2016

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

Office of Justice Programs (OJP) Not specified February 28, 2020 DOJ-1316901 Grants Sample civil rights compliance checklist to assist state administering agencies in review of sub-recipients

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

Office of Justice Programs (OJP) Not specified February 28, 2020 DOJ-1316906 Grants Basic information on civil rights under the jursidiction of OCR and instructions on how to file a complaint with OCR.

Guidance documents are not binding and lack the force and effect of law, unless expressly authorized by statute or expressly incorporated into a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.  Consistent with Executive Order 13891 and the Office of Management and Budget implementing memoranda, the Department will not cite, use, or rely on any guidance document that is not accessible through this guidance portal, or similar guidance portals for other Executive Branch departments and agencies, except to establish historical facts.  To the extent any guidance document sets out voluntary standards (e.g., recommended practices), compliance with those standards is voluntary, and noncompliance will not result in enforcement action.  Guidance documents may be rescinded or modified in the Department’s complete discretion, consistent with applicable laws. 

Furthermore, guidance documents might not represent the Department’s authoritative or official position, and, in those situations, are not entitled to receive judicial deference.  A guidance document may be considered the Department’s authoritative or official position only if it is issued in a form understood to reflect the Department’s authoritative policy, and only if it emanates from those Department officials whose actions in the relevant context may be said to reflect the considered views of the Department as a whole.  See Question 25 of OMB Memorandum M-20-02, Guidance Implementing Executive Order 13891 (October 31, 2019).

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