Section 1518 of Title 18, United States Code, prohibits obstruction of criminal health care investigations. Under this statute, which was enacted on August 21, 1996, as part of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, Pub.L. No. 104-191, whoever willfully prevents, obstructs, misleads, or delays the communication of information or records relating to a Federal health care offense to a criminal investigator, or whoever attempts these actions, is subject to fines and imprisonment up to five years. Subsection 1518(b) defines "criminal investigator" to mean "any individual duly authorized by a department, agency, or armed force of the United States to conduct or engage in investigations for prosecutions for violations of health care offenses."
[cited in JM 9-69.100]