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Title Headnotes
Funding for Technical Assistance for Agricultural Conservation Programs

Funding for technical assistance for the agricultural conservation programs listed in amended section 1241(a) of the Food Security Act of 1985 is subject to the “section 11 cap” on transfer of Commodity Credit Corporation funds.

The Secretary of Agriculture may draw on the Department of Agriculture’s appropriation for Conservation Operations to fund technical assistance for these programs.

Authority of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to Impose Monetary Sanctions Against Federal Agencies for Failure to Comply With Orders Issued by EEOC Administrative Judges

The doctrine of sovereign immunity precludes the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission from imposing monetary sanctions against federal agencies for violations of orders of EEOC administrative judges.

Whether Canteen Service Provided Through the Veterans’ Canteen Service Is Exempt From Review Under the Federal Activities Inventory Reform Act of 1998

Canteen service provided through the Veterans’ Canteen Service is not exempt from review under the Federal Activities Inventory Reform Act of 1998.

Department of Transportation Authority to Exempt Canadian Truck Drivers From Criminal Liability for Transporting Explosives

The Department of Transportation possesses the authority to issue a regulation that, under section 845(a)(1) of title 18, would exempt Canadian truck drivers from criminal liability under section 842(i) of that title.

The Department of Transportation, however, has not issued such a regulation, and therefore section 842(i) liability would attach to a Canadian truck driver transporting explosives in the United States.

Appointment of Member of Holocaust Memorial Council

The process of appointing an individual as a member of the United States Holocaust Memorial Council was not completed.

Even if the process of appointing a member of the Council had been completed, the President’s appointment of another individual to that same position effected a removal of that appointee.

Limitations on the Detention Authority of the Immigration and Naturalization Service

The Immigration and Nationality Act by its terms grants the Attorney General a full 90 days to effect an alien’s removal after the alien is ordered removed under section 241(a) of the Act, and it imposes no duty on the Attorney General to act as quickly as possible, or with any particular degree of dispatch, within the 90-day period.  This reading of the Act raises no constitutional infirmity.

It is permissible for the Attorney General to take more than the 90-day removal period to remove an alien even when it would be within the Attorney General’s power to effect the removal within 90 days. The Attorney General can take such action, however, only when the delay in removal is related to effectuating the immigration laws and the nation’s immigration policies. Among other things, delays in removal that are attributable to investigating whether and to what extent an alien has terrorist connections satisfy this standard. An obligation to act with “reasonable dispatch” will attach at some point after the expiration of the 90-day removal period.

NLRB Quorum Requirements

The National Labor Relations Board may issue decisions even when only two of its five seats are filled, if the Board, at a time when it has at least three members, delegates all its powers to a three-member group and the two remaining members are part of this group and both participate in the decisions.

Scope of the Attorney General’s Authority to Assign Duties Under 21 U.S.C. § 878(a)(5)

Under 21 U.S.C. § 878(a)(5), the Attorney General may authorize the Drug Enforcement Administration to investigate possible violations of federal law, even if those violations do not concern the narcotics laws.

Bond Proceeding of Undocumented Aliens Seeking to Enter the United States Illegally

In determining whether to release on bond undocumented migrants who arrive in the United States by sea seeking to evade inspection, it is appropriate to consider national security interests implicated by the encouragement of further unlawful mass migrations and the release of undocumented alien migrants into the United States without adequate screening.

In bond proceedings involving aliens seeking to enter the United States illegally, where the government offers evidence from sources in the Executive Branch with relevant expertise establishing that significant national security interests are implicated, immigration judges and the Board of Immigration Appeals shall consider such interests.

Considering national security grounds applicable to a category of aliens in denying an unadmitted alien’s request for release on bond does not violate any due process right to an individualized determination in bond proceedings under section 236(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act.

Authority of the Department of the Interior to Provide Historic Preservation Grants to Historic Religious Properties Such as the Old North Church

The Establishment Clause does not bar the award of historic preservation grants to the Old North Church or to other active houses of worship that qualify for such assistance, and the section of the National Historic Preservation Act authorizing the provision of historic preservation assistance to religious properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places is constitutional.


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