Text Version     PDF Version     To Publications Page     To Home Page     Contact Addresses

To Home Page.

National Drug Threat Assessment 2005:
Threat Matrix

Product No. 2005-Q0317-006          February 2005

Department of Justice seal.

Overall Key Findings

Illicit Drug Key Findings Source Locations Seized En Route/Within U.S. in 2003 Transit Countries Primary Entry Points into U.S. Primary Markets and Principal Suppliers Wholesale Price Range in the U.S. Principal Retailers Retail Price Range in the U.S. Projections
Cocaine -Powder cocaine use by adolescents decreased since 1999 while cocaine use among adults increased slightly.

-Cocaine production declined from 700 mt in 2001 to 460 mt in 2003.

-Increased seizures in Texas indicate it is the state through which most cocaine enters the U.S.

Foreign: Colombia, Bolivia, Peru

Domestic: None

116,898 kg (233,000 kg reportedly available to U.S. markets) Mexico, Central American countries, Caribbean island nations Southwest Border (SWB) states (Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico); Miami/S Florida; New York City (NYC) Atlanta: Mexican, Colombian, Dominican

Chicago: Mexican, Colombian

Houston: Mexican, Colombian, Dominican, Jamaican

Los Angeles: Mexican

Miami: Colombian, Haitian

New York: Colombian, Dominican, Mexican

$13,000-$30,000 per kg (powder) African American, Hispanic street gangs; African American, Caucasian, Cuban, Dominican, Haitian, and Puerto Rican independent dealers and criminal groups $25-$110 per gram (powder)
$10-$100 per rock (crack)
-Rates of cocaine use among adolescents likely will continue to decline.

-Continued reduction of cocaine production in Colombia and interdiction of cocaine shipments in the transit zone may result in worldwide reductions of retail cocaine availability.

Methamphetamine -Increasing methamphetamine availability in the Northeast region.

-Ice availability has increased sharply since 2002.

-Production of methamphetamine in Mexico is increasing.

-Sharp increase in methamphetamine seizures at and between Arizona ports of entry (POEs).

Foreign: Mexico and, to a much lesser extent, Southeast Asia

Domestic: California

3,845 kg Mexican: Direct from source

SE Asian: Direct from source

Mexican: SWB states (California, Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico)

SE Asian: California, Hawaii

Los Angeles: Mexican, outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs)

Phoenix: Mexican

San Diego: Mexican

San Francisco: Mexican (Hawaiian, Filipino, and Asian DTOs distribute ice)

$3,500-$99,000 per kg* (powder); $13,200-$154,000 per kg* (ice)

*normally sold in pound quantities $1,600-$45,000 per pound (powder); $6,000-$70,000 per lb (ice)

Mexican, Caucasian, and Asian criminal groups; Caucasian independent dealers; Asian and Hispanic street gangs; OMGs $20-$300 per gram (powder)
$60-$700 per gram (ice)
-Increases in foreign and domestic production should raise domestic methamphetamine availability.

-Production and distribution of ice by Mexican criminal groups is likely to increase.

Marijuana -Since 1994, marijuana emergency department (ED) mentions and treatment admissions increased.

-U.S. marijuana production increasing partly because of increased involvement by U.S.-based Mexican DTOs.

-Size of marijuana shipments from Canada increased.

Foreign: Mexico, Colombia, Canada, Jamaica

Domestic: California, Appalachia (Tennessee, Kentucky), Hawaii, Pacific Northwest (Washington, Oregon)

1,225,000 kg (seizures in Texas, Arizona, California, and New Mexico account for 1,139,000 kg) Mexican: Direct from source

Colombian: Mexico, Caribbean island nations

Canadian: Direct from source

Jamaican: Caribbean island nations

Mexican: SWB states (primarily Texas and Arizona followed by California and New Mexico)

Colombian: Miami/S Florida, SWB states, New York City

Canadian: Northern Border states

Jamaican: Miami/S Florida, New York City

Chicago: Mexican

Dallas/Houston: Mexican

Los Angeles/San Diego: Mexican, Jamaican; street gangs

Miami: Hispanic, Haitian, African American

New York: Jamaican, Mexican

Phoenix/Tucson: Mexican, Jamaican

Seattle: Caucasian, Hispanic, Vietnamese, OMGs

$770-$4,400 per kg* (commercial-grade); $1,980-$13,200 per kg* (sinsemilla)

*normally sold in pound quantities $350-$2,000 per lb (commercial-grade); $900-$6,000 per lb (sinsemilla)

Caucasian, Jamaican, African American, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American local independent dealers; African American and Hispanic street gangs; Jamaican, Mexican, and Asian criminal groups; OMGs; prison gangs $5-$50 per gram
$2-$10 per joint
-As DTOs continue to expand large-scale domestic cultivation operations, overall marijuana production in the U.S. will increase.

-Expansion of cannabis cultivation on public lands may increase the threat of violence against unsuspecting passersby.

Heroin -Heroin treatment admissions increased each year since 1992.

-Potential worldwide heroin production increased in 2002, 2003, and 2004 primarily because of increased production in Afghanistan.

-Sharp increase in South American heroin seizures along Southwest Border.

Mexico, Colombia, Southeast Asia (Burma, Laos, Thailand); Southwest Asia (Afghanistan, Pakistan) 2,361.8 kg Mexican (MX): Direct from source

South American (SA): Direct from source, Central/South American countries, Caribbean island nations, Mexico

Southeast Asian (SEA): China, SE Asian countries, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Canada

Southwest Asian (SWA): European and Central Asian countries, Canada

MX: SWB states (primarily California and Texas followed by Arizona and New Mexico)

SA: Miami/S Florida, NYC, Newark, SWB states (primarily Texas)

SEA: NYC, Los Angeles, Northern Border states (Washington, Michigan, New York)

SWA: NYC, Chicago, Detroit, Atlanta, Washington, D.C.

Chicago: Colombian (SA), Mexican (MX), Nigerian (SEA, SWA)

Los Angeles: Mexican

New York: Colombian, Dominican, Mexican, Chinese, Nigerian, Pakistani

MX: $18,000-$50,000 per kg

SA: $52,000-$90,000 per kg

SEA: $40,000-$80,000 per kg

SWA: $60,000-$70,000 per kg

African American (MX, SA), Asian (SEA, SWA), Caucasian (SA), Colombian (SA), Dominican (SA), Guatemalan (MX), Honduran (MX), Mexican (MX), Puerto Rican (SA) criminal groups; African American (MX, SA, SEA, SWA), Hispanic (MX, SA, SEA, SWA) street gangs $10 per dose (approximately 50-100 mg) -Demand for heroin will remain lower than for other major drugs.

-The increase in worldwide heroin production is unlikely to cause an increase in heroin availability in the U.S. because the increase is mostly attributed to Southwest Asian heroin, which is typically destined for Asian and European drug markets.

MDMA -MDMA availability has decreased since 2001.

-More adolescents perceive risk in using MDMA.

-Decrease in MDMA smuggled directly to the U.S. from source areas. Asian DTOs increasingly are involved in MDMA trafficking and may become the primary domestic suppliers.

Foreign: Netherlands, Belgium (also Poland, Germany, Canada, Latin America)

Domestic: Limited

1,319,492 du

Western European countries, Canada, Mexico, Dominican Republic


New York City, Newark, Miami, Los Angeles (via international airports); Northern Border states (New York, Washington), Texas

Los Angeles: Israeli, Russian, Asian

Miami: Russian, Israeli, Eastern European, Dominican (also Colombian, Caucasian)

New York: Israeli, Russian, (also Asian, Eastern European, Dominican, Colombian, OMGs, Traditional Organized Crime {TOC} groups)

$4-$20 per du (1,000 du lots)


Caucasian independent dealers; African American, Asian, and Hispanic street gangs; OMGs; prison gangs

$6-$50 per du -MDMA abuse likely to continue declining among all age groups.

-MDMA smuggling across the Northern Border may increase as MDMA trafficking organizations avoid transporting the MDMA directly to the U.S. by first transporting the drug to Canada.

To Top


National Drug Intelligence Center
319 Washington Street, 5th Floor
Johnstown, PA 15901

Tel. (814) 532-4601
FAX (814) 532-4690
E-mail NDIC.Contacts@usdoj.gov

National Drug Intelligence Center
8201 Greensboro Drive, Suite 1001
McLean, VA 22102-3840

Tel. (703) 556-8970
FAX (703) 556-7807


Web Addresses

ADNET:  http://ndicosa 
      DOJ:  http://www.usdoj.gov/archive/ndic/
      LEO:  home.leo.gov/lesig/archive/ndic/ 
     RISS:  ndic.riss.net


To Top

To Publications Page     To Home Page

End of document.