National Drug Intelligence Center
Figure 10. Federally recognized Native American reservations within the New York/New Jersey OCDETF Region.
Source: Bureau of Indian Affairs; U.S. Census Bureau.
|New York/New Jersey OCDETF Region Indian Country Fast Facts|
|States||New Jersey, New York|
|Number of Reservations||9|
|Population on Reservations||15,106|
|Area (Square Miles)||135.4|
|Per Capita Income||$12,930|
Source: U.S. Census Bureau.
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The primary illicit drugs abused by Native Americans on reservations in the New York/New Jersey are crack cocaine, marijuana, heroin, and diverted pharmaceuticals. Tribal members typically obtain crack cocaine, marijuana, and heroin from independent traffickers living in nearby cities, and diverted pharmaceuticals through doctor-shopping. Additionally, wholesale amounts of high-potency Canadian marijuana and MDMA as well as small quantities of powdered cocaine are smuggled from Canada into the United States through reservations in the region; a portion of these illicit drugs are transported to and distributed in Native American communities in the region.
Native American DTOs smuggle significant quantities of marijuana and MDMA from Canada to the United States through Indian Country. Native American DTOs operating in Canada and the United States exploit reservations in the region to smuggle multiton quantities of high-potency Canadian marijuana and MDMA from Canada into the United States. These organizations, which are highly organized, typically employ tribal members to transport the marijuana and MDMA from Canada into the United States.
Asian DTOs exploit the reservations along the U.S.-Canada border by smuggling Canada-produced marijuana and MDMA into the United States. Canada-based Asian DTOs smuggle high-potency Canadian marijuana and MDMA into the United States through reservations along the U.S.-Canada border. The drugs are initially transported to the areas in Canada near the border, where Native American criminal groups retrieve the drugs and transport them to the U.S. side of the reservation.
Outlaw motorcycle gangs utilize reservations in the region to smuggle high-potency marijuana and MDMA into the region. OMGs smuggle high-potency Canadian marijuana and MDMA through reservations near the U.S.-Canada border en route to various U.S. drug markets, including many in New England.
Street gang activity on reservations in the region is limited, although influences from urban areas pose a growing threat.15 Law enforcement reporting reveals that younger tribal members who periodically visit and/or live with family members in urban areas have been exposed to an array of gang influences. Some of the younger tribal members have become active in the urban gang culture and could introduce this culture to their home reservations when they return.
Drug traffickers on reservations throughout the region are increasingly using sophisticated communication devices to lessen the risk of law enforcement detection. Drug traffickers who operate on reservations in the region generally use a variety of communication devices to facilitate their drug trafficking activities. For example, Native American criminal groups use cellular devices and boost phones to impede law enforcement efforts to track their communications.
Various traffickers smuggle wholesale quantities of Canadian marijuana and MDMA through reservations along the U.S.-Canada border to various drug markets across the United States. Native American DTOs, Asian DTOs, and Canada-based members of OMGs routinely use reservations to smuggle wholesale quantities of high-potency Canadian marijuana and MDMA to major drug markets throughout the United States. Loads of high-potency Canadian marijuana and MDMA are generally transported by these traffickers from Canada into the United States through the reservations. These traffickers usually employ couriers, including members of reservations, to smuggle illicit drugs into the United States.
Retail-level drug distribution on reservations in the region is limited; however, wholesale distribution regularly occurs on some reservations in the region. Most Native American illicit drug abusers on reservations in the region acquire their drug supplies from cities close to their home reservation; they typically travel to cities in private vehicles and return with personal use quantities of drugs. However, limited retail-level distribution of marijuana and MDMA does occur on reservations in the region. Conversely, wholesale drug distribution routinely occurs on some reservations. Wholesale quantities of high-potency Canadian marijuana and MDMA smuggled onto reservations in the region from Canada are regularly distributed to drug markets throughout the United States. The drugs are generally transported off the reservation by Native American couriers, destined for major drug markets in the eastern half of the United States.
Crack cocaine and marijuana are the most widely available and abused drugs in the region; the abuse of diverted pharmaceuticals is increasing. The primary drugs of abuse among American Indians in the region are crack cocaine, marijuana, heroin, and diverted pharmaceuticals. Reservation residents typically obtain crack cocaine, marijuana, and heroin from independent dealers living in nearby cities. According to TEDS data, marijuana is the primary illicit drug for which Native Americans in the region seek treatment; the percentage of American Indians reporting marijuana abuse at the time of treatment admission increased between 2004 and 2005 after a period of relative stability and then decreased slightly between 2005 and 2006, the latest year for which such data are available. Native Americans in the region also are increasingly seeking treatment for cocaine and heroin abuse. (See Table 13.) The percentage of American Indians reporting pharmaceutical drug abuse increased between 2002 and 2004 and steadily declined between 2004 and 2006. However, law enforcement officials in the region report that diverted pharmaceutical abuse remains a threat to Native American communities in the region. Diverted pharmaceuticals are typically obtained by tribal members through doctor-shopping. The level of methamphetamine abuse by American Indians in the region is low, with less than 1 percent of American Indians who sought treatment in 2006 reporting abuse of the drug at the time of their admission.
Table 13. Primary Illicit Drug Mentions by American Indians Seeking Treatment for Abuse in the New York/New Jersey Region, 2002-2006
Source: Treatment Episode Data Set 2006.
15. While many of these gangs claim affiliation with national gang structures such as Bloods and Crips, the majority are hybrid gang structures that have little or no affiliation with the national gang other than the names, symbolism, and representing style.
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