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Drug Trafficking Organizations

Mexican DTOs and criminal groups pose the greatest organizational drug threat in the Central Valley HIDTA. They are the principal illicit drug producers, transporters, and wholesale distributors in the region. Mexican DTOs dominate methamphetamine and outdoor marijuana production operations throughout the area and regularly transport wholesale quantities of ice methamphetamine, marijuana, powder cocaine, and black tar heroin from Mexico into the region for distribution. Mexican DTOs typically focus their efforts on wholesale-level sales and supply small Hispanic, African American, and Asian criminal groups that distribute the drugs at the midlevel and retail level.

Asian DTOs (typically ethnic Cambodian, Hmong, Laotian, and Vietnamese) operate throughout the HIDTA region and are the dominant producers of high-potency indoor-grown marijuana. Asian DTOs also transport wholesale quantities of high-potency marijuana and MDMA, including MDMA combined with BZP (N-benzylpiperazine) and TFMPP (1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine), from Canada into the region. Members of Asian DTOs typically restrict involvement in their drug trafficking operations to individuals of similar race/ethnicity and familial affiliation; however, they sometimes work with other groups, primarily criminal groups within the Indo-Canadian community, to transport drugs across the U.S.-Canada border. For example, in November 2009, the Fresno Police Department seized 108,000 MDMA tablets, the largest MDMA seizure in the department's history, from an Indo-Canadian member of a criminal group that had smuggled the drugs from Canada to the Central Valley HIDTA region.

Street gangs and outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) distribute illicit drugs at the midlevel and retail level. These gangs are extremely violent as they establish or maintain control of their drug trafficking operations and are involved in other criminal activities, including shootings, carjackings, and armed robberies. Hispanic street gangs, affiliates of Sureņos and Norteņos gangs, primarily distribute methamphetamine, marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. African American street gang members, primarily affiliates of Bloods and Crips, distribute crack cocaine and marijuana in the HIDTA region. Asian street gangs dominate distribution of MDMA and high-potency marijuana at the retail level. Members of OMGs, most notably Hells Angels Motorcycle Club (HAMC), distribute powder cocaine, methamphetamine, and marijuana at the midlevel and retail level.

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