|USDOJ Homepage||Strategic Plan Homepage||A Message from the Attorney General||FY 1999 Annual Accountability Report||FY 2000 Performance Report and FY 2002 Performance Plan|
|Table of Contents||Introduction||Chapter I||Chapter II||Goal One|
|Goal Two||Goal Three||Goal Four||Goal Five||Goal Six|
|Goal Seven||Goal Eight||External Factors||Chapter III||Appendix A|
|Appendix B||Appendix C||Appendix D||Appendix E||Appendix F|
Goal 3: PREVENT AND REDUCE CRIME AND VIOLENCE BY ASSISTING STATE, TRIBAL, LOCAL, AND COMMUNITY-BASED PROGRAMS
Although the role of the Federal Government in crime-fighting has grown significantly in recent years, most of the responsibility for crime control still rests at the state and local levels of government. State and locals do most of the criminal justice work in this country and spend most of its criminal justice resources. Tribal law enforcement agencies and courts play a large role in crime control (even though the FBI has primary jurisdiction over major crimes involving Indians in Indian Country), and a host of other publicly and privately funded non-federal organizations are also major forces in combating crime.
A key role of the Department of Justice in this environment is to provide leadership and support for these efforts in order to further develop the Nation's capacity to prevent and control crime and administer justice fairly and effectively. The Department works toward this goal principally through an extensive, varied portfolio of criminal and juvenile justice grant-in-aid programs, training, and technical assistance. It also builds knowledge and understanding about crime and justice by conducting research, collecting statistics, and testing and evaluating new programs and technologies.
In addition, the Department helps state and local officials and civic leaders resolve conflicts and prevent violence in communities experiencing tensions due to race, color, or national origin. The Department works toward promoting the resolution of racial tension by assisting communities in building their own capacities to develop local solutions to local problems through mediation, conciliation, and other conflict resolution services.
Most of these efforts are carried out by three components: the Office of Justice Programs (OJP), the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), and the Community Relations Service (CRS). In addition, other Justice components (including the U.S. Attorneys, the FBI, DEA, and NDIC) provide training, share information, and offer specialized support services.
Strategic Objective 3.1 LAW ENFORCEMENT - - Improve the crime fighting and criminal justice administration capabilities of state, tribal, and local governments.
As noted above, the Department believes that the best way for the Federal Government to have an impact on local crime is by building partnerships with. state, local, and tribal governments, and by providing resources and leadership to them.
Strategies to Achieve the Objective
Provide funding to support state and local criminal justice system initiatives.
The Department administers a number of grant programs to support state and local law enforcement. These include block and formula grants that preserve state and local discretion in allocating monies for a wide range of criminal justice initiatives.
Focus resources to reduce crime and improve criminal justice services and operations in Indian Country.
American Indians are the victims of violent crime at more than twice the rate of all U.S. residents. Moreover, Indian Country has been plagued by substandard law enforcement services. To correct this situation, the Department is focusing resources on Indian Country. Some of this effort involves direct federal action, but a major part involves grants, training, and technical assistance to support and strengthen tribal law enforcement and criminal justice systems. The FBI has established goals and objectives over the next five years to standardize training; improve coordination among the FBI, tribal, and Bureau of Indian Affairs law enforcement entities; improve the Safe Trails Task Force; address Indian Country quality of life issues; and ensure that personnel resources are distributed effectively within Indian Country.
Improve the capacity of the Nation's "first responder" community to respond to terrorist incidents, including those involving weapons of mass destruction, by providing consultation, training, equipment, and other assistance.
While the Federal Government plays a major role in preventing and responding to terrorist incidents, the state and local public safety community are the "first responders." Yet most state and local governments lack the specialized equipment and skills needed to respond effectively, especially to attacks involving chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons. In coordination with the FBI and the Office of National Preparedness at the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), OJP sponsors training for "first responders" and provides grants to help states and localities obtain needed equipment.
Improve the capacity of state and local law enforcement to respond to emerging or specialized crime issues, such as white collar crime and computer-related crime, by providing targeted training, technical assistance, or other technology innovations.
The Department assists state and local governments in responding to new and emerging crime threats and opportunities in a variety of ways, including research, information sharing, and training. In recent years, the Department has focused on helping state and local governments deal with the challenges of computer-related and white collar crimes that often require sophisticated investigative and prosecutorial skills. For example, the FBI and OJP are working together to distribute the Automated Case Examination System to state and local law enforcement officials to aid them in processing digital evidence in computer-related crime, including health care fraud.
Provide direct technical support to state, local, and tribal law enforcement.
The Department provides direct support and technical assistance to state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies in a number of ways. These include conducting fingerprint checks under the FBI's Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), criminal history checks through the FBI's National Crime Information Center (NCIC), and background checks on prospective firearm purchasers using the National Instant Background Check System (NICS). The Bureau also provides DNA profile-matching services through the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), including the Mitochondrial DNA database being created within CODIS. Last, the Bureau helps develop state systems which support and interface with these national programs. Another DOJ component, the NDIC, provides the Real-time Analytical Intelligence Database (RAID) database and Hashkeeper software to state and local law enforcement to improve case management and information sharing capabilities.
The FBI lab provides a large share of forensic support for Indian Country investigations. The Indian Country Evidence Task Force, created on June 1, 2000, is composed of FBI Laboratory experts in the disciplines of DNA, trace evidence, latent fingerprints, and firearms. The Bureau also funds Indian Country examinations conducted by the Arizona State Crime Laboratory in Phoenix. Finally, the FBI has established a Forensic Child Interview Specialist position, specifically for Indian Country, to provide investigation assistance, referral services, training in child abuse and interview disciplines, and to coordinate all training programs involving the FBI's efforts in child abuse and assault matters in Indian Country.
Develop and support programs and services that target the reduction of the incidence and consequences of family violence, including domestic violence and child victimization.
Under the Violence Against Women Act, the Department plays a major role in the national effort to prevent and respond to domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking, and related types of violence. One of our most important aims is to transform how the criminal justice system responds to these crimes. As a result, the Department provides grants to establish programs that create an integrated, coordinated, and strengthened response that actively involves all components of the criminal justice system, victim advocates and service providers, and the community as a whole.
Build knowledge about crime and justice by conducting research and evaluation, developing and testing new technologies, gathering statistics, and disseminating results for more effective criminal justice administration.
Collectively, DOJ components assist state and local governments in the development of justice information systems and the collection, analysis, and dissemination of justice statistics. The Department's National Institute of Justice is the principal federal agency for research on crime. Its role is to build knowledge and develop the tools and technologies that will help the criminal justice community--whether at the federal, state, local, tribal, or international level--prevent and control crime and administer justice. Similarly, the Department's Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) is the principal federal agency for collecting and reporting statistics on crime and the operation of our justice systems. Finally, the FBI's Uniform Crime Report and National Incident-Based Reporting System Programs maintain the official crime data repository.
Key Crosscutting Programs
Indian Country. All Department of Justice Indian Country initiatives are coordinated with the Interior Department's Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Counterterrorism. The Federal Government's domestic preparedness activities are coordinated by the newly-established Office of National Preparedness at the Federal Emergency Management Agency. In carrying out its state and local assistance activities, the Department works with FEMA, the Office of Homeland Security, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
Domestic Violence. The Department works with HHS to examine the causes of violence against women and violence within the family, and provides prevention and intervention services for such violence.
Partnership and New Technologies. The Justice Department and the Department of Defense collaborate on the deployment of technologies that support both national defense and law enforcement needs.
Strategic Objective 3.2 JUVENILE JUSTICE - - Reduce youth crime and victimization through assistance that emphasizes both enforcement and prevention.
Young people are both perpetrators and victims of violent crime. Arrest rates for violent crimes among those aged 15-17 climbed sharply from the late 1980s to the mid 1990s. Although declining since the mid 1990s, youth crime rates remain disturbingly high. At the same time, school shootings and other high profile incidents have heightened public concern. The young are also vulnerable to being victimized. Between 1986 and 1993, the number of juveniles abused and neglected doubled. In 1993, the number of juveniles murdered peaked at 2,900. By 1997, it had dropped to 2,100, still substantially above the levels of the mid 1980s when about 1,600 juveniles were murdered annually. Murder is the second leading cause of death for youth 15-24 years of age.
Within the Department, lead responsibility for responding to the problems of youth crime and victimization rests with OJP's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). OJJDP provides leadership, conducts research, and provides financial and other assistance to state, local, and tribal governments to improve their juvenile justice systems and implement effective enforcement and prevention programs.
Strategies to Achieve the Objective
Provide financial assistance (formula and block grants) to eligible states to support improvements in their juvenile justice systems.
OJJDP provides formula grants to states that comply with certain statutory requirements related to the handling of juveniles, including requirements to confine juveniles separately from adults. In addition, OJJDP provides incentive block grants to states that have taken steps to strengthen the accountability of juvenile offenders for their acts.
Support targeted early intervention and prevention programs that reduce the impact of negative (risk) factors and enhance the influence of positive (protective) factors in the lives of youth at greatest risk of delinquency.
Research has shown that early intervention and positive adult support make a difference. Among the intervention and prevention activities supported by OJJDP are mentoring programs that link at-risk youth with responsible adults who provide guidance, promote personal and social responsibility, discourage gang involvement, and encourage participation in community service and activities. Also included are programs to reduce the illegal use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs; decrease truancy; and increase healthy child development.
Support targeted and comprehensive programs to counter youth violence.
This strategy includes programs to reduce gun-related violence, decrease gang membership, and increase school safety. It also includes efforts to encourage communities to develop comprehensive strategies that emphasize a continuum of programs and services for dealing with serious, violent, and chronic offenders.
Support programs that meet the particular needs of child victims, including those who are missing, abused, or neglected.
Every day about 2,200 children are reported missing to law enforcement. Most of these are runaways. Some are abducted by a noncustodial parent. Some are lost and still others are victims of predators. The Department's Missing Children's Program coordinates the federal response to this problem. It supports research and demonstration programs, provides training and technical assistance, and maintains a national resource center and clearinghouse. Funds are provided under the Crime Victims Fund program to assist states and tribal governments in handling child abuse cases. In addition, the Office for Victims of Crime and the OJJDP support the Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Program for abused and neglected children.
Focus resources to reduce youth crime and improve juvenile justice operations and services in Indian Country.
To address the significant juvenile justice issues in Indian Country, financial and technical assistance and training will be provided to tribal governments to support prevention initiatives and make juvenile justice system improvements.
Build knowledge about crime and delinquency.
As the Department's principal organization for research on juvenile crime and delinquency, OJJDP's mission is to provide national leadership, coordination, and support to prevent juvenile victimization and respond appropriately to juvenile delinquency. Through its research, testing, and evaluation programs, OJJDP develops the tools and knowledge necessary to support communities in preventing and controlling crime and delinquency and administering justice.
Key Crosscutting Programs
Safe Schools/Healthy Students Program. In this collaborative interagency initiative, the Departments of Justice, Health and Human Services, and Education have pooled resources, thereby creating one, unified application process that enables school districts to apply for an array of funding to address school violence.
Drug-Free Communities Support Program. In conjunction with the Office of National Drug Control Policy, the Department provides grants to support community coalitions of youth, parents, media, law enforcement, school officials, religious organizations, and other community representatives. These coalitions work to prevent and reduce young people's illegal use of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco.
Strategic Objective 3.3 DRUG ABUSE - - Break the cycle of drugs and violence by reducing the demand for and use and trafficking of illegal drugs.
According to the National Drug Control Strategy 2001 Annual Report, more than 1.5 million Americans were arrested for drug law violations in 1999. Together, drug abuse violations and alcohol-related arrests accounted for an estimated 31% of the overall arrests in 1999. And, according to the August 2000, Prisoners in 1999 Report of the Bureau of Justice Statistics, drug offenders account for 19% of state prison population growth.
Assessing the nature and extent of the influence of drugs and violent crime requires reliable information about the offense and the offender. In 1997, a survey conducted for BJS and BOP by the Bureau of Census found that the percentage of federal and state prison inmates who reported they were under the influence of drugs at the time of the offense varied across the major offense categories. However, 24 percent of federal prison inmates and 29 percent of all state prison inmates reported being under the influence of illegal drugs while committing the violent offense for which they were convicted.
Trafficking in illicit drugs tends to be associated with the commission of violent crimes. According to research conducted by ONDCP and supported by statistics collected through the FBI's Uniform Crime Report, 1991-1998, reasons for the relationship between drug trafficking and violence include the following: 1) competition for drug markets and customers; 2) disputes among individuals involved in the illegal drug market; and 3) tendency toward violence of individuals who participate in the trafficking of drugs. In 1998, prisoners sentenced for drug offenses (mainly drug trafficking) constituted the largest group of federal inmates (58 percent, up from 53 percent in 1990).
Strategies to Achieve the Objective
Monitor and conduct research on substance use by criminal offenders.
The Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring System is a research program that provides program planning and policy information on drug use by arrestees. Through interviews and drug testing, communities are able to assess the dimensions of their substance abuse problems, evaluate interventions with offender populations, and plan appropriate policy or program responses.
Support programs providing drug testing, treatment, and graduated sanctions for persons under the supervision of the criminal system.
The Department's strategy on how to confront the relationship between substance abuse and crime is largely rooted in research and program experience which indicates that combining criminal justice sanctions with substance abuse treatment–that is, leveraging the coercive power of the system to impose sanctions and provide treatment--is effective in decreasing drug and alcohol use and related crime. Illustrations of this strategy are the Drug Courts program and the Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) program. Drug Courts use the coercive power of the court to force abstinence and alter behavior. This approach integrates the power of the court with substance abuse treatment, collateral services, judicial supervision, escalating sanctions, mandatory drug testing, and strong aftercare programs to teach responsibility and help offenders reenter the community. Key to their effectiveness in "breaking the cycle" is the collaboration established between the criminal justice and substance abuse treatment systems. RSAT provides individual and group treatment activities for offenders in state and local prisons and jails.
Prevent juvenile use and abuse of drugs.
Young Americans are especially vulnerable to drug abuse. Moreover, studies have shown that underage use of alcohol correlates with later adult drug use. The Department works to prevent juvenile use and abuse of drugs and alcohol through a variety of educational and public outreach programs.
Improve the ability of state and local law enforcement to respond to emerging or specialized drug-related issues by providing timely intelligence information, targeted training, and appropriate technology.
The NDIC's Field Program Specialist initiative provides a framework for identifying emerging or specialized drug-related issues. Field Program Specialists located throughout the United States meet regularly with state and local law enforcement officials and with representatives from the health and human services community to identify and collect the most current drug-related information available within their assigned areas of responsibility. NDIC uses this information to prepare timely information bulletins on drug-related topics such as OxyContin, various synthetic drugs, and raves, and widely disseminates these publications to increase awareness. The NDIC also supports state and local law enforcement through its quarterly multi-agency training program and by providing the RAID database to enhance their case management abilities.
Reduce the demand for and use and trafficking of illegal drugs
The Department works to reduce the demand, use, and trafficking of illegal drugs through funds provided via the Edward Byrne Memorial Formula Grant Program. Through the Byrne Program, state and local law enforcement agencies build networks to reduce demand and increase knowledge regarding substance abuse, illegal drug trafficking networks, and the advent of synthetic and controlled substances like methamphetamine.
Key Crosscutting Programs
The Department coordinates its substance abuse treatment programs with ONDCP and the HHS Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.
Strategic Objective 3.4 VICTIMS OF CRIME - - Uphold the rights of and improve services to America's crime victims.
One of the major changes in America's response to crime in the last three decades is the recognition of rights and needs of crime victims. In 1984, Congress enacted the Victims of Crime Act (VOCA) which authorized the establishment of a Crime Victims Fund and authorized direct services programs and national-scope training and technical assistance to benefit crime victims. The fund is comprised of fines, penalties, and bond forfeitures collected from convicted federal offenders. With the passage of VOCA, the Department provides leadership and safeguards the rights of crime victims by developing policy, funding practices which show promise, monitoring compliance with federal victims' rights statutes, and supporting public awareness and education activities intended to promote justice for crime victims.
Strategies to Achieve the Objective
Implement procedures to streamline the claims process under the Public Safety Officers' Benefits Acts of 1976.
The Office of Justice Programs will expedite the delivery of benefits to public safety officers' families. In cases where benefits are sought by survivors of officers (including law enforcement officers, firemen, emergency response squad members, and ambulance crew members) killed in the line of duty on September 11, 2001, OJP will accept blanket certifications from executives of public safety agencies as evidence of eligibility without requiring further individualized documentation. In addition, OJP will add staff to assist in case processing, establish a separate computer data base to expedite and monitor processing, provide first hand assistance to families in the assembly of claims packages, and work with the Department of Treasury to expedite payments once claims are approved.
Provide financial and technical assistance (including training) to meet the needs of crime victims.
Formula grants are provided to the states to support victim compensation and assistance programs. These programs assist victims in paying medical, mental health, funeral, and other expenses; they may also offset lost wages and loss of support. Victim assistance funds are awarded to domestic violence shelters, child abuse treatment programs, rape crisis centers, and criminal justice-based assistance programs which provide crisis counseling, advocacy, intervention, shelter, and emergency services for crime victims. In addition, training and technical assistance, through discretionary grants and contracts to private, nonprofit organizations, are provided for a wide variety of professionals who interface with crime victims at the national, international, state, local, tribal, and military levels.
Develop knowledge about the needs of child victims, including those who are missing, abused, or neglected.
The Department will conduct research and evaluation to generate new knowledge about the needs of child victims. It will also develop and test new strategies, gather statistics, and disseminate information to the research and practitioner communities.
Key Crosscutting Programs
Activities focused on providing services and assistance to victims of federal crimes are coordinated among Department components (DEA, FBI, USAs, INS and Civil Rights Division) and other federal agencies. These activities are described further under Strategic Objective 7.2.
Strategic Objective 3.5 COMMUNITY SERVICES - - Support innovative cooperative and community-based programs aimed at reducing crime and violence and promote resolution of racial tension.
Although crime is a national problem, it is more directly and immediately a community problem. Community-based programs work to empower communities, build safer and healthier neighborhoods, and strengthen social and familial ties. Research has shown that one of the most effective ways to reduce crime is through community-based programs. Key to these programs is the establishment of collaborative partnerships among criminal justice agencies, other private and public organizations (e.g., schools, religious centers, tribal colleges), and residents and groups within a given community. These partnerships enable the resources of these diverse parties to be directed toward solving specific crime problems and help ensure that local residents and organizations who best understand their own needs and resource requirements are given the tools to accomplish their goals.
Similarly, racial tensions adversely affect local communities, officials, community leaders, private individuals, and businesses. Racial tensions have a lasting effect on communities and, if left to fester, can lead to more serious conflicts and violence, including major civil disturbances and fatalities. The Department, through the Community Relations Service, has learned through decades of experience that persons directly affected by racial tensions are the best source of solutions for resolving local conflicts and for reducing community violence and racial tension. Only through cooperative efforts by police chiefs, local elected officials, community and business leaders, and only by their combined energy and willingness to promote the resolution of racial tensions, can the different needs and interests of all parties be identified and addressed in a satisfactory manner.
Strategies to Achieve the Objective
Encourage community-based approaches to crime and justice at the state and local level through comprehensive and collaborative programs.
Community-based initiatives provide for community involvement in the choice, design, and implementation of programs, flexible use of federal funding, and the creative mixing of local and federal resources. The Weed and Seed program is the Department's flagship effort in community-based efforts to prevent and control violent crime and provide a safe environment in which community residents can live, work, and raise their families. The approach couples intense geographically-targeted law enforcement efforts with community-focused human services programs and neighborhood improvement initiatives. "Weeding" includes law enforcement efforts to remove violent offenders, drug traffickers, and other criminals from the target areas. "Seeding" includes human services, law enforcement-established prevention programs (such as the FBI's "Adopt-A-School" and "Citizens' Academy" programs), and neighborhood revitalization efforts.
Assist communities in preventing violence and responding to conflicts that arise from racial and ethnic tension.
The Community Relations Service will improve and expand its delivery of conflict resolution and violence prevention services to state and local officials and community leaders in the coming years. These services include direct mediation and conciliation; transfer of knowledge and expertise in the establishment of partnerships and formal agreements for locally-derived solutions; development of community trust and cooperation; improvement of local preparedness for addressing violence and civil disorders; and assistance in enhancing the local capacity to resolve conflicts. The most significant benefits to state and local communities of CRS's intervention are the cessation of racial violence, restoration of peace in the community, restoration of public trust in the local government and law enforcement, and reduction in the likelihood of recurring violence.
Support community policing initiatives.
Community policing is a strategy that builds on fundamental policing practices, but shifts from a reactive to a proactive mode. Community policing emphasizes prevention, problem-solving, and forging strong collaborative partnerships between the police and the community. Community policing opens lines of communication between police and community residents and engages them in mutually supportive efforts to identify and resolve problems. The Department has supported community policing over the years through research and demonstration programs and, more recently, through funding to hire and deploy community-oriented police officers.
Support community justice initiatives.
"Community justice" refers to a variety of non-traditional approaches to criminal justice activities, including prosecution and corrections. Largely an extension of the ideas underlying community policing, community justice programs are characterized by a commitment to partnership with the community and a focus on problem-solving.
Key Crosscutting Programs
In implementing its community-based programs the Department works closely with all levels of government. At the federal level, these include the Departments of Labor, HHS, Education, and Treasury. DOJ components, particularly CRS, OJP, and COPS also work extensively with state and local officials and community groups in delivering their services.
Grant Management - The Department's grant programs have a high risk for fraud given the large amount of money involved and the tens of thousands of grantees. Due to the size of DOJ grant programs, there is compelling need for proper dispensation and monitoring of funds, including complete on-site monitoring reviews; grantee compliance with reporting rules; and appropriate methodologies for reimbursing applicants for payment programs.
FY 2001 -- 2006 Strategic Plan
U.S. Department of Justice