Is an agency obligated to process documents and make them available for viewing by a requester without the assessment of a duplication fee?
No. An agency is certainly within its rights to require a FOIA requester to pay applicable duplication
fees even though the requester indicates a preference to first examine copies of the processed
documents in order to ascertain the particular pages he wants to purchase. Otherwise, a FOIA
requester could easily frustrate "[t]he interest underlying the duplication fee requirement" in 5 U.S.C.
Finally, it should be remembered that no duplication fee may be assessed in connection with a requester's examination of those records which are required to be made available for "public inspection" by anyone under subsection (a)(2) of the FOIA.
Are records of federal employment background investigations "investigatory records compiled for law enforcement purposes" under Exemption 7?
Yes. Background investigations are regularly conducted to determine whether an applicant for federal employment has "engaged in criminal activity or [is] otherwise unfit for government service." DeFina v. FAA, Civil No. 75-1526, slip op. at 16 (S.D.N.Y. Feb. 26, 1976). The courts have regarded the records generated in connection with such investigations as satisfying the threshold requirement of Exemption 7. See, e.g., Block v. FBI, Civil No. 83-0813, slip op. at 14-15 (D.D.C. Nov. 19, 1984); Meeropol v. Smith, Civil No. 75-1121, slip op. at 78 (D.D.C. Feb. 29, 1984) (appeal pending); Koch v. Department of Justice, 376 F. Supp. 313, 315 (D.D.C. 1974); cf. Nagel v. HEW, 725 F.2d 1438, 1441 (D.C. Cir. 1984) (employer's determination concerning disciplining of federal employees constitutes "an authorized law enforcement activity" within meaning of subsection (e)(7) of Privacy Act of 1974).
A related issue is whether confidential sources mentioned in such records qualify for protection under
both clauses of Exemption 7(D), the second of which has its own special threshold requirement.
Whereas the first clause of that exemption (which protects source-identifying information) is widely
applicable, the broader second clause (which protects all source-provided information) can be applied
only to the records of "a criminal investigation, or
Can any harm ever result from an agency's failure to notify a FOIA requester of his administrative appeal rights?
Yes. The FOIA establishes a two-level process of administrative review and, to ensure that requesters
are able to fully avail themselves of this process, it explicitly provides that any agency denial of a request
must include written notice of the requester's right to appeal that denial to the head of the agency. See 5
Beyond that, moreover, is the possibility of a requester seeking immediate judicial review of a denial,
without either party (or the court, for that matter) having the benefit of that second level of
administrative review. Because a requester is deemed to have exhausted his administrative remedies if
an agency does not make a proper determination of his request within the Act's time limits, see FOIA
Update, Jan. 1983, at 6 (citing 5 U.S.C.
In fact, such was precisely the situation in the recent case of Hudgins v. IRS, 620 F. Supp. 19 (D.D.C.
1985). The agency there denied each of the plaintiffs' requests within the FOIA's time deadlines and
accordingly sought dismissal of the lawsuit on the ground that "the plaintiffs' failure to pursue an
administrative appeal constitutes a failure to exhaust administrative remedies." 620 F. Supp. at 20.
However, the court refused to dismiss the suit, finding that the agency's failure to inform the plaintiffs of
their administrative appeal rights "constitutes a failure to reach a determination within the statutory time
limitations." Id. at 21. See also Martinez v. FBI, 3 GDS
It is therefore of no small importance that agencies remember to provide requesters with the appeal notification required by the statute whenever they deny a request in any respect. Only a full grant of requested access or a flat "no records" response need not include such notification. See FOIA Update, Summer 1984, at 2.
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