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Title IX Anniversary

June 23, 2012 marks the 40th Anniversary of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, a groundbreaking federal law that prohibits sex discrimination in educational programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance. This webpage highlights key achievements in the Justice Department's enforcement of this landmark legislation and provides links to further information regarding the Department's enforcement efforts.

Equal Access to Education: Forty Years of Title IX


This report explains how Title IX has greatly expanded educational opportunities for women and protected both women and men from discrimination on the basis of sex in the educational context. This report provides examples of how the Justice Department's enforcement of Title IX and other federal laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sex has been instrumental in securing equal educational opportunities.

The Justice Department's Role in Title IX Enforcement

The Justice Department enforces Title IX by coordinating its enforcement across all federal agencies, conducting its own and joint investigations with the United States Department of Education, participating in lawsuits, filing amicus briefs to assist courts with interpreting Title IX, and negotiating settlement agreements requiring schools to remedy Title IX violations. The Department also has helped develop Title IX regulations, advised government agencies on Title IX compliance reviews, and provided guidance to the public on the requirements of Title IX. Additionally, the Department actively enforces other laws prohibiting sex discrimination, including Title IV of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination in public schools and institutions of higher learning, and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discriminatory employment practices, including those by educational institutions. This critical work is done primarily by the Department's Civil Rights Division through its Educational Opportunities, Appellate, Federal Coordination and Compliance, and Employment Litigation Sections. In cases involving sex discrimination before the United States Supreme Court, the Solicitor General's Office of the Department represents the United States' interests.

Highlights of the Justice Department's Efforts to Combat Discrimination on the Basis of Sex

Access to Justice under Title IX

The Department has participated in several cases to ensure that courts interpret Title IX in a way that provides access to justice for individual victims of discrimination and holds schools accountable for discrimination based on sex. Examples of this work include:

Combating discrimination based on sex under Title IX and other federal statutes is a top priority of the Civil Rights Division. (EDU Fact Sheet) For more information about the Division, please visit our website at

Updated August 6, 2015