DaVita to Pay $450 Million to Resolve Allegations That it Sought Reimbursement for Unnecessary Drug Wastage
DaVita Healthcare Partners, Inc., the largest provider of dialysis services in the United States, has agreed to pay $450 million to resolve claims that it violated the False Claims Act by knowingly creating unnecessary waste in administering the drugs Zemplar and Venofer to dialysis patients, and then billing the federal government for such avoidable waste. Davita is headquartered in Denver, Colorado, and has dialysis clinics in 46 states and the District of Columbia.
“This settlement is an example of what can be accomplished as a result of the successful cooperation between the government and whistleblowers in protecting our vital federal health care programs,” said Principal Deputy Assistant Attorney General Benjamin C. Mizer, head of the Justice Department’s Civil Division.
This civil settlement resolves allegations brought in a whistleblower action that DaVita devised and employed dosing grids and/or protocols specifically designed to create unnecessary waste of the drugs Venofer and Zemplar. These drugs are packaged in single-use vials, which are intended for one-time use. Sometimes, the amount of the drug in the vials does not match the dosage specified by the physician, resulting in the remainder of the drug in the vial being discarded.
At the time of the alleged scheme, Medicare would reimburse a dialysis provider for certain waste if the dialysis provider – acting in good faith – discarded the remainder of the drug contained in a single-use vial after administering the requisite dose and/or quantity of the drug to a Medicare patient.
The whistleblowers’ complaint alleged that, to create unnecessary Zemplar waste, DaVita required its employees to provide Zemplar to dialysis patients pursuant to mandatory and wasteful “dosing grids.” Zemplar, a Vitamin D supplement usually administered at every dialysis session, is packaged in single-use vial sizes of 2 mcg, 5 mcg, and 10 mcg. Davita allegedly created unnecessary waste by requiring its employees to provide Zemplar to dialysis patients pursuant to mandatory “dosing grids,” which were designed to maximize the amount of Zemplar administered to patients. DaVita then allegedly billed the government not only for the amount of Zemplar administered to patients, but also for the amount “wasted.”
With regard to Venofer, an iron supplement packaged only in a single-use vial size of 100 mg during the relevant time period, DaVita allegedly enacted protocols that required nurses to administer this drug in small amounts, and at frequent intervals, to maximize wastage. For instance, in certain instances, DaVita’s protocol called for a patient to receive 25 mg of Venofer per week, which resulted in 300 mg of waste per month that was billed to the Government. In contrast, if the order had been filled by giving the patient the entirety of a single 100 mg vial, once per month, no waste would have resulted.
In 2011, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services changed the manner by which it reimbursed dialysis providers for such drugs. As a consequence, wastage derived from single-use vials was no longer profitable, and, as a result, DaVita allegedly changed its practices and reduced its drug wastage dramatically.
“Through personal sacrifice and courage, two whistleblowers exposed knowingly wasteful dosing practices designed simply to increase profits and improperly drain the government’s resources,” said Acting U.S. Attorney John Horn of the Northern District of Georgia. “This settlement returns hundreds of millions of dollars to the treasury that had been improperly obtained by DaVita through these wasteful practices.”
The allegations resolved today arose from a lawsuit filed and ultimately litigated to this succesful resolution by two whistleblowers, Dr. Alon Vanier and nurse Daniel Barbir, under the qui tam provisions of the False Claims Act. Under the Act, private citizens can bring suit on behalf of the government for false claims and share in any recovery. The United States may intervene in the action or, as in this case, the whistleblower may pursue the matter.
This case was monitored by the U.S. Attorney’s Office of the Northern District of Georgia and the Civil Division’s Commercial Litigation Branch.
The lawsuit is captioned United States ex rel. Alon J. Vainer, M.D., F.A.C.P. and Daniel D. Barbir, R.N., Plaintiffs v. DaVita, Inc. and Gambro Healthcare, Inc., and their respective subsidiaries and affiliated companies, Defendants, No. 1:07-cv-2509-CAP (N.D. Ga.). The claims settled by this agreement are allegations only; there has been no determination of liability.