Valiant Bank AG Reaches Resolution under Justice Department's Swiss Bank Program
The Department of Justice announced today that Valiant Bank AG has reached a resolution under the department’s Swiss Bank Program.
“Offshore enforcement remains a top priority of the department, and banks seeking to avoid prosecution pursuant to the terms of the Swiss Bank Program continue to accept responsibility, provide a detailed account of the ways in which they have assisted U.S. individuals in willfully evading their U.S. tax obligations and fully cooperate with our ongoing investigations that are stretching around the globe,” said Acting Assistant Attorney General Caroline D. Ciraolo of the Justice Department’s Tax Division. “Those engaged in this criminal conduct who choose not to come forward, or come forward but offer only limited cooperation, picking and choosing the facts disclosed and attempting to minimize culpability, will quickly learn that the department is committed to aggressively investigating and prosecuting these offenses, and holding both individuals and entities accountable.”
The Swiss Bank Program, which was announced on Aug. 29, 2013, provides a path for Swiss banks to resolve potential criminal liabilities in the United States. Swiss banks eligible to enter the program were required to advise the department by Dec. 31, 2013, that they had reason to believe that they had committed tax-related criminal offenses in connection with undeclared U.S.-related accounts. Banks already under criminal investigation related to their Swiss-banking activities and all individuals were expressly excluded from the program.
Under the program, banks are required to:
Make a complete disclosure of their cross-border activities;
Provide detailed information on an account-by-account basis for accounts in which U.S. taxpayers have a direct or indirect interest;
Cooperate in treaty requests for account information;
Provide detailed information as to other banks that transferred funds into secret accounts or that accepted funds when secret accounts were closed;
Agree to close accounts of accountholders who fail to come into compliance with U.S. reporting obligations; and
Pay appropriate penalties.
Swiss banks meeting all of the above requirements are eligible for a non-prosecution agreement.
According to the terms of the non-prosecution agreement signed today, Valiant agrees to cooperate in any related criminal or civil proceedings, demonstrate its implementation of controls to stop misconduct involving undeclared U.S. accounts and pay penalties in return for the department’s agreement not to prosecute this bank for tax-related criminal offenses.
Valiant traces its origins to 1824 and is headquartered in Bern, the capital of Switzerland. Today, Valiant is the successor of 40 banks.
Valiant offered hold mail services and numbered accounts to its U.S. clients, including some U.S. clients who had not provided Valiant with an Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Form W-9. Valiant also accepted funds from 19 UBS accountholders who exited UBS. Eleven of these 19 U.S. persons provided a signed Form W-9. The remaining eight U.S. persons who did not were later forced to close their Valiant accounts.
For 26 accountholders who refused to sign a Form W-9, Valiant cashed out or converted into gold hundreds of thousands (and even millions) of dollars in account balances. In late November 2011, one accountholder withdrew more than one million Swiss francs in various currencies and 114,000 Swiss francs in gold coins, gold bars and precious metal. Another accountholder withdrew $2 million in cash and wired 400,000 Swiss francs to a U.S. bank. In both instances, the accountholders refused to sign a Form W-9. Other accountholders withdrew only amounts under $10,000 either by U.S. dollar cash withdrawals or by check or wire transfer to the United States, or transferred large sums to non-U.S. institutions. For example, one accountholder transferred over 435,000 euros to France and $350,000 to Luxembourg. Two other accountholders each transferred 75,000 Swiss francs to Dubai and closed their accounts with cash withdrawals of over 300,000 Swiss francs.
In 2009, an accountholder refused to sign a Form W-9 and requested that Valiant ignore the accountholder’s U.S. status. The accountholder’s non-U.S. spouse later opened a separate account at Valiant, and the accountholder transferred more than $1 million into that account. According to an “Agreement of Donation” between the accountholder and the accountholder’s non-U.S. spouse, the purpose of the transfer was “to make a donation” and “without any consideration.” The agreement provided that the donation was “irrevocable.” The non-U.S. spouse then transferred the funds to UBS and instructed Valiant to close the account.
Some U.S.-related accounts at Valiant were held in the name of non-U.S. entities with one or more U.S. beneficial owners. In one case, a British Virgin Islands entity opened an account at Valiant through a third-party Swiss entity assigned to manage the account. The entity holding the account designated four U.S. persons as beneficial owners, but signed a Valiant form declaring that the account was for the benefit of non-U.S. persons.
Since Aug. 1, 2008, Valiant had 330 U.S.-related accounts, out of a total of 600,000 accounts. The maximum aggregate dollar value of the U.S.-related accounts was $147.4 million. Valiant will pay a penalty of $3.304 million.
In accordance with the terms of the Swiss Bank Program, Valiant mitigated its penalty by encouraging U.S. accountholders to come into compliance with their U.S. tax and disclosure obligations. While U.S. accountholders at Valiant who have not yet declared their accounts to the IRS may still be eligible to participate in the IRS Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program, the price of such disclosure has increased.
Most U.S. taxpayers who enter the IRS Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program to resolve undeclared offshore accounts will pay a penalty equal to 27.5 percent of the high value of the accounts. On Aug. 4, 2014, the IRS increased the penalty to 50 percent if, at the time the taxpayer initiated their disclosure, either a foreign financial institution at which the taxpayer had an account or a facilitator who helped the taxpayer establish or maintain an offshore arrangement had been publicly identified as being under investigation, the recipient of a John Doe summons or cooperating with a government investigation, including the execution of a deferred prosecution agreement or non-prosecution agreement. With today’s announcement of this non-prosecution agreement, noncompliant U.S. accountholders at Valiant must now pay that 50 percent penalty to the IRS if they wish to enter the IRS Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program.
“Today’s resolution with Valiant Bank AG marks another significant milestone in DOJ’s Swiss Bank Program,” said Acting Deputy Commissioner David Horton of the IRS Large Business & International Division. “These settlements ensure that U.S. taxpayers report their foreign accounts and pay their taxes on the income earned on those accounts. They also provide additional information that supports our efforts to fight offshore tax evasion and those who may be aiding this unlawful behavior.”
“Today is another example of the success of the Swiss Bank Program and our partnership with the Department of Justice,” said Chief Richard Weber of IRS-Criminal Investigation (CI). “We are proud of our joint efforts and the resulting success of the program to date. Each of these agreements is a recognition of that collaboration leading to increased international tax compliance. With each new partnership, we gain a wealth of information and assistance to put an end to the abusive practice of illegally concealing offshore accounts.”
Acting Assistant Attorney General Ciraolo thanked the IRS, and in particular, IRS-CI and the IRS Large Business & International Division for their substantial assistance. Ciraolo also thanked Brian D. Bailey, who served as counsel on this matter, as well as Senior Counsel for International Tax Matters and Coordinator of the Swiss Bank Program Thomas J. Sawyer and Senior Litigation Counsel Nanette L. Davis of the Tax Division.
Additional information about the Tax Division and its enforcement efforts may be found on the division’s website.