Sex Discrimination

Sex Discrimination

Overview of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972

On June 23, 1972, the President signed Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, 20 U.S.C. §1681 et seq., into law. Title IX is a comprehensive federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in any federally funded education program or activity. The principal objective of Title IX is to avoid the use of federal money to support sex discrimination in education programs and to provide individual citizens effective protection against those practices.

Title IX applies, with a few specific exceptions, to all aspects of federally funded education programs or activities. In addition to traditional educational institutions such as colleges, universities, and elementary and secondary schools, Title IX also applies to any education or training program operated by a recipient of federal financial assistance. The Department of Education issued regulations on the requirements of Title IX, 34 C.F.R. § 106.1et seq., in 2000.  A Title IX common rule, published on August 30, 2000, covers education program providers/recipients that are funded by other federal agencies.

To get more information on Title IX, please visit the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights or the Educational Opportunities Section websites.

Statutes & Regulations

Title IX Statute (HTML version)

Department of Education Issues Proposed Changes to Title IX Regulations and Invites Public Comment:

20+ Federal Agencies Adopt Title IX Regulations through the 2000 Title IX Common Rule:

  • Title IX Final Common Rule for 21 Federal agencies:  Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance (65 Fed. Reg. 52857) (HTML or PDF) and accompanying press release

Rulemaking actions to incorporate the Civil Rights Restoration Act's broadened definitions of "program or activity" and "program" into Title IX regulations:

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