Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Overview of Title VI

Title VI, 42 U.S.C. § 2000d et seq., was enacted as part of the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964. It prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, and national origin in programs and activities receiving federal financial assistance. As President John F. Kennedy said in 1963:

Simple justice requires that public funds, to which all taxpayers of all races [colors, and national origins] contribute, not be spent in any fashion which encourages, entrenches, subsidizes or results in racial [color or national origin] discrimination.

If a recipient of federal assistance is found to have discriminated and voluntary compliance cannot be achieved, the federal agency providing the assistance should either initiate fund termination proceedings or refer the matter to the Department of Justice for appropriate legal action. Aggrieved individuals may file administrative complaints with the federal agency that provides funds to a recipient, or the individuals may file suit for appropriate relief in federal court. Title VI itself prohibits intentional discrimination. However, most funding agencies have regulations implementing Title VI that prohibit recipient practices that have the effect of discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin.

To assist federal agencies that provide financial assistance, the wide variety of recipients that receive such assistance, and the actual and potential beneficiaries of programs receiving federal assistance, the U.S. Department of Justice has published a Title VI Legal Manual. The Title VI Legal Manual sets out Title VI legal principles and standards. Additionally, the Department has published an Investigation Procedures Manual to give practical advice on how to investigate Title VI complaints. Also available on the Federal Coordination and Compliance Website are a host of other materials that may be helpful to those interested in ensuring effective enforcement of Title VI.

Regulations and Statutes

  • Title VI Statute, 42 U.S.C §§ 2000d - 2000d-7 (HTML or PDF)
  • Department of Justice's Title VI Regulations (28 C.F.R. § 42.101 et seq.) (HTML or PDF)
  • Department of Justice's Title VI Coordination Regulations (28 C.F.R. § 42.401 et seq.) (HTML or PDF)
  • Department of Justice's Guidelines for the Enforcement of Title VI (28 C.F.R. § 50.3) (HTML or PDF)
  • Rulemaking actions to incorporate the Civil Rights Restoration Act's definitions of "program or activity" and "program" into regulations implementing Title VI, Section 504, and the Age Discrimination Act:
  • Twenty-two agencies' Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, published December 6, 2000 (65 FR 76460) (HTML or PDF)
  • Twenty-two agencies' Final Rule, published August 26, 2003 (68 FR 51332) (HTML or PDF)
  • Department of Education's Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (also includes amendments to Title IX regulations), published May 5, 2000 (65 FR 26464) (HTML or PDF)
  • Department of Education's Final Rule (also includes amendments to Title IX regulations), published November 13, 2000 (65 FR 68049) (HTML orPDF)
  • Department of Health and Human Services' Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (also includes amendments to Title IX regulations), published October 26, 2000 (65 FR 64194) (HTML or PDF)

Title VI Materials