The 1988 Procurement Integrity Act, 41 U.S.C. § 423, was substantially amended in 1996, when the President signed Pub.L. 104-106. Prosecutors should consult the amended statute for its terms. The 1988 act was passed in response to an investigation into fraud in the defense contracting industry known as "Operation Ill Wind."
[cited in JM 9-42.001]