In Europe and Eurasia, the International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) is focusing its assistance efforts on strengthening border security, building capacity to conduct complex investigations, and improving regional cross-border law enforcement cooperation. Through ICITAP’s efforts to strengthen the rule of law and secure stable environments, the countries in this region have become stronger partners to the United States and more active participants within the international community.
ICITAP programs in the region are primarily funded by the State Department’s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs. ICITAP has also received funding in the past from the Millennium Challenge Corporation and from the Department of Defense’s U.S. European Command.
ICITAP works closely with U.S. government counterparts and with international and regional organizations in Europe, including the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the European Union (EU).
Learn more about ICITAP's programs in this region (*indicates field office):
ICITAP has assisted in the development of Albania's police since 1997 through a program that focuses on enhancing border management, increasing capabilities to combat organized crime, police training and academy administration, human resource management and professional accountability, and developing a sustainable information management system.
Beginning in 1996, ICITAP's mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina has focused on improving law enforcement capabilities, from the state level to the municipal-precinct level. ICITAP collaborates with Bosnian law enforcement to help develop their institutional capacity to combat terrorism and organized crime, and to develop modern information management systems and specialized units to improve police response and immigration and border control. ICITAP introduced the task force concept, which has helped law enforcement combat terrorism and other criminal activities, including narcotics smuggling, human trafficking, money laundering, public corruption, and organized crime. ICITAP has trained over 26,000 enforcement officials in modern, democratic policing techniques with an emphasis on human dignity.
Since 2000, ICITAP has worked with Croatian officials and international partners to develop police training programs that meet internationally recognized standards and help the Croatian government fight organized crime. ICITAP’s training and technical assistance program has supported the development of a witness protection program, a case tracking system for the Croatian prosecutor’s office, and a permanent informant-management system. In addition, ICITAP has worked with the Croatians in their efforts to create a fugitive task force based on the U.S. Marshals model.
At the outset of the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMiK) in 1999, ICITAP seconded two senior police managers, charged with carrying out the training of the new Kosovo Police Service, to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). ICITAP held the position of director of the Kosovo Police Service School for eight years, as well as contributed hundreds of instructors over that same period. Since 2007, ICITAP’s role has become more robust and comprehensive in support of the U.S. mission’s overall law enforcement development strategy in Kosovo. ICITAP is recognized by the European Union mission (EULEX), the UN, OSCE, and NATO’s peacekeeping force in Kosovo (KFOR) as the leading coordinator of police development in the country. ICITAP is assisting the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Kosovo Police in building their institutions, including developing border management and immigration services, establishing an integrated IT system to facilitate effective criminal investigations, training police and prosecutors to respond to organized and financial crimes, and strengthening local communities to deal with safety, security, and ethnic conflict.
Over the past decade, ICITAP has supported law enforcement development and reforms in Macedonia, as identified in the Ohrid Framework Agreement and a new Criminal Procedures Code, with a focus on community-based police service. ICITAP is currently building the capacity of the Macedonian authorities to combat organized crime, prevent police corruption, and institutionalize an IT system for improving management effectiveness and efficiency. ICITAP is also working with the Ministry of Interior to address challenges related to illegal migration and foreign terrorist fighters.
ICITAP’s efforts in Montenegro began in 2005 with a focus on organized crime and trafficking in persons. In 2006, after Montenegro formally declared its independence from the Republic of Serbia, ICITAP’s police development program focused on education reform, training, combating organized crime, community policing, and forensics. ICITAP is currently helping to implement the new criminal procedure code, develop a joint investigative task force, and assist the Financial Crimes Investigative Unit. ICITAP is also advising the Police Directorate on all facets of the administration of justice.
ICITAP began providing training and technical assistance to Serbia in 2004, with a focus on organized crime. ICITAP currently develops criminal investigative capacity within the Directorate of Criminal Police, the Undercover Unit, the Cybercrimes Unit, the Organized Crime Unit, and the War Crimes Investigations Service. In collaboration with the Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance and Training, ICITAP is developing an anticorruption program to help Serbia’s investigative bodies identify, apprehend, and prosecute those responsible for corruption. ICITAP is also advising the Serbian National Police as they transition into a modern agency better able to cooperate and coordinate with regional and international law enforcement agencies.
Since 2005, ICITAP has worked with Ukraine’s Ministry of Interior to improve its information technology capabilities through the development of software, hardware, and telecommunications. ICITAP's work strengthens the capacity of Ukraine's law enforcement to conduct effective criminal investigations and combat corruption. ICITAP also assists the State Border Guard Service’s internal investigative unit to combat corruption and to strengthen its capacity to collect and classify criminal intelligence information. ICITAP has partnered with the State Customs Service of Ukraine on regulatory reform in trade and transportation issues and on helping the government of Ukraine develop an integrated information system for cross-border shipments. Finally, ICITAP has worked with the authorities on intellectual property rights to enable inspectors to develop stronger evidence against crime syndicates.
Selected Past Programs
From 2003 to 2011, ICITAP provided training in civil disturbance management, combating domestic violence, and internal affairs development. ICITAP also partnered with the Armenian national police to build a firing range and provided firearms training.
ICITAP worked with the Bulgarians from 2003 to 2007 as part of the Regional Criminal Justice Initiative—an effort to improve coordination among police, prosecutors, and judges in the prosecution of criminal cases, including organized crime and corruption cases. ICITAP also provided technical assistance in the development of community policing programs. From 2010–2011, ICITAP worked with the Ministry of Interior, the Prosecution Service, and the State Agency for National Security to improve the capacity of a newly formed interagency organized crime task force through targeted training and equipment.
Following the Rose Revolution in 2003, ICITAP provided assistance to Georgia's police academy—including management training, the development of standard operating procedures and curriculum, and the donation of equipment and uniforms.
ICITAP began work in Kazakhstan in the late 1990s as part of the effort to support law enforcement reform in the newly independent (former Soviet Union) states. ICITAP helped introduce community policing and develop the police academy. From 2005–2007, ICITAP provided technical assistance in the area of trafficking in persons.
From 2004–2016, ICITAP provided assistance in organizational development and anticorruption in Kyrgyzstan. ICITAP worked with the Kyrgyz Republic’s drug-enforcement service, particularly in the development of mobile drug-interdiction teams; the Kyrgyz Republic’s Traffic Police Service to develop strategies to fight corruption; and the Ministry of Internal Affairs to restructure the internal security services and train personnel in international standards for handling complaints of misconduct. ICITAP also assisted in renovating the Kyrgyz Republic’s primary police training school.
From 2001-2012, ICITAP worked with Moldovan law enforcement institutions on training, academy development, and anticorruption initiatives. ICITAP partnered with the Ministry of Interior and the Customs Service of Moldova to reduce opportunities for corruption and increase transparency and accountability in Moldova's customs and police administration. ICITAP also worked with the Ministry of Interior to develop their criminal investigative capacity.
From 2004–2009, ICITAP provided assistance in police reform and institutional development in Tajikistan. Working with the State Department and other partners, ICITAP helped establish a drug control agency to enhance Tajikistan’s antinarcotics trafficking effort. ICITAP also provided training and technical assistance to help improve intelligence analysis capabilities, and assisted in equipping and training forensics and border control professionals.