Arab Republic of Egypt

Citizenship and Country Documents

US Government Reports Foreign Government Reports
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • EGY36070 - Feb. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please confirm that there is a passport stamp which indicates that a person is not wanted for military service. If so, please advise whether this means that someone has completed his service, deferred it or is exempted.
      2. As of 2007, is it possible for an Egyptian male national to receive such a stamp on his passport if he was still subject to completing his military service in the future?
      3. Is it possible to provide samples of stamps placed on Egyptian national passports regarding military service and an explanation of the circumstances in which they would apply?
    • EGY35958 - Jan. 2010 (PDF)
      1. How are identity cards issued (at what age etc)?
      2. Is it conceivable that a 22 year old would have on his ID card an address at which he has not lived for over 20 years?
      3. What is the documentation process for a deferral of military service? How is it policed, and by which authority?
    • EGY34903 - May 2009 (PDF)
      1. Have any Egyptian citizens have been denied passports for being sympathetic to the Muslim Brotherhood?
    • EGY33006 - April 2008 (PDF)
      1. What are the procedures for the issue of passports in Egypt? Could a person have to pay a bribe to get a passport?
      2. Are persons who have been detained because of their political activities denied passports?
      3. What are the procedures involved in leaving Egypt?
    • EGY30554 - Sep. 2006 (PDF)
      1. Information in research response EGY17596 suggests that Al Ghad was formed in 2004. Is there any evidence to suggest that the Al Ghad party existed in any form in 1995?
      2. What is the current situation for members of Al Ghad?
      3. Is there any evidence that Egyptian authorities monitor the activities of Egyptians overseas?
      4. Is there any information on the availability of false documents in Egypt?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • EGY105528.E - Egypt: Information on passports including appearance, requirements and procedures to obtain a passport, and whether passports can be obtained by a proxy – May 2016 (PDF)
    • EGY105529.E - Egypt: Information on national identity cards, including appearance; requirements and procedures to obtain the card, and whether documents required to apply for a card can be obtained by a proxy – May 2016 (PDF)
    • EGY105396.E - Egypt: Whether a citizen of Egypt who is living abroad can obtain a studentment from military service without a National Identity Card; whether an Egyptian citizen can apply for a National Identity Card from outside of Egypt – Jan. 2016 (PDF)
    • EGY105077.E - Whether travel documents issued to Palestinians have the same appearance as passports; whether these documents identify a person's legal status; what "type p" stands for in those documents - February 2015 (PDF)
    • EGY104665.E - Exit and entry procedures at airports and land borders; incidence of bribery of Egyptian border officials to facilitate departure by individuals with fraudulent travel documents or outstanding financial, military, or legal obligations or who are sought by the government for political reasons; the punishment for border officers caught taking such bribes (2009- November 2013) - December 2013
    • EGY104664.E - Whether people who have converted from Islam to Christianity, particularly those converts who have been arrested, are able to obtain passports and leave the country (April 2010-November 2013) - November 2013
    • EGY102804.E - Exit and entry procedures at airports and land borders; incidence of bribery of Egyptian border officials to facilitate departure by individuals with fraudulent travel documents or outstanding financial, military, or legal obligations or who are sought by the governement for political reasons; the punishment for border officers caught taking such bribes (2006 - May 2008) - May 2008 (PDF)
Law
  • Decree No. 12025 of the Year 2004 Concerning Certain Provisions Enforcing Law No. 154 of the Year 2004 on Amendment of Certain Provisions of Law No. 26 of the Year 1975 Concerning the Egyptian Nationality - Jan. 2004 (PDF)
  • Law No. 26 of 1975 Concerning Egyptian Nationality - May 1975 (PDF)

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Children

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Children - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
  • Department of Labor - Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF),  2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012(PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • EGY36934 - June 2010 (PDF)
      1. Are minors dealt with differently in Egyptian courts to adults? If so, how is a minor described?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • ZZZ42479.E - Egypt/Lebanon: Egyptian mother's right to custody of her Egyptian-born children in case of divorce with a Lebanese national; children's right to citizenship if mother is granted custody; permission required for these children to travel outside of Egypt; risk that these children would be deported to Lebanon - March 2004 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Coalition to Stop the use of Child Soldiers - Child Soldiers Global Report - 2008 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch Reports
    • Charged with Being Children: Egyptian Police Abuse of Children in Need of Protection - Feb. 2003 (PDF)
    • Underage and Unprotected:Child Labor in Egypt's Cotton Fields - 2001

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Corruption

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Corruption and Lack of Transparency in Government - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF)

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Background information, includingactors of protection and internal relocation - Corruption - May 2015 (PDF)

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Disabilities

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Disabilities - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
  • Library of Congress - CRS
    • Rights of People with Disabilities - June 2003 (PDF)

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Elections

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Elections - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Key Documents - Election April 2008 - 2009 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Recent Elections
  • Human Rights Watch Reports
    • Elections in Egypt: State of Permanent Emergency Incompatible with Free and Fair - Nov. 2010 (PDF)
  • Amnesty International Report
    • "Shouting slogans into the wind" Human rights concerns ahead of the parliamentary elections - 2010 (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race

US Government Reports

  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - National / Ethnic / Racial Groups - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Minority Rights Group International - State of the World's Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF)
  • World Directory of Minorities - Overview (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Nubians

Non-Government Organization Reports
  • World Directory of Minorities - Nubians (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Jews

US Government Reports

  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Anti-Semitism - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • World Directory of Minorities - Jews (PDF)

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Gender

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Women - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
  • Library of Congress - Federal Research Division
    • Women in Islamic Societies: A Selected Review of Social Scientific Literature - 2005 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office-Key Documents - 2009 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Background information, includingactors of protection and internal relocation - Women - May 2015 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • EGY36406 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. What constitutes a valid marriage in Egypt? In order for a marriage in Egypt to be considered valid, must the couple live together and have consummated the marriage?
    • EGY31472 - March 2007 (PDF)
      1. Is it a tradition or a common occurrence in Egyptian society that pregnant women or women who have had babies live with their parents rather than their husbands?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • EGY105005.E - Egypt: Treatment of women who do not conform to Muslim practices and traditions, including wearing a veil (head covering), in rural and urban areas; state protection available to victims of mistreatment – Nov. 2014 (PDF)
    • EGY104706.FE - Egypt: State protection available to victims of spousal and family violence – Dec. 2013 (PDF)
    • EGY104705.FE - Egypt: Process for applying for divorce for women who were married in the Muslim community, including laws, difficulties and obstacles – Dec. 2013 (PDF)
    • EGY104413.E - Whether the government in Egypt has made head covering mandatory for women (2012-May 2013) - May 2013 (PDF)
    • EGY102325.E - Egypt: In the case of a Coptic Christian married couple, possibility of a court forcing the husband to divorce his wife if she converts to Islam; whether the Muslim religion obliges a woman to divorce her husband because of her conversion - Feb. 2007 (PDF)
    • EGY102340.FE - Egypt: What happens when a young woman from a traditional Muslim family becomes pregnant by a young man who is not accepted by the family; whether abortion is a solution; situation of children born outside a marriage - Feb. 2007 (PDF)
    • EGY100090.E - Domestic violence; whether there is state protection for the victims; existence of women's groups, shelters, or hot-lines (January 2003-June 2005) - June 2005 (PDF)
    • ZZZ42479.E - Egypt/Lebanon: Egyptian mother's right to custody of her Egyptian-born children in case of divorce with a Lebanese national; children's right to citizenship if mother is granted custody; permission required for these children to travel outside of Egypt; risk that these children would be deported to Lebanon - March 2004 (PDF)
Non-Government Reports
  • Amnesty International Report
    • Fighting for justice and human rights: Egypt's women activists describe their struggle - March 2013 (PDF)
  • Freedom House
    • Women's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa 2010. - Egypt - March 2010 (PDF)
  • Human Right Watch - 2018 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch Reports
    • Divorced From Justice: Women's Unequal Access to Divorce in Egypt - Dec. 2004 (PDF)
    • Court Upholds Closure of Women's Organization - June 1992 (PDF)

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Human Rights

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
  • Library of Congress - CRS Reports
    • Egypt - Background and U.S. Relations - Human Rights -  July 2015 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office-Key Documents - 2009 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Background information, includingactors of protection and internal relocation - Human Rights Violations and Impunity - July 2017 (PDF) May 2015 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • EGY38177 - March 2011 (PDF)
      1. What is the history and current status of 6 April Youth Movement? What are its aims? Is there any information about arrests, detention or other harm done to members of the 6 April Youth Movement?
      2. Who started the 6 April Youth Movement?
      3. Does it have a Facebook page? Is it possible to verify whether a person has posted comments on the Movement Facebook page?
      4. Is there any information about the Movement in Sydney?
    • EGY36325 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on what sort of documentation/certificate a male student should possess if they have deferred their military service.
      2. Would they be able to leave the country without such a document?
    • EGY35028 - June 2009 (PDF)
      1. Please provide current information on military service obligations in Egypt.
      2. Please provide information on whether there are any alternatives to military service.
      3. Please provide any information available on the treatment of persons opposed to military service. Specifically, is there any information available on the treatment of persons who have opposed or refused military service because the military has been used to suppress peaceful protests in Egypt?
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Amnesty International - 2018 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF)
  • Amnesty International
    • Roadmap to Repression: No End in Sight to Human Rights Violators - Jan. 2014 (PDF)
    • Brutality Unpunished and Unchecked - Egypt's Military Kill and Torture Protesters with Impunity - 2012 (PDF)
    • Egypt Rises Killings - Detentions and Torture in the '25 January Revolution' - 2011 (PDF)
    • Time for Justice - Egypt's corrosive system of detention - 2011 (PDF)
    • We are not dirt - Forced Evictions in Egypt's Informal Settlements - 2011 (PDF)
    • Death Sentences and Executions - 2010 (PDF)
    • Egypt - Systematic abuses in the name of security - 2007 (PDF)
  • Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD)
    • Harassment of suspected supporters of Palestinian activities; Background Information on connections of Palestinian activists (Hamas) to Syria and foreign relations between Egypt and Syria - Oct. 2009 (PDF)
  • Freedom House - 2017,  2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
  • Institute on Religion and Public Policy (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch - 2018 (PDF), 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch Reports
    • "Look for Another Homeland" Forced Evictions in Egypt's Rafah - September 2015 (PDF)
    • The Road Ahead: A Human Rights Agenda for Egypt's New Parliament - Jan. 2012 (PDF)
    • Anatomy of a State Security Case The "Victorious Sect" Arrests - Dec. 2007 (PDF)
    • Margins of Repression State Limits on Nongovernmental Organization Activism - July 2005 (PDF)
    • Reading between the "Red Lines": The Repression of Academic Freedom in Egyptian Universities - June 2005 (PDF)
    • Black Hole: The Fate of Islamists Rendered to Egypt - June 2005 (PDF)
    • Security Forces Abuse of Anti-War Demonstrators - Nov. 2003 (PDF)
    • Hostage-Taking and Intimation by Security Forces - Jan. 1995 (PDF)

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Justice System

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Arbitrary Arrest or Detention - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance
    • “We Do Unreasonable Things Here” Torture and National Security in al-Sisi’s Egypt - Sept. 2017 (PDF)
    • Background information, includingactors of protection and internal relocation - Police - May 2015 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • EGY35958 - Jan. 2010 (PDF)
      1. What are the various security authorities in Egypt?
      2. Which one is responsible for cracking down on Koranists?
      3. If they wanted to interrogate someone, is it conceivable that they might contact the house by telephone and then pass the message through a lawyer?
      4. Is there any evidence to suggest that many ordinary Koranists (as opposed to those who are linked to Ahmed Subhy Mansour or those engaged in polemics with the Sheikhs of Al Azhar University) have been rounded up by the security police and detained indefinitely?
    • EGY31467 - March 2007 (PDF)
      1. How far is Kana from Cairo?
      2. Is there any information on the work of the police in Kana?
      3. Do members of the police force stamp passports in Cairo?
      4. How far is Domiat from Cairo?
      5. Is it possible to find out how many police stations there are in Domiat?
      6. The address of the police station in Domiat?
      7. The number of police officers in Domiat?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • EGY103047.E - Egypt: Nature and extent of the use of "loan sharks"; legal ramifications for person indebted to a loan shark; police complicity with loan sharks - Feb. 2009 (PDF)
    • EGY100091.E - Organized criminal activities and corruption in the police force; government response to these activities and state protection available (January 2003-June 2005) - June 2005 (PDF)
    • EGY42881.E - Penalties for absence without leave from the armed forces, whether it amounts to desertion and if so, treatment of those accused for desertion during legal proceedings, including the period after their conviction (August 2004) - Aug. 2004 (PDF)
    • EGY42420.E - Al-Tar vendetta feuds; underlying philosophy and principles; areas or groups that participate in it; how Egyptian law addresses it; reaction of authorities to violence committed in this tradition - March 2004 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Amnesty International
    • Crushing Humanity:  The Abuse of Solitary Confinement in Egypt’s Prisons – May 2018 (PDF)
    • "Officially, You Do Not Exist" Disappeared and Tortured in the Name of Counter-Terrorism - July 2016 (PDF)
    • Time For Justice: Egypt corrosive system of detention - 2011 (PDF)
    • Egypt Rises: Killings, Detentions and torture in the '25 January Revolution' - 2011 (PDF)
    • Egypt - Justice subverted: trials of civilians before military courts - 2007 (PDF)
  • Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD)
    • Harassment of suspected supporters of Palestinian activities; Background Information on connections of Palestinian activists (Hamas) to Syria and foreign relations between Egypt and Syria - Oct. 2009 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch - 2018 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch Reports
    • "We Are In Tombs" Abuses in Egypt's Scorpion Prison. Sept. 2016 (PDF)
    • All According to Plan: The Rab'a Massacre and Mass Killings of Protesters in Egypt - Aug. 2014 (PDF)
    • Egypt: Mass Arrests and Torture in Sinai - Feb. 2005 (PDF)
    • Trials of Civilians in Military Courts Violate International Law Executions Continue, No Appeal of Death Sentences to Higher Court - July 1993 (PDF)
    • Court Upholds Closure of Women's Organization - June 1992 (PDF)

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Law

  • Decree No. 12025 of the Year 2004 Concerning Certain Provisions Enforcing Law No. 154 of the Year 2004 on Amendment of Certain Provisions of Law No. 26 of the Year 1975 Concerning the Egyptian Nationality - Jan. 2004 (PDF)
  • Law No. 100 of 1993 to Provide Democratic Safeguards for Professional Associations - Feb. 1993 (PDF)
  • Order No. 261 of 8 July 1996 on Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt - July 1996 (PDF)
  • Law No. 26 of 1975 Concerning Egyptian Nationality - May 1975 (PDF)
  • Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt (last amended 1980) - Sep. 1971 (PDF)
  • Penal Code No. 58 of 1937 - Aug. 1937 (PDF)
Foreign Government Report
  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Background information, includingactors of protection and internal relocation - Constitution - May 2015 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • EGY36934 - June 2010 (PDF)
      1. Are minors dealt with differently in Egyptian courts to adults? If so, how is a minor described?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • EGY100233.E - Egypt: Follow-up to EGY43534.E of 16 May 2005 on the provisions of Article 115 of Law 123 of 1981 (January 2000-May 2005) - July 2005 (PDF)
    • EGY42578.E - The application of Article 20 of the sharia Law 25 of 1929, amended by Law 100 of 1985, which relates to awarding of child custody and most recent amendments (1995-April 2004) - May 2004 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International
    • Making Love a Crime: Criminalization of Same-Sex Conduct in Sub-Saharan Afica - April 2013 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch - 2018 (PDF)

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Maps

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office-Key Documents - 2009 (PDF)
  • EGY31467 - March 2007 (PDF)
    1. How far is Kana from Cairo?
    1. How far is Domiat from Cairo?

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Medical Availability

Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • Information on the health system - Aug. 2009 (PDF)

Intergovernmental Organization Reports

  • World Health Organization Page

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Political Figures and Parties

US Government Reports Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office-Key Documents - 2009 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Background information, includingactors of protection and internal relocation - Political Systems - May 2015 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • EGY37111 - Aug. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the Kifaya Movement and the treatment of known supporters of this movement in Egypt.
      2. Please provide information on the Gad Party.
      3. Please provide information about the fundamental policy differences between the Kifaya and the Muslim Brothers and the Ghad Party.
      4. Please provide information regarding demonstrations involving the Kifaya Movement that occurred in Egypt between 2005 and 2007, including demonstrations in Tahrir Square. Please provide information on whether demonstrators were arrested, detained or mistreated.
      5. Please provide information on the treatment of individuals who speak out in opposition to the ruling Mubarak government.
      6. Is there any information to support the claim that a person with an "internal security file" might be targeted or become unemployable or face the risk of detentions, interrogations, verbal abuse and physical violence?
      7. Is there any information about the operation of the police and security forces in Egypt which suggests they operate within the rule of law or act to discriminate against people who hold views opposed to the governing regime?
      8. Can you please confirm the citizenship status and rights in Kuwait of a person born in Kuwait to Egyptian parents? The publication Citizenship Laws of the World (Part 5:9) suggests that persons born in Kuwait of foreign parents cannot acquire Kuwait citizenship, that birth within the territory of Kuwait does not automatically confer citizenship and that dual citizenship is not recognised by Kuwait.
    • EGY35912 - Dec. 2009 (PDF)
      1. Please provide an update on the situation of Al-Ghad and the treatment of its members.
    • EGY33332 - May 2008 (PDF)
      1. Please provide a list of the political parties in Egypt.
      2. Are there any reports about the attempted registration of the "Independent party" or the "Young Egypt Party"?
      3. Are there any reports mentioning the Independent party or the Young Egypt Party?
    • EGY33006 - April 2008 (PDF)
      1. Are persons who have been detained because of their political activities denied passports?
      2. What are the procedures involved in leaving Egypt?
      3. Are persons who have been detained because of their political activities prevented from leaving Egypt?
      4. Does Kifaya have a registered office?
    • EGY33000 - March 2008 (PDF)
      1. Please advise who is the President of the Law Society in Alexandria, Egypt?
      2. Please advise who is the Egyptian Minister of Interior?
      3. Please advise who is the Commander of Intelligence in Ismaliyia province?
      4. Please advise whether President Sadat had university students arrested in 1981 who were against his policies, in particular his visit to Israel in 1981? Please provide some background material about the arrests in 1981 by Sadat?
      5. Does the National Party pressure people to join their party?
      6. Is there any information to support claims that people would be sacked from their jobs if they didn't join the National Party?
      7. Is there any information to support claims that a champion sportsman would be prevented from competing because he didn't join the National Party?
      8. Is it possible to obtain a list of people who registered their names for the general election in 2000?
      9. Is there a list of candidates who stood as independents in the 2000 elections?
      10. Can you provide information about Kamal El Shazli?
      11. Please advise which seat Mohamad Saad Hamed, the Minister of Finance stood for in the 2000 elections?
      12. Please advise whether any other candidate stood against Mohamad Saad Hamed in the 2000 elections?
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • International Crisis Group
    • Lost in Transition: The World According to Egypt's SCAF. Middle East Report - April 2012 (PDF)
    • EGY103403.E - The founding date of the al-Ghad party; the date of and the reason for the arrest of its leader, Ayman Nour; demonstrations that occurred following his arrest; the treatment by the state of al-Ghad members (2005 - February 2010) - Feb. 2010 (PDF)

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Refugees / IDPs

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Protection of Refugees -  2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
  • ZZZ104959.E - Egypt and Palestine: The status of a Palestinian with an Egyptian Travel Document for Palestinian Refugees in Egypt, including rights to residency, employment and education; ability to travel between Gaza and Egypt with this document – Sept. 2014 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Human Rights Watch - 2018 (PDF)

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Religion

US Government Reports Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office - Key Documents - 2009 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Egypt: Christians - July 2017 (PDF), July 2014 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • EGY38046 - Feb. 2011 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information about the presence and activities of Evangelical churches in Egypt, and any information about the response of state authorities or individual Muslims to their attempts to evangelise/proselytise.
    • EGY37971 - Dec. 2010 (PDF)
      1. What is the distance between Luxor and Al Qousieh?
      2. Please provide as much information as possible on the Evangelical Church in Al Qousieh, including exact location, history, size, activities and the presiding priest.
      3. Please provide more information on the Evangelical Church in Luxor, particularly in relation to its size, activities and history (date of establishment).
      4. Please provide any further details that may be available, regarding the reported detention and release of twelve evangelical students in Alexandria mentioned in EGY37914 and sourced to the US Department of State.
    • EGY37914 - Dec. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the treatment of Evangelical Christians, particularly those engaged in proselytising activities in Egypt.
    • EGY37742 - Dec. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please indicate whether Evangelical Christianity falls under a particular church (Pentecostal) or other grouping in Egypt.
      2. Are there any reports of attacks on Evangelical Christians by Muslims in Egypt?
      3. Are the authorities willing and able to protect Evangelical Christians?
    • EGY37380 - Sep. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Are converts to Christianity discriminated against?
      2. Would the Egyptian Government protect Sunni Muslim converts to Christianity?
      3. Would they be able to openly practise their new faith in Egypt?
    • EGY35485 - Nov. 2009 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the history and status of Jehovah's Witnesses in Egypt.
      2. What restrictions or forms of discrimination do they face in practising their religion?
      3. How are they treated by members of the community (both Muslims and Copts)?
      4. How are they treated by the authorities? Is protection available to them?
    • EGY35721 - Nov. 2009 (PDF)
      1. What restrictions or forms of discrimination do Jehovah's Witnesses face in practising their religion in Egypt? To what extent are they forced to practice underground, and what are the likely consequences if they do not?
      2. How are Jehovah's Witnesses treated by members of the community (both Muslims and Copts) in Egypt? Have they been subject to incidences of violence or harassment?
      3. How are Jehovah's Witnesses treated by the Egyptian authorities? Is state protection available to them?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • EGY105804.E - Treatment of members of the Muslim Brotherhood, including leaders, returnee members and suspected members, by authorities, following the removal of President Mohamed Morsi - June 2017(PDF)
    • EGY104502.E - Situation of Jehovah's Witnesses, including treatment by society and the authorities and state protection available (2009-July 2013) - August 2013(PDF)
    • EGY104165.E - Situation and treatment of Christians; availability of state protection - July 2012 (PDF)
    • EGY103421.E - Whether people who have converted from Islam to Christianity, particularly those converts who have been arrested, are able to obtain passports and leave the country (2004 - March 2010) - March 2010 (PDF)
    • EGY42414.FE - The treatment of Christians and state protection available to them (1999-February 2004) - Feb. 2004 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Human Rights Watch - 2018 (PDF)
  • World Directory of Minorities - Ahmadis (PDF)
  • World Directory of Minorities - Baha’i (PDF)
  • World Directory of Minorities - Quaranists (PDF)
  • World Directory of Minorities - Shi’a (PDF)
  • World Directory of Minorities - Sufi Muslims (PDF)
  • Minority Rights Group International Report  - No Change in Sight: The Situation of Religious Minorities in Post-Mubarak Egypt – Dec. 2013 (PDF)

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Coptic Christians

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office-Key Documents - 2009 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • EGY38455 - March 2011 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information about how marriages between Coptic Orthodox and other Christian denominations are viewed generally; also marriages between a Copt and a foreigner.
      2. Are marriages recognised by the Coptic Church? If not, what are the legal consequences of this lack of recognition?
      3. Is there any evidence of honour killings being carried out in Upper Egypt in d circumstances where a male marries without his family's consent when a marriage has already been arranged for him?
      4. Would the police provide protection in such circumstances?
    • EGY37237 - Aug. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Are there any reports of the arrest of 10 men, either a human rights or gay rights group, in February 2006 in Cairo or El Arish?
      2. Does the Coptic Christian church deny gay men the right to worship?
    • EGY36322 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. What knowledge would a deacon and Sunday school teacher have of (i) the Coptic Orthodox Church organisation in Egypt, and (ii) Coptic Christian beliefs and liturgy? As to the latter, would a deacon and Sunday school teacher be expected to know all or some of the matters mentioned in the overview entitled "The Coptic Orthodox Church" posted on the USA Coptic Church website? If not all, what matters could the person be expected to know?
      2. Please provide any information on the Virgin Mary and St Gabriel Church in Alexandria.
      3. Are there any news reports or other information about forced conversations of Muslims to Christianity?
      4. Would the Egyptian media publish a report of such an incident? In all cases, or only in certain circumstances?
      5. Where the Egyptian police had detained and questioned a Coptic Christian suspected of involvement in the kidnapping and conversion, would the police always proceed to charge the person with an offence (such as the offence of Â"sectarian violence?) or might the police release the person without charge due to lack of evidence?
      6. Please provide any further information on the attitude of Egyptian police, security forces, government informants and members of the Islamic brotherhoods towards Coptic Christians who are suspected of (i) assisting Christian converts and (ii) encouraging Muslims to convert.
    • EGY36285 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide expert advice on the Muslim Brotherhood's attitude towards and treatment of Coptic Christians, particularly those engaged in proselytisation, in Egypt.
    • EGY36097 - Feb. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information about the penalty imposed on those who are conscientious objectors to compulsory service in Egypt.
      2. Please advise whether there is any evidence that the penalty imposed on Christian objectors is greater than or different from that imposed on Muslims who object on grounds of conscience?
      3. Please provide any available information on the poor treatment of Christian conscripts?
      4. Is there any information available on the inferior or poor treatment of Coptic Christian conscripts, particularly reports of denial of the opportunity to practise their faith whilst serving?
      5. Is there any evidence that Christian conscripts are prevented from having bibles or prayer books?
      6. Is there a ban on wearing any visible religious symbols applying to all conscripts or only to Christians?
      7. Are there any reports of forcible removal of the tattoo of the cross from Christians serving in the military?
    • EGY36256 - Feb. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide an update on the attitude towards and treatment of Coptic Christians by the Muslim Brotherhood and Islamists, particularly those engaged in proselytisation, in Egypt.
    • EGY35828 - Dec. 2009 (PDF)
      1. Are there any recent reports suggesting that Christian Copts are at risk of serious harm when they do compulsory military service?
    • EGY35749 - Nov. 2009 (PDF)
      1. Is there any information on a group called Sameri Saleh?
      2. Is it a criminal offence to seek protection as a refugee?
      3. Is there any information on the fate of failed asylum seekers returning to Egypt?
    • EGY35653 - Nov. 2009 (PDF)
      1. Please provide details about the 2008 Abu Fana monastery raid(s) and any action by the authorities since: time of day, scale of attack, duration of attack, profile of the perpetrating party, numbers of people involved, lay people present at the time, etc.
      2. Please advise if there has been a series of raids on this monastery or just one in recent times.
      1. Is it common for Coptic families not to report kidnappings of their daughters/sisters for fear of embarrassment and losing face?
    • EGY35732 - Nov. 2009 (PDF)
      1. Please advise whether the treatment of Christian converts in Cairo is any more or less tolerant than in other parts of Egypt?
      2. Please advise whether Christian converts living in Cairo rely on the protection of the authorities in that city?
      3. Please provide any information regarding the ill-treatment, by authorities in Egypt, of family members (as distinct from the convert) of a convert to Christianity?
      4. Is there any information regarding whether Coptic Christians are accepted into the Egyptian police force and if so, what proportion of the police force they comprise?
      5. Please provide statistics regarding the number of Coptic Christians and Muslims in Cairo?
      6. Please provide some recent information about tensions and conflicts, in Cairo, between Copts and Muslims.
    • EGY35308 - Aug. 2009 (PDF)
      1. Is there any evidence that state protection is withheld by the Egyptian police or other authorities for Coptic Christians, especially those living in the Upper Volta area in Egypt?
    • EGY33672 - Aug. 2008 (PDF)
      1. Would the state provide protection to a female who is married but is still a virgin who want to divorce her husband? Does it protect wives from violent husbands?
      2. What are the divorce procedures in Egypt, including under Shar'ia law?
      3. What are the annulment/divorce procedures in the Coptic Church?
      4. What are the cultural attitudes to the suggestion of a divorce in Souhag?
      5. Would a woman in this situation be a desirable target of Islamic fundamentalists to rape and kidnap?
      6. Culturally, are men seen as superior to females?
    • EGY32910 - Feb. 2008 (PDF)
      1. Please advise whether female genital mutilation is illegal in Egypt?
      2. Please advise what the attitude of authorities is towards FGM?
      3. Please advise what steps have the government and/or NGOs taken to stop the practice? (The US State report refers to a conference in November in Cairo aimed at eradicating FGM).
      4. Please advise what the attitude of the Coptic Church is towards FGM. Please provide any recent reports or statements by the Coptic Church on the practice?
      5. Please advise whether the incidence of FGM is any different in the Coptic Christian community?
      6. Are there any recent studies on the prevalence of FGM in Egypt?
      7. What age are girls subjected to FGM?
      8. Is the incidence of FGM any different in the big cities?
      9. What groups of women are more at risk of FGM?
      10. Who performs FGM?
      11. Have there been any charges or action taken against doctors or midwives who perform FGM?
      12. Are there any reports on women who have refused to be circumcise?
    • EGY31526 - March 2007 (PDF)
      1. Would you be able to find the MINBUZA (Dept of Foreign Affairs, Netherlands) report on Christians in Egypt 2001, and later reports on Copts and forced conversion (if any) by the European refugee assessment bodies (ie Danish, Swedish, Norwegians etc)?
      2. Also are you able to find any press reports by Dr Cornelis Hulsman who is a Dutch sociologist and lived in Cairo in the late 90's and reported on forced conversions. I note that there was an article written by Dr Hulsman in Middle East Times on 27 June 1999.
      3. Are you able to find any others?
    • EGY30489 - Sep. 2006 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the situation for Coptic Christians in Egypt in 2002.
      2. Please provide info on the situation for Coptic Christians today.
      3. Please provide information on Jamaa Islamia and its activities.
      4. Does this group engage of discrimination/harassment of Christians?
      5. Do the authorities provide protection to Christians?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • EGY105805.E - Situation of Coptic Christians, including treatment; availability of state protection; - June 2017(PDF)
    • EGY105152.E - Situation of Coptic Christians, including treatment; state protection available - May 2015 (PDF)
    • ZZZ104593.E - Egypt and Syria: Beliefs and practices of Coptic Christians in Egypt and Syriac Orthodox Christians in Syria, including sacraments, holy days, symbols and official documents; history and structure of the Coptic Church and Syriac Church, including leadership - Oct 2013
    • EGY102325.E - Egypt: In the case of a Coptic Christian married couple, possibility of a court forcing the husband to divorce his wife if she converts to Islam; whether the Muslim religion obliges a woman to divorce her husband because of her conversion - Feb. 2007 (PDF)
    • EGY102385.E - Treatment of Christians, including Coptic Christians, and availability of state protection (March 2004 - January 2007) - Feb. 2007 (PDF)
    • EGY41415.E - Update to EGY33301.E of 15 December 1999 on reports of male and female Christians being forced to convert to Islam and marry Muslims - April 2003 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • World Directory of Minorities- Copts (PDF)

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Jehovah's Witnesses

Foreign Government Reports

  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • EGY35485 - Nov. 2009 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the history and status of Jehovah's Witnesses in Egypt.
    • EGY35721 - Nov. 2009 (PDF)
      1. What restrictions or forms of discrimination do Jehovah's Witnesses face in practising their religion in Egypt? To what extent are they forced to practice underground, and what are the likely consequences if they do not?
      2. How are Jehovah's Witnesses treated by members of the community (both Muslims and Copts) in Egypt? Have they been subject to incidences of violence or harassment?
      3. How are Jehovah's Witnesses treated by the Egyptian authorities? Is state protection available to them?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • EGY104502.E - Situation of Jehovah's Witnesses, including treatment by society and the authorities and state protection available (2009-July 2013) - August 2013 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports


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Sexual Orientation

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Sexual Orientation -  2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office - Key Documents - 2009 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • EGY36560 - May 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on lesbian clubs/venues in Alexandria, and any information on resources/facilities for lesbians including websites in Alexandria and Egypt.
      2. Is lesbian activity illegal?
      3. Are lesbians mistreated by police and other authorities?
      4. Are lesbians subjected to serious social/family discrimination/harassment?
    • EGY37237 - Aug. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Are there any reports of the arrest of 10 men, either a human rights or gay rights group, in February 2006 in Cairo or El Arish?
      2. Does the Coptic Christian church deny gay men the right to worship?
    • EGY36295 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on internet regulation by the Egyptian government up and until 2007, particularly as to whether they blocked gay websites.
      2. Are there any Arabic websites showing gay films?
      3. Please provide information on any mainstream gay films that had been released up and until 2007.
    • EGY36002 - Jan. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please advise whether there have been any significant legal or societal developments in Egypt relating to male homosexuals since mid-2007? If so, please provide a brief overview.
    • EGY060709 - An Update and Addendum to the 2005 Paper "Homosexuals and Transsexuals in Egypt" - July 2009 (PDF)
    • EGY31241 - Jan. 2007 (PDF)
      1. What is the situation for homosexuals in Egypt currently?
      2. Anything else you feel might be relevant.

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International
    • Making Love a Crime: Criminalization of Same-Sex Conduct in Sub-Saharan Afica - April 2013 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch - 2018 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch Profiles
    • Audacity in Adversity: LGTB Activism in the Middle East and North Africa - April 2018 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Protest / Uprising

Foreign Government Reports

  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • EGY102911.E - Recruitment by Islamic militant groups, including methods and incidence - Aug. 2008 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International Report
    • Egypt Rises: Killings, Detentions and torture in the '25 January Revolution' - 2011 (PDF)
  • International Crisis Group
    • POPULAR PROTEST IN NORTH AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST (I): EGYPT VICTORIOUS? - Feb. 2011 (PDF)
  • International Federation for Human Rights
    • The Price of Hope: Human Rights Abuses during the Egyptian Revolution - Feb. 2011 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Female Genital Mutilation

US Government Report
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Female Genital Mutilation - 2012 (PDF)
  • State Department Report - Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Report - Female Genital Mutilation - Egypt - June 2008 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • EGY32910 - Feb. 2008 (PDF)
      1. Please advise whether female genital mutilation is illegal in Egypt?
      2. Please advise what the attitude of authorities is towards FGM?
      3. Please advise what steps have the government and/or NGOs taken to stop the practice? (The US State report refers to a conference in November in Cairo aimed at eradicating FGM).
      4. Please advise what the attitude of the Coptic Church is towards FGM. Please provide any recent reports or statements by the Coptic Church on the practice?
      5. Please advise whether the incidence of FGM is any different in the Coptic Christian community?
      6. Are there any recent studies on the prevalence of FGM in Egypt?
      7. What age are girls subjected to FGM?
      8. Is the incidence of FGM any different in the big cities?
      9. What groups of women are more at risk of FGM?
      10. Who performs FGM?
      11. Have there been any charges or action taken against doctors or midwives who perform FGM?
      12. Are there any reports on women who have refused to be circumcised?
Law
  • Order No. 261 of 8 July 1996 on Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt - July 1996 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Muslim Brotherhood

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office - Country Information and Guidance - Egypt: Muslim Brotherhood - July 2017 (PDF), Oct. 2014 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • EGY10022010 - Issues Paper - Muslim Brotherhood - Feb. 2010 (PDF)
    • EGY35071 - June 2009 (PDF)
      1. What is the current attitude of Egyptian authorities towards supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood?
      2. Are supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood routinely detained and interrogated?
      3. Were Muslim Brotherhood supporters targeted before, during, or after the Egyptian Assembly elections in 2006?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • EGY104639.E - Treatment of members of the Muslim Brotherhood, including leaders, returnee members and suspected members, by authorities following the removal of President Mohamed Morsi (3 July 2013-30 October 2013) - November 2013

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Specific Country Issues - Treatment of Returnees

Foreign Government Reports
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • EGY104723 - Treatment of overseas government employees, who were part of the Mubarak administration, upon their return to Egypt after the removal of President Morsi; treatment of these individuals by the Muslim Brotherhood  - Jan. 2014 (PDF)
    • EGY101204.E - Treatment of failed refugee claimants who return to Egypt (April 2006) - May 2006 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • Information on failed asylum seekers - Aug. 2009 (PDF)

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Speech / Press / Internet

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Freedom Speech and Press -  2017 (PDF),  2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • EGY101730.FE - The existence of the newspapers El-Hurriyya and El-Hadath; verification of the authenticity of the following articles: "Silence and the Dictator" published in El-Hurriyya on 25 September 2003, "Following the Iraqui Thug, Has the Role Switched Hands into the Tunisian Executioner?" published in El-Hurriyya on 3 October 2003 and "The Tragedy of a Nation" published in El-Hadath on 30 November 2003 (Sept.-Nov. 2003) - Oct. 2006 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Freedom House
  • Human Rights Watch - 2018 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch Reports
    • All According to Plan: The Rab'a Massacre and Mass Killings of Protesters in Egypt - Aug. 2014 (PDF)
    • The State of Egypt Vs. Free Expression: The Ibn Khaldun Trial - Jan. 2002 (PDF)

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Timeline

Trafficking

US Government Reports

Intergovernmental Organization Reports

  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime - Global Report on Trafficking in Persons - North Africa and the Middle East - 2016 (PDF)

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Terrorism

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Terrorism - 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF)
    • State Department Country Reports - Terrorist Safte Havens - 2016 (PDF)
  • Library of Congress - CRS Reports
    • Egypt - Background and U.S. Relations - Terrorism - July 2015 (PDF)

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Torture

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Torture -  2017 (PDF),  2016 (PDF)

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Updated July 10, 2018

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