People's Republic of China

Citizenship and Country Documents

US Government Reports
  • State Department - Country Documents
  • Library of Congress - Law Library of Congress (LLOC)
    • Family Reunification Laws in Selected Jurisdictions - July 2014 (PDF)
  • RIC Report
    • Information on Procedures for Applying for and Traveling on Passports, Including Documentation, Bank Guaranties, Bearers' Signatures, and Exit Stamps - August 2002 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Country Policy and Information Note China: Background information including actors of protection and internal relocation - Citizenship and nationality - March 2018 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Country Policy and Information Note China: Background information including actors of protection and internal relocation - Official documents - March 2018 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Report
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • CHN38618 - May 2011 (PDF)
      1. Apart from restrictions on travel, what else would lack of passport mean in China?
      2. How likely is it that a Chinese passport would not be renewed if it became apparent that its owner was not residing at an address given in the application (even though they could be contacted at that address)
    • CHN36460 - April 2010 (PDF)
      1. What are the penalties for travelling out of the PRC on false documents, if discovered?
    • CHN36267 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. Is the child able to obtain Chinese citizenship?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs) -
    • CHN106016.E - China: English translation of samples of summonses - Feb. 2018 (PDF)
    • CHN105545.E  - China: Information on birth registration for children born out of wedlock; whether the name of the father appears on the birth certificate if the child is born out of wedlock; what information may appear on the birth certificate if the father is unknown; whether the father's name may be added to the child's birth certificate by referring to the father's Resident Identity Card, particularly relating to Henan Province birth certificates (2010-June 2016) - June 2016 (PDF)
    • CHN105410.E - China: Requirements and procedures to reacquire Chinese citizenship; length of process and information on other forms of status or temporary status while reacquiring citizenship; whether the children of Chinese nationals, who are born abroad, can obtain citizenship (January 2015-January 2016) - January 2016 (PDF)
    • CHN105049.E - China: Information on electronic/biometric passports, including security features, Radio Frequency ID (RFID) technology and wireless tracking capacity; exit procedures at international airports, including e-passport verification, security checkpoints, and the use of facial recognition technology (2013-2014) - September 2015 (PDF)
    • CHN104954.E - Requirements and procedures for minors to undergo DNA testing by Maxxam Analytics in Guangzhou, including identity documents (2014) - September 2014 (PDF)
    • CHN104881.E - Instances in which the letter "X" is used at the end of the identification number on a resident identity card - May 2014 (PDF)
    • CHN104579.E - Fraudulent documents, including the manufacturing, procurement, distribution and use of passports, hukou, and resident identity cards (RICs), particularly in Guangdong and Fujian; instances of officials issuing fraudulent RICs to citizens and selling authentic RICs on the black market (2010-September 2013) - October 2013
    • CHN104415.E - Procedure and requirements to obtain a biometric passport, including date they started to be issued; indicators that the passport is biometric, including symbols - May 2013
    • CHN104134.E - Identity documents required to purchase tickets to travel by train, bus or boat; whether authorities check the identity of train travellers during their travel through China - December 2012 (PDF)
    • CHN104190.E - Seamen's books issued to seamen going abroad, including the regulations governing their issuance, whether a security check is done on applicants, and the role of the Public Security Bureau in the issuance process - October 2012
    • CHN103721.E - Documents required to obtain or renew a passport within China and abroad,including whether all embassies require proof of status when applications are submitted abroad; whether Chinese embassies issue passports to individuals with no status abroad; circumstances under which an individual's Resident Identity Card (RIC) number would not appear in a passport - April 2011 (PDF)
    • CHN103722.E - Validity periods of passports issued within China and abroad, particularly in2001; whether validity periods are consistent on all passports issued within China and through embassies - April 2011 (PDF)
    • CHN103503.E - Information contained in birth and notarial certificates; reasons why a personwould obtain a notarial certificate rather than a notarized copy of the original birth record - July 2010 (PDF)
    • CHN103261.E - The People's Republic of China (PRC) Travel Document/Permit; what documents a PRC citizen needs to provide in order to obtain the PRC Travel Document/Permit - October 2009 (PDF)
    • CHN103170.E - Documents required and security measures in place for international departures by air from Hong Kong - June 2009 (PDF)
    • CHN103134.E - The manufacture, procurement, distribution and use of fraudulent documents, including passports, hukou, resident identity cards and summonses in Guangdong and Fujian in particular (2005 - May 2009) - June 2009 (PDF)
    • CHN103078.E - Whether authorities have been known to deny citizenship to foreign wives of Chinese citizens and their children based on their ethnicity; specifically, ethnic Javanese individuals - February 2009 (PDF)
    • CHN101489 - Process to obtain a People's Republic of China (PRC) driver's licence; documents required; whether the serial number on the national identity card is the same as the ID number that appears on the driver's licence - November 2006 (PDF)
    • CHN101465.E - Exit procedures for leaving China; whether one passenger may present another's passport when proceeding through exit controls, thereby permitting exit of the country without having to speak to any exit control official - June 2006 (PDF)
    • CHN100669 - The procedure to be followed when obtaining a replacement passport in Tianjin; the "G-series" passport (2004 - 2005) - January 2006 (PDF)
    • CHN100513.E -Exit controls for citizens travelling overseas, including documents and police checks, and whether a person wanted by authorities could leave China using a passport in his or her name; exit procedures at Beijing airport (2003 -2005) - October 2005 (PDF)
    • ZZZ100559 - Passport issuance procedures for Chinese nationals at diplomatic missions in Canada and in the United States; whether a Chinese national who is wanted by authorities in China would be issued a passport abroad (2003 - 2005) - October 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN100512 - Procedures for obtaining a passport, including documents to be submitted, the issuing authority, processing times, and whether the applicant must apply in person (2003-2005) - October 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN43487.E - Follow-up to CHN43231.E of 10 February 2005 on a bilingual (English/Chinese) birth certificate issued under seal of the Ministry of Health, including the year this type of certificate was first introduced, design and layout features, and whether the certificate is standard throughout China; procedures for obtaining the certificate - May 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN43360.E - China: National Resident Identity Cards; background information; description; issuance procedures - February 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN43231.E - Information on a bilingual (Chinese/English) birth certificate issued under the seal of the Ministry of Health, including the year when this type of certificate was first introduced and any special design and layout features; whether the certificate is standard throughout China; procedures for obtaining the certificate (2002-2004) - February 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN43252.E - Whether a Chinese national, who was issued a passport in 2001 for the purpose of studying abroad, would be required to return the passport to Chinese authorities if a student or visitor's visa had been denied in 2002 or travel had not been undertaken; under what circumstances a Chinese national would be required to return a passport to Chinese authorities - January 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN42391 - Information contained in birth and notarial certificates; reason why a person might obtain a notarial certificate rather than a notarized copy of the original birth records April 2004 (PDF)
    • CHN41021.E - Whether the Chinese authorities would stamp the passport of a Chinese student studying in Canada who was returning to China for a vacation - March 2003 (PDF)

Non-Governmental Report

  • Human Rights Watch Report Profile  - One Passport, Two Systems - China’s Restrictions on Foreign Travel by Tibetans and Others - July 2015 (PDF)

 


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Driver's licence

Foreign Government Reports

  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs) -
    • CHN105632.E - China: Process to obtain a People's Republic of China (PRC) driver's licence; documents required; whether the serial number on the national identity card is the same as the ID number that appears on the driver's licence (2014-September 2016) - October 2016 (PDF)
    • CHN103406.E - The identification numbers on a driver's license, including the identification numbers on a driver's license issued in Dalian, Liaoning - March 2010 (PDF)
    • CHN43273.E - A sample copy or description of a Type E driver's licence issued in Fuqing, Fujian (2004-2005) - February 2005 (PDF)

 


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Hukou System (Household Registry)

US Government Reports
  • RIC Report
  • Congressional Executive Commission on China -
    • Hukou Reform Addressing the Issue of ‘‘Illegal Residents’’ - 2017 (PDF)
    • Special Topic Paper: China's Household Registration System: Sustained Reform Needed to Protect China's Rural Migrants - Oot 2005 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Country Policy and Information Note China: Background information including actors of protection and internal relocation - Hukou (Registration)- March 2018 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Report - Hukou System (Household Registry) - October 2012 (PDF), August 2011 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • CHN105576.E  - China: Procedures in Hebei province for updating a hukou with a change of address or after a change in the head of household, including whether new pages are added or an entirely new booklet is issued (2014-July 2016) - July 2016 (PDF)
    • CNH105053.E - China: 2014 hukou reform policy and its local implementation; security features and other physical characteristics of hukou [household registry] documents issued in 2013-2014; anti-fraud measures introduced for hukou documents; whether features are standardized across the country - December 2015 (PDF)
    • CHN103191.E - Household registration for a collective or non-family group (jiti hukou) - August 2009 (PDF)
    • CHN103134.E - The manufacture, procurement, distribution and use of fraudulent documents, including passports, hukou, resident identity cards and summonses in Guangdong and Fujian in particular (2005 - May 2009) - June 2009 (PDF)
    • CHN102869.E - Exit controls and security measures at airports in China for mainland citizens travelling overseas and to Hong Kong - July 2008 (PDF)
    • CHN102813.E - Whether an individual who has been sent to prison would have his or her hukou automatically cancelled; procedures to incarcerate and release a convict, including forfeiture of documentation, return of documentation and any demarcations on documentation noting incarceration - May 2008 (PDF)
    • CHN102488.E - Whether hukous with individual sheets in plastic sleeves are authentic; regions in which such hukous would be issued - June 2007 (PDF)
    • CHN102487.E - Whether collective hukous contain a box or area which indicates when the person named on the collective hukou had his or her Resident Identity Card issued; whether all sections of the hukou (e.g., occupation, place of employment) must be completed - June 2007 (PDF)
    • CHN101420 - Household registration booklets (hukous) with loose pages inserted; whether or not hukous with loose pages exist in Changsha, Hunan province; the production of these hukous and their security features - June 2006 (PDF)
    • CHN101198 - The hukou; whether there remains a distinction between urban and rural hukou; social services available to persons holding an urban or rural hukou; the temporary hukou; and whether a person who is not registered in an urban area can obtain social services, including a hukou (2005 - 2006) - April 2006 (PDF)
    • CHN100069.E - Whether in August 2004 or thereabouts local authorities in Shenzhen collected the household registration booklets of all residents in order to replace them with new ones; whether two adults were required to appear at the local Public Security office in order to obtain the new hukou for each household - May 2005 (PDF)
    • Issue Paper - Reforms of the Household Registration System (HUKOU) (1998-2004) - February 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN43261.E - Information on the likelihood or probability of someone getting a rural hukou if he/she has an urban hukou , or has an urban hukou but previously had a rural hukou - January 2005 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • CHN36335 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. What restrictions are there, if any, on persons moving to live and work in Beijing?

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Resident Identity Cards (RIC)

Foreign Government Reports
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • CHN105598.E - China: Whether a new Resident Identity Card (RIC) is issued at the same time as a new hukou to reflect a change of address when a person moves out; procedures for updating a RIC with a change of address; information that applies to Hebei Province (2014-July 2016) - Aug 2016 (PDF)
    • CHN104578.E - China: Whether the 15-digit identity number appearing on a Resident Identity Card (RIC) or a newly assigned 18-digit number would appear on official documents, if the Chinese citizen obtaining the official documents continued to be in possession of a 15-digit RIC (2010-September 2013) - Sept 2013
    • CHN104575.E - Requirements and procedures for the issuance of passports abroad, including whether all embassies require proof of status; instances when a Resident Identity Card (RIC) number would not appear in the passport (2012-September 2013) - Sept 2013
    • CHN104046.E - Whether and when the government ceased to issue first generation resident identity cards (RICs), specifically in Tianjin and the provinces of Fujian, Guangdong, and Liaoning - March 2013
    • CHN103755.E - Appearance of the second-generation Resident Identity Card (RIC), includingpersonal information represented on the card; procedure for testing cards for authenticity - July 2011 (PDF)
    • CHN103754 - China: Procedures for issuing second-generation Resident Identity Cards (RICs), including whether the procedures vary in different parts of China; application processing times and whether validity periods are assigned when the application is made or when the card is issued - July 2011 (PDF)
    • CHN103770.E - Whether state authorities use second-generation Resident Identity Cards (RICs) to track citizens - July 2011 (PDF)
    • CHN103753 - China: The replacement of first-generation Resident Identity Cards (RICs) with second-generation RICs; authorities responsible for RIC replacement; geographic areas that have been covered during the replacement campaign, specifically in Guangdong and Fujian provinces; whether all citizens are required to replace first-generation cards with second-generation cards; whether authorities collect first-generation cards when second-generation cards are issued - June 2011 (PDF)
    • CHN103242.E - The master list of Resident Identity Card (RIC) provincial codes - September 2009 (PDF)
    • CHN103134.E - The manufacture, procurement, distribution and use of fraudulent documents, including passports, hukou, resident identity cards and summonses in Guangdong and Fujian in particular (2005 - May 2009) - June 2009 (PDF)
    • CHN102481.E - The second-generation Resident Identity Card; security features; and how the card can be tested for authenticity - July 2007 (PDF)
    • CHN102485.E - Whether the Public Security Bureau (PSB) seizes Resident Identity Cards or passports from homes of people they are planning to arrest; circumstances under which the identity documents would be seized; whether a receipt would be issued (2005 - 2007) - June 2007 (PDF)
    • CHN100668.E - The procedure to be followed when obtaining a replacement resident identity card in Tianjin (2003 - 2005) - January 2006 (PDF)
    • CHN100040.E - Whether the 15-digit identity number appearing on Resident Identity Cards issued prior to 1 October 1999 or a newly assigned 18-digit number would appear on official documents issued after 1 October 1999, if the Chinese citizen obtaining the official documents continued to be in possession of the 15-digit Resident Identity Card (January-May 2005) - June 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN42704.E - Further to CHN42321.E of 20 April 2004, the issuance of temporary Chinese resident identity cards; to whom they are issued; for what purpose; the duration of the cards; process for obtaining the card; description of the card; whether the Public Security Bureau (PSB) would issue such a card to someone who is wanted by the authorities for a criminal act (July 2004) - August 2004 (PDF)

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Children

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Children - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Country Policy and Information Note China: Background information including actors of protection and internal relocation - Child - March 2018 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Report - Children - October 2012 (PDF), August 2011 (PDF), November 2010 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • CHN36059 - February 2010 (PDF)
      • C. Are children who are born out of wedlock and have gained household registration subject to discrimination or harm in China? If so, what is the nature of the discrimination and harm and is state protection available (both legally and in practice) in such circumstances?
    • CHN36267 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. Is the child able to obtain Chinese citizenship?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs) -
    • CHN105636.E - China: Treatment of "illegal" or "black" children born outside the family planning policy; whether unregistered children are denied access to education, health care and other services; information on punitive measures taken against parents who violated family planning policy before and/or after policy changes effective January 2016 (2013-September 2016) - October 2016 (PDF)
    • CHN105545.E  - China: Information on birth registration for children born out of wedlock; whether the name of the father appears on the birth certificate if the child is born out of wedlock; what information may appear on the birth certificate if the father is unknown; whether the father's name may be added to the child's birth certificate by referring to the father's Resident Identity Card, particularly relating to Henan Province birth certificates (2010-June 2016) - June 2016 (PDF)
    • CHN104966.E - Treatment of "ordinary" Christian house church members by the Public Security Bureau (PSB), including treatment of children of house church members (2009-2014) - October 2014 (PDF)
    • CHN104186.E - China: Treatment of "illegal" or "black" children born outside the family planning policy; whether unregistered children are denied access to education, health care and other services - October 2012 (PDF)
    • CHN102868.E - Treatment of children of members of underground Christian churches; whether children of members of underground Christian churches are subject to sanctions, including reduced access to education and to health care - June 2008 (PDF)
    • CHN102496.E - Treatment of "illegal," or "black," children born outside the one-child family planning policy; whether unregistered children are denied access to education, health care and other social services (2003 - 2007) - June 2007 (PDF)
    • CHN43231.E - Information on a bilingual (Chinese/English) birth certificate issued under the seal of the Ministry of Health, including the year when this type of certificate was first introduced and any special design and layout features; whether the certificate is standard throughout China; procedures for obtaining the certificate (2002-2004) - February 2005 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Austrian Center for Country Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD)
    • COI Compilation - Treatment of Children - March 2014 (PDF)
    • One-Child-Policy / Family Planning - Dec 2005 (PDF)
  • Coalition to stop the use of Child Soldiers - Child Soldiers Global Report - 2008 (PDF)
  • Refugee Documentation Centre of Ireland
    • Information: treatment of children born outside marriage in China. Possibility of the Chinese authorities detecting such a child if family deported to China. - February 2010 (PDF)

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Returned Overseas Children

US Government Reports
  • USCIS - RIC Report
    • China: Information on Treatment of Returning Peasants and Workers Who Violated the One-child Family Planning Policy While Abroad - June 12, 2002 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Report - Returned Oversees Chinese - October 2012 (PDF), August 2011 (PDF), November 2010 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • CHN36059 - February 2010 (PDF)
      • A. What are the official procedures that need to be undertaken for children born overseas when their parents return to China? To the extent that a fee is to be paid for having a child overseas, how much is that fee and/or how is it calculated?
      • B. Do children born overseas incur any official penalties (other than family planning penalties) upon return to China on the basis of being born overseas?
      • E. Previous DFAT advice indicates that there are two circumstances in which couples returning to China are exempt from family planning fees for having an unauthorised second child. Do these exemptions also apply to individuals who have a child out of wedlock as opposed to an unauthorised second child?
      • F. In relation to the above family planning exemptions, what are the requirements for Chinese nationals who have returned to China after studying overseas? Is it relevant whether they have completed the course they undertook to complete, or is having being granted a student visa and having lived abroad on that visa sufficient?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs) -
    • CHN103033.E - Regulations on Family Planning of Liaoning Province; including exceptions to the one-child policy; reference made to birth control and termination of pregnancy; consequences or penalties for having more than one child under the regulations of the province; whether there are penalties for Chinese returning from overseas with children born abroad - Jan 2009 (PDF)
    • CHN100385.E - Penalties faced by couples returning from overseas who are in violation of family planning regulations (2001-2005) - Aug 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN43512.E - Whether a foreign-born spouse and child of a Chinese national can enter China, reside there and acquire Chinese nationality; whether the parents would encounter difficulties in returning to China or be penalized under family planning regulations if, in addition to the foreign-born child, a second child were born to the couple in China (2003-2005) - April 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN43031.E - Information on the 2002 family planning regulations for the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong, including their impact on married and unmarried women, on couples returning from overseas, and on rural families in Guangdong who are now subject to a single hukou classification system; copies of the regulations (2002-2004) - February 2005 (PDF)

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Corruption

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Corruption and Lack of Transparency in Government - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Country Policy and Information Note China: Background information including actors of protection and internal relocation - Corruption - March 2018 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Report - Corruption - October 2012 (PDF), August 2011 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • CHN104180.E - State efforts to address government corruption; anti-corruption legislation and regulations; agencies responsible for investigating corruption; prosecutions and punishment for corruption; recourse available to victims of corruption - September 2012 (PDF)
    • CHN102561.E - Government efforts to crack down on corrupt officials (2005 - 2007) - July 2007 (PDF)
    • CHN102486.E - Reports of corrupt officials issuing fraudulent Resident Identity Cards to unsuspecting rural residents and selling the authentic ones to "snakeheads" on the black market (2004 - 2007) - June 2007 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • CHN38273 - February 2011 (PDF)
      1. What reported incidents are there, if any, of corruption in the public service in China, particularly in the recruitment/employment sector?
    • CHN36488 - April 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the prevalence of corruption and bribery of local officials in China. Is the government acting to fight corruption?
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Austrian Center for Country Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD)
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center - Information on local government corruption and persecution of citizens. Connections between various local governments in China regarding corruption and defrauding the State - September 2009 (PDF)

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Disabilities

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Disabilities - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Austrian Center for Country Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD) - COI Compilation - Treatment of persons with disabilities - March 2014 (PDF)

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Elections

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Elections - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF)
  • Congressional Research Service (CRS)
    • Prospects for Democracy in Hong Kong: Results of the 2012 Elections - Sept 2012 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports

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Ethnic Groups / Race

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Nationalities/ Racial/Ethnic Minorities - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF)
  • Congressional Executive Commission on China Annual Report - Ethnic Minority Rights - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Report - Ethnic Groups - October 2012 (PDF), August 2011 (PDF), November 2010 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs) -
    • CHN105981.E - China: Effects of the implementation of the new Family Planning Policy on ethnic minorities and children born outside the country, including access to social services and benefits, in Guangdong, Fujian, and Hebei; whether the previous Family Planning Policy is being applied retroactively to those who have violated the policy, including in Guangdong, Fujian, and Hebei (October 2015-August 2017) - Oct 2017 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • CHN37825 - November 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide any available information about the ethnic composition of the general population, and the police force in particular, in Guizhou Province.
    • CHN36374 - April 2010 (PDF)
      1. The Miao peoples of Guizhou
        2.1. What percentage of the population in Guiyang is of Miao ethnicity?
        2.2. Where to the Miao peoples live?
        2.2.1. Do all the Miao people live in the one area/village?
        2.2.2. Are there many Miao villages around Guiyang?
        2.2.3. Is there a village called Miao?
      2. Religion and belief
        3.1. What religion are the Miao people?
        3.2. What festivals do the Miao people celebrate in Guiyang?
        3.3. Are there any reports of members of the Local Church proselytising in Guiyang?
        3.4. Are there any reports of members of the Local Church being arrested/detained in the karst caves near Guiyang in January 2006?
      3. Tobacco and Smoking
        4.1. Do Miao children smoke?
        4.2. Is smoking seen as a local tradition for the Miao children in Guiyang?
        4.3. Is it seen as a problem in the Guiyang area?
        4.4. Is there a particular tobacco planting area near Guiyang?
        4.5. Is there a state owned tobacco factory in Guiyang? Please provide the name and location of this factory
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • UK Home Office Country Policy and Information Note China: Background information including actors of protection andinternal relocation - Ethnic/Tribal/Religious makeup - March 2018
  • Austrian Center for Country Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD)
    • COI Compilation - Treatment of Ethnic Minority Groups - March 2014 (PDF)
    • Ethnic Minorities - Dec 2005 (PDF)
  • Minority Rights Group International - State of the World's Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF)
  • World Directory of Minorities - Overview (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Koreans

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Report - Koreans - October 2012 (PDF), August 2011 (PDF), November 2010 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs) -
    • CHN104384.E - China: Language of instruction for ethnic Koreans in the provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning; list of Korean schools in Muling, Heilongjiang since 1960 - April 2013 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center - Treatment of North Koreans - Nov 2011 (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Mongolians

Foreign Government Reports Non-Government Organization Reports
  • World Directory of Minorities - Mongols profile (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Uighur

US Government Reports

  • Congressional Executive Commission on China Annual Report - Xinjiang - 2014 (PDF)
  • Library Of Congress - Treatment of the Uyghur Ethnic Group in the People's Republic of China - March 2015 (PDF)

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Report - Uighur - October 2012 (PDF), August 2011 (PDF), November 2010 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Report - Treatment of Returnees - Treatment of Uighurs - October 2012 (PDF), August 2011 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Department of Immigration and Citizenship - Country Research Section (CRS) - Focus in Brief - China's Uighurs: An Update - 2009 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Amnesty International
    • "JUSTICE, JUSTICE" The July 2009 Protests in XinJiang, China - 2010 (PDF)
  • Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD)
    • China: Situation of Uyghurs: COI Compilation - April 2016 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch
    • Devastating Blows: Religious Repression of Uighurs in Xinjiang - April 2005 (PDF)
  • World Directory of Minorities - Uighur profile (PDF)

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Gender

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Women - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF)
  • Congressional Executive Commission on China Annual Report - Status of Women - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Country Policy and Information Note China: Background information including actors of protection and internal relocation - Women - March 2018 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office - Women - October 2012 (PDF), August 2011 (PDF), November 2010 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs) -
    • CHN105846.E - China: Marriage and divorce certificates, including physical characteristics, regulations and standards governing their appearance and content; requirements and procedures to obtain them (2014-August 2017) - Aug 2017 (PDF)
    • CHN100072.E - Whether China recognizes civil or religious marriages performed outside China, between either two Chinese nationals or a Chinese national and a foreign national; procedures for registering a foreign marriage in China when the couple returns to China; whether permission is required from Chinese authorities for two Chinese nationals to marry outside of the country under Chinese regulations - May 2005 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • CHN37269 - September 2010 (PDF)
      1. Whether Chinese authorities may fail to protect a Chinese woman against violence or other serious harm perpetrated by her former de facto husband's family members if the former de facto's family is considered to be 'powerful' (ie well-connected);
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Austrian Center for Country Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD)
    • COI Compilation - Treatment of Women - March 2014
    • Single women & single mothers - Dec 2005 (PDF)
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • China: Information on arranged and forced marriages in China. - Jan 2013 (PDF)
    • China: What is the minimum age for getting married in China? Do women in China undergo periodic pregnancy tests? Are there fines for married women who are pregnant below the minimum marriage age? What are the consequences of not being able to pay any fines? - October 2011 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch
    • “Only Men Need Apply” Gender Discrimination in Job Advertisements in China - April 2018 (PDF)


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Human Rights

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF)
  • Congressional Executive Commission on China - Annual Report - Human Rights - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Report - Human Rights - Dec 2013 (PDF), October 2012 (PDF), August 2011 (PDF), November 2010 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • China: Legislation and procedures regarding land expropriation in urban and rural areas; documentation issued in cases of land expropriation; recourse available to citizens who oppose land expropriation; state response to citizens who resist land expropriation (2012-September 2015) - October 2015 (PDF)
    • CHN101063 - Civil unrest involving farmers, workers, homeowners and tenants, particularly in rural areas of Guangdong; conditions causing the unrest; government response; reports of arrests, beatings and detention (2004 - 2006) - April 2006 (PDF)
    • Issue Paper -Political Dissent - June 1995 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Department of Immigration and Citizenship - Country Research Section (CRS) - Focus in Brief - Issues Petitioners - Human Rights Abuses - April 2010 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports

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Justice System

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Arbitrary Arrest or Detention - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF)
  • Congressional Executive Commission on China -
  • Library of Congress
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Country Policy and Information Note -
    • Country Policy and Information Note  - China: Fear of punishment for crimes for which the person was already charged in another country (‘Double jeopardy’ or re-prosecution) - May 2018 (PDF)
    • China: Background information including actors of protection and internal relocation - Judiciary - March 2018 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Report - Judiciary - October 2012 (PDF), August 2011 (PDF), November 2010 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Department of Immigration and Citizenship - Country Research Section (CRS) - Focus in Brief - Issues Petitioners - Black Jails (hei jianyu) - April 2010 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    1. If so, are there any reports of an increase in police interest associated with this growth?
    • CHN37292 - September 2010 (PDF)
      1. Does the 'Court of People's Prosecution' record convictions in relation to matters such as embezzlement?
      2. Please provide up-to-date information on departure checks in China and whether people who have been charged with, or convicted of, criminal offences would be able to leave the country.
    • CHN37437 - September 2010 (PDF)
      1. Is there information about local police corruption in Beijing and about police being associated with mafia elements?
      2. Is there any information to suggest that if a citizen has had problems with the local police in, say, Beijing, information about that citizen might be shared by the police with police in, say, Shenzhen, if the citizen were to relocate there?
    • CHN36823 - July 2010 (PDF)
      1. Would records of a person's 30 day detention in Liaoning province be accessible by the authorities of Shandong province?
    • CHN36806 - June 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide any information on black gaols, and in particular any mention of black gaols in association with any markets, or black gaols in Shenzhen.
    • CHN36905 - June 2010 (PDF)
      1. Would a Falun Gong practitioner, who has been detained on several occasions between 2005 and 2009 for periods ranging between a few days and three months, be regarded as having a criminal record in China?
      2. What period of time would a person have to have served in prison in order to be refused a notarial certificate stating that there was 'no record of committing offences against the criminal law during his residence in China'?
    • CHN36488 - April 2010 (PDF)
      1. Can a person leave China legally if there are outstanding police charges against them?
    • HKG36187 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the Chinese government's position in relation to persons convicted of a crime overseas.
      2. Please provide information on the Hong Kong government's position in relation to persons convicted of a crime overseas.
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • CHN106016.E - China: English translation of samples of summonses - Feb. 2018 (PDF)
    • CHN105217.E - China: Regulations on summonses; information on the contents of summonses, including whether these indicate where a person must present his or herself, including street address (2014-October 2015) - October 2015 (PDF)                                                                                        
    • CHN104967.E - Structure of the public security police; whether witness protection programs exist for those fearing organized crime groups (2014) - October 2014 (PDF)
    • CHN104966.E - Treatment of "ordinary" Christian house church members by the Public Security Bureau (PSB), including treatment of children of house church members (2009-2014) - October 2014 (PDF)
    • CHN104783.E - China: Whether authorities seize the passports of persons who are the subject of criminal summons or a police investigation, or are facing criminal charges (2013-February 2014) - February 2014 (PDF)
    • CHN104458.E - China: Samples of summoneses and subpoenas - October 2013 (PDF)
    • CHN104188.E- Circumstances and authorities responsible for issuing summonses/subpoenas; procedural law; whether summonses and subpoenas are given to individuals or households; format and appearance; whether legality can be challenged; penalties for failure to comply with a summons or subpoena-November 2012 (PDF)
    • CHN103401.E - Implementation of the Criminal Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China in regard to arrest warrants and summonses, particularly in Guangdong, Fujian and Liaoning - July 2010 (PDF)
    • CHN103133.E - Whether the Public Security Bureau (PSB) has set up a national computer network for information sharing; nature and extent of communication between PSB offices across the country; whether a link to a police computer network is available at international airports in China (2006 - May 2009) - July 2009 (PDF)
    • CHN101062.E - Organized crime or black society activity, particularly in Guangdong and Fujian, including links with government officials, repercussions associated with failing to meet demands of criminal gangs, and government efforts at tackling organized crime (2005 - 2006) - May 2006 (PDF)
    • CHN101063 - Civil unrest involving farmers, workers, homeowners and tenants, particularly in rural areas of Guangdong; conditions causing the unrest; government response; reports of arrests, beatings and detention (2004 - 2006) - April 2006 (PDF)
    • CHN43550.E - The recruitment, selection and training of police officers in the Public Security Bureau, including whether officers are trained in methods of securing a site under investigation and conducting raids (2003-2005) - May 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN43513.E - Information on penalties imposed on Chinese nationals who remove from the country university-produced textbooks which have been copied from foreign material, either with or without the school having first obtained permission from the copyright holders (1995-2005) - April 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN42444.E - Circumstances and authorities responsible for issuing summonses/subpoenas; procedural law; whether summonses are given to individuals or households; format and appearance; whether legality can be challenged; punishment for failure to comply with a summons (1998-2004) - June 2004 (PDF)
    • CHN42462.E Further to CHN29937.E of 20 August 1998 on whether the Public Security Bureau (PSB) authorities and/or police officers from one province would have jurisdiction in another province; whether a Chinese citizen would have recourse against personal vendettas by law enforcement officials from outside his or her home province - March 2004 (PDF)
    • CHN42317.E - Structure of the police force; whether witness protection programs exist, or other forms of police or state protection for individuals who fear members of organized crime groups (2000-2004) - January 2004 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Amnesty International
    • China: Submission to the NPC Standing Committee's Legislative Affairs Commission on the draft "Supervision Law" - Dec. 2017 (PDF)
    • China's Deadly Secrets - April 2017 (PDF)
    • China's 2013 Criminal Procedure Law: In line with international standards? - July 2013 (PDF)
    • Against the law" Crackdown on China's human rights lawyers deepens - 2011 (PDF)
    • Justice Denied: Harrassment of Sichuan Earthquake Survivors and Activists - May 2009 (PDF)
    • Death penalty report: China must end secrecy surrounding sentences and executions - 2009 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch
    • Tiger Chairs and Cell Bosses - Police Torture of Criminal Suspects in China - June 2015 (PDF)
    • An Alleyway in Hell": China's Abusive "Black Jails" - November 2009 (PDF)
    • "A Great Danger for Lawyer" New Regulatory Curbs on Lawyers Representing Protesters - December 2006 (PDF)
    • In Whose Interest: "State Security" in China's New Criminal Code - April 1997 (PDF)
    • Slamming the Door on Dissent: Wang Dan's Trial and the New "State Security" Era - November 1996 (PDF)
    • Organ Procurement and Judicial Execution in China - August 1994 (PDF)
  • Austrian Center for Country Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD)
    • Rule of Law and Administration of Justice - March 2014 (PDF)
    • Judicial system - Dec 2005 (PDF)
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • China: Crimes that are punishable by the death penalty - June 2009 (PDF)

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Law

  • The Constitution of the People's Republic of China (PDF)
  • Constitution - family planning, family, marriage - Article 25 (PDF)
  • Marriage Law - Article 1 (PDF)
  • Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on Revising the Adoption Law - Article 2 (PDF)
  • Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Administration of the Entry and Exit of Foreigners - Decree No. 637 of 2013 (PDF)
  • Law on the Protection of Women's Rights and Interests of the People's Republic of China (revised 2005) - December 2005 (PDF)
  • Religious Affairs Regulations - July 2004 (PDF)
  • Population and Family Planning Law of the People's Republic of China - 2002 (PDF)
  • Law of the People's Republic of China on Legislation - March 2000 (PDF)
  • Early Marriage and De Facto Marriage - March 1998 (PDF)
  • Criminal Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China - March 1996 (PDF)
  • People's Police Law of the People's Republic of China - February 1995 (PDF)
  • Prison Law of the People's Republic of China - December 1994 (PDF)
  • Provisions on the Administration of Religious Activities of Aliens within the Territory of the People's Republic of China - January 1994 (PDF)
  • State Security Law of the People's Republic of China - Feb. 1993 (PDF)
  • Law on protection for women's rights and interests - October 1992 (PDF)
  • Law on the Protection of Minors - January 1992 (PDF)
  • People's Republic of China Regional Ethnic Autonomy Law - October 1984 (PDF)
US Government Reports
  • Library of Congress - Law Library of Congress (LLOC)
    • China: Religion and Chinese law - June 2018 (PDF)
    • Family Reunification Laws in Selected Jurisdictions - July 2014 (PDF)
    • Bail in China - June 2013 (PDF)
  • Congressional Executive Commission on China - Development of the Rule of Law - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • CHN38652 - April 2011 (PDF)
      1. Are there any reported instances of selective enforcement of the PFP Law?
      2. Are there any reported instances of unduly harsh punishment for breaches of the PFP Law?
      3. Are Hebei Population and Family Planning implementation details (Promulgated 14 September 2004, Effective 1 November 2004) and Hebei Population and Family Planning Ordinance (Promulgated 18 July 2003, Effective 1 October 2003) still current?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • CHN104782.E - China: Whether citizens require an exit certificate to be issued by the Public Security Bureau in order to leave the country, including legislation (2013-February 2014) - February 2014 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Amnesty International
    • China: Submission to the NPC Standing Committee's Legislative Affairs Commission on the draft "Supervision Law" - Dec. 2017 (PDF)
    • China: Submission to the NPC Standing Committee's Legislative Affairs Commission on the Draft "National Intelligence Law" - June 2017 (PDF)
    • Bringing China's Criminal Procedure Law In Line With International Standards - March 2012 (PDF)
  • Austrian Center for Country Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD)

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Maps

Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Report - Map - Dec 2013 (PDF), October 2012 (PDF), August 2011 (PDF)
  • Austrian Center for Country Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    1. Please provide a map showing the location of Lingtou Village, Gangtou Town in Fuqing City. If practical, please locate the Gangtou Police Station on that map.
    • CHN37796 - December 2010 (PDF)
      1. Has there been marked population growth in Shenyang, especially the Hongling area, since 2006?
    • CHN37719 - Nov 2010 (PDF)
      1. Could you provide details of how far Fushun City and Shenyang are from each other and likely timeframe to travel from one to the other?
    • CHN36804 - July 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide as much detail about the village of Beizhongma and surrounding area (such as size, geographical details, significant landmarks or any other relevant information).
    • CHN36883 - June 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide maps and information on the location of the Beiwang village, Nanmeng Town, Gaocheng City in Hebei province, and also Wangjia village.
    • CHN36572 - April 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please indicate whether a railway line was built in Gongnong Village, Haixou Town, Fuqing City, Fuzhou.
    • CHN36488 - April 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide a map showing Liaoyang City, Gongzhuli city and Beijing.
    • CHN36374 - April 2010 (PDF)
      1. Guiyang City, Guizhou Province
        1.1. Please provide a general description of Guiyang and the city's population.
        1.2. What are the distinctive landmarks of the city of Guiyang?
        1.3. What is the distance between Guiyang and Fuqing City?
        1.4. How would you travel between the two cities?
      2. 5. Geography
        5.1. Where are the karst caves?
        5.2. What are the distinctive features of the karst caves?
        5.3. How far are the caves from Guiyang or from Miao villages?
    • CHN36335 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. Where is Kai Feng City? Are there any official Protestant churches in Kai Feng city?
    • CHN36230 - Feb 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please advise whether there a Dongcheng Street in Gaocheng City?
      2. Has urban development taken place there?
      3. What are the rules for compensation?
      4. Is the Shijiazhuang City Government the appropriate authority for this district?
      5. Can you find any reference to Property Development Headquarter Company of Gaocheng?

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Medical Availability

US Government Reports
  • Congressional Executive Commission on China Annual Report - Public Health -2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Report - Medical Issues - Dec 2013 (PDF), October 2012 (PDF), August 2011 (PDF), November 2010 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • CHN103205.E - Whether medical facilities issue certificates to women who have had an abortion, particularly in the province of Liaoning - August 2009 (PDF)
    • CHN103204.E - Information about how patient records are maintained in China, particularly in the province of Liaoning - July 2009 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Human Rights Watch Report
    • "My Children Have Been Poisoned" A Public Health Crisis in Four Chinese Provinces - June 2011 (PDF)
    • Restrictions on AIDS Activists in China - June 2005 (PDF)
    • Locked Doors: The Human Rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS in China - September 2003 (PDF)
    • Dangerous Minds: Political Psychiatry in China Today and its Origins in the Mao Era - August 2002 (PDF)
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center - RE: Any Information regarding the lack of medical care in China for people who suffer from Hepatitis B. - June 2010 (PDF)

Intergovernmental Organization Reports

  • World Health Organization Page

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Political Figures and Parties

US Government Reports Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Country Policy and Information Note
    • China: Opposition to the state - May 2018 (PDF)
    • China: Background information including actors of protection and internal relocation - Political system - March 2018 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - China: Opposition to the Chinese Communist Party - October 2015 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Report
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • Country Fact Sheet - Political Parties - July 2007
    • CHN100018.E - Reports from sources other than the Falun Gong and The Epoch Times, claiming that over one million members of the Communist Party of China have withdrawn since the publication of the "Nine Commentaries" (November 2004 - June 2005) - June 2005 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • CHN36460 - April 2010 (PDF)
      1. Do CCP members in the PRC receive documentation of their membership?
      2. Can and do CCP members join patriotic churches in the PRC? If it is not looked well upon in China, what kind of thing might happen?
      3. Does sacking from the CCP always come with some kind of additional repressive action or can people just be expelled?
      4. What are the penalties for travelling out of the PRC on false documents, if discovered?
      5. Upon return to the PRC, would a CCP member be penalised far more onerously than other citizens for having travelled out of the PRC on false documents? Would this be seen as betraying the CCP? Would the authorities simply warn him upon return, or would this be viewed more seriously due to their CCP membership?
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Austrian Center for Country Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD)
    • The political and legal system - Dec 2005 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch
    • "Nipped in the Bud": The Suppression of the China Democracy Party - 2000

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Refugees / IDPs

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Protection of Refugees - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF)
  • Congressional Executive Commission on China - Annual Report: North Korean Refugee in China - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF),  2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Report
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • Issues Paper - China: Internal Migration and the Floating Population - Sept 1998 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Austrian Center for Country Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD)
  • Human Rights Watch
    • Isolated in Yunnan: Kachin Refugees from Burma in China's Yunnan Province - June 2012 (PDF)

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Religion

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Freedom of Religion - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF)
  • State Department International Religious Freedom Report - 2016 (PDF),  2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), July - Dec. 2010 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF)
  • United States Commission on International Religious Freedom - Country of Particular Concern - 2017 (PDF),  2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF), 2008 (PDF), 2007 (PDF), 2006 (PDF)
  • Congressional Executive Commission on China Annual Report - Freedom of Religion - 2018 (PDF), 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF),  2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
  • Library of Congress - Law Library of Congress (LLOC)
    • China: Religion and Chinese law - June 2018 (PDF)
    • Penalties for Home Church Gatherings - July 2013 (PDF)
    • Christians in China - August 2012 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office - Country Information and Guidance -
  • UK Home Office Report
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • Background Paper - Protestants in China - March 2013 (PDF)
    • CHN38072 -  Feb 2011 (PDF)
      1. Are you able to provide up to date information on the treatment of Jehovah's Witnesses in the PRC?
    • CHN38003 - January 2011 (PDF)
      1. Please provide general information on the situation for Christian churches in Jilin.
    • CHN37989 - January 2011 (PDF)
      1. Please advise whether reports indicate that "compulsory re-education classes" or local "brainwashing" classes were utilised by the authorities in Fujian or China more broadly during the period 1988 - 2007 and whether there are any descriptions of such classes being run at schools, in particular as may apply to their discouragement of the Christian faith?
    • CHN37796 - December 2010 (PDF)
    1. How do the authorities in Shenyang City in Liaoning Province regard unofficial Christian churches, particularly small groups of up to 8 people?
    • CHN37779 - December 2010 (PDF)
      1. What is the current situation for house-church Christians in Fuqing particularly and Fujian province more generally?
      2. Are there any reports of house-Church Christians being ill-treated in Gangtou Town, Fuqing City or Fujian province?
      3. deleted
      4. What information is there about the ability of a house church Christian to relocate to another part of China?
    • CHN37032 - July 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on treatment of Roman Catholics in Fuqing, Fujian Province.

    • CHN36804 - July 2010 (PDF)
      1. Are there any official Catholic churches in the area?
      2. Is there any information about Bishop Zhiguo Jia and the Jinzhou Wuqiu Catholic Church?
    • CHN36882 - July 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please describe the conditions for Christians in Liaoning province in 2000 and currently.
      2. Please provide information on the treatment of Christians in labour camps. In particular, is brainwashing and torture a common feature of this experience?
    • CHN36767 - June 2010 (PDF)
      1. What is the attitude of authorities in Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, to Christians generally, and to evangelising Christians specifically?
    • CHN36815 - June 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide any information about the treatment of unregistered Catholic Church members (ordinary members, those considered leaders and members of the families of leaders) in Jilin Province and in particular Changchun City.
      2. Please provide any available information regarding any difficulties persons arrested/ detained in connection with unregistered Catholic Church activity may have obtaining:a) a passport in Jilin province;b) a police clearance certificate (issued by the Notary Public Office of Changchun City, Jilin Province and exiting China via Changchun airport).
    • CHN38003 - June 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide general information on the situation for Christian churches in Jilin
      2. Please provide any available information regarding any difficulties persons arrested/ detained in connection with unregistered Catholic Church activity may have obtaining:
        • a) a passport in Jilin province;
        • b) a police clearance certificate (issued by the Notary Public Office of Changchun City, Jilin Province and exiting China via Changchun airport).
    • CHN36804 - June 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the current treatment by authorities of house church members in Hebei province.
    • CHN36460 - April 2010 (PDF)
      1. Can and do CCP members join patriotic churches in the PRC? If it is not looked well upon in China, what kind of thing might happen?
    • HKG36187 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please give an update on the position of Christianity in Hong Kong.
    • CHN36199 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please advise whether Han Chinese Muslims or Converts to Islam are subject to ill-treatment/discrimination?
      2. Provide information on the situation of Muslims (especially Han Muslims) in Hangzhou - mosques, numbers, reports?
      3. What steps/preparations are necessary to convert to Islam (especially in Saudi Arabia)?
    • CHN36335 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. Where is Kai Feng City? Are there any official Protestant churches in Kai Feng city?
    • CHN36020 - January 2010 (PDF)
      • Christians in the PRC
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • CHN105840.E - China: Information on the Disciples Society [Association of Disciples, Mentu Hui], including the founder, history, beliefs, and areas of activity; treatment of members by authorities (2015-July 2017) - Oct 2017 (PDF)
    • CHN105966.E - China: Information on the Olive Tree Church in Beijing and in Foshan, Guangdong Province, including founders, history, beliefs and areas of activity; treatment of members by authorities (2013-July 2017) - October 2017 (PDF)
    • CHN104966.E - Treatment of "ordinary" Christian house church members by the Public Security Bureau (PSB), including treatment of children of house church members (2009-2014) - October 2014 (PDF)
    • CHN104970.E - Religious texts used by the Church of the Almighty God (Eastern Lightning) - October 2014 (PDF)
    • CHN104304.E - China: The Church of Almighty God, also known as "Eastern Lightning," including its history, beliefs, and where it is present; treatment of members by government authorities - March 2013 (PDF)
    • CHN104187.E - China: Monitoring of Chinese citizens who practice Falun Gong (Falun Dafa) outside of China; consequences upon return to China (2008-2012) - October 2012 (PDF)
    • CHN103501.E - Situation of Catholics and treatment by authorities, particularly in Fujian andGuangdong (2005 - 2010) - July 2010 (PDF)
    • CHN103500.E - Situation of Protestants and treatment by authorities, particularly in Fujian and Guangdong (2005 - May 2010) - June 2010 (PDF)
    • CHN103303.E - Reports of ill-treatment of Tian Dao (Yiguandao) religious practitioners - December 2009 (PDF)
    • CHN103256.E - Legal recourse available to unregistered (house) church members; reports of cases undertaken to protect the right to practise at an unregistered (house) church - November 2009 (PDF)
    • CHN103254.E - Doctrinal and denominational differences between registered and unregistered Protestant churches; whether members who practise in registered Protestant churches must pledge loyalty to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) - October 2009 (PDF)
    • CHN103255.E - Whether proselytizing is legal in China - October 2009 (PDF)
    • CHN102868.E - Treatment of children of members of underground Christian churches; whether children of members of underground Christian churches are subject to sanctions, including reduced access to education and to health care - June 2008 (PDF)
    • CHN102492.E - Reports of raids on Protestant house churches; frequency and location of raids (2005 - 2007) - June 2007 (PDF)
    • CHN102491.E - Treatment of "ordinary" Christian house church members by the Public Security Bureau (PSB) (2005 - 2007) - June 2007 (PDF)
    • CHN102493.E - Whether a person detained at an underground church meeting would have his or her name placed in the Public Security Bureau (PSB) database - May 2007 (PDF)
    • CHN102494.E - The Chinese Patriotic Church; whether the Chinese Patriotic Church pledges its loyalty to the Chinese Communist Party first as opposed to God or Jesus; differences between the Chinese Patriotic Church and the unregistered Christian churches - April 2007 (PDF)
    • CHN100386.E - China: Situation of Catholics and treatment by authorities, particularly in Fujian and Guangdong (2001-2005) - September 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN42909.E - Whether the Public Security Bureau or other authorities, when searching and seizing documents from persons who are wanted for illegal religious activity or other offences, would issue a receipt to the alleged offender detailing what materials have been seized (2000-September 2004) - September 2004 (PDF)
    • CHN42768.E - Whether affiliation with or membership in foreign churches, while abroad, is a violation of government policy; whether a Chinese national who practised a religion abroad (i.e. in Canada) could be accused of violating government policy in China and would therefore be subject to repercussions upon their return to China (2004) - August 2004 (PDF)
    • CHN41862.E - Whether the translated text of the Bible used in Patriotic churches differs in content from the English version (July 2002-November 2003) - November 2003 (PDF)
    • CHN33638 - Protestants and Protestantism in China; treatment of Protestants; relations between the registered Three Patriotic Self Movement (TPSM) churches and unregistered churches; differences between Protestant forms of worship in China and elsewhere; differences in practice between the TPSM churches and house churches; beliefs, practices, holidays and ceremonies; update to CHN33002.EX of 8 October 1999 regarding Christians in Fujian province - February 2000 (PDF)
    • CHN33598 - Catholic Church and Catholicism in China; treatment of Catholics; relations between the underground and open Churches; differences between Catholic worship in China and elsewhere; differences in practice between the underground Church and the open Church; beliefs, practices, holidays and ceremonies; update to CHN33002.EX of 8 October 1999 regarding Christians in Fujian province - January 2000 (PDF)
  • Non-Government Organizations
    • Austrian Center for Country Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD)
      • COI Compilation - Freedom of conscience and freedom religion - March 2014 (PDF)
      • Religious Freedom - Dec 2005 (PDF)
    • Human Rights Watch Report
    • Institute on Religion and Public Policy Report (PDF)
    • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center - China: Treatment of Christians, freedom of religion, treatment of Christian priests and their families - July 2009 (PDF)

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Falun Gong

US Government Reports
  • Congressional Research Service (CRS)
    • China and "Falun Gong" - Feb 2006 (PDF)
  • Congressional Executive Commission on China Annual Report - Falun Gong - 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Report - Falun Gong - Dec 2013 (PDF), August 2011 (PDF), November 2010 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • CHN37719 - Nov 2010 (PDF)
      1. Could you please provide an update of any reports of recent arrests in Fushun City or Shenyang of Falun Gong practitioners, particularly on 18 April or 22 April 2010.
      2. Can you provide any information about September parades in Toowoomba which might have Falun gong groups participating? ( eg. carnival of flowers?)
    • CHN37686 - Nov 2010 (PDF)
      1. How reliable are reports on the Clearwisdom website?
      2. How reliable are reports on the Ming Hui website?
      3. How do each of these websites source their articles? Is it possible for a person to post news about themselves on the website?
    • CHN37604 - Nov 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide an update of any press or other recent reporting (for example, on Falun Gong websites) since mid-2007 regarding Falun Gong in Hong Kong.?
    • CHN37025 - July 2010 (PDF)
      1. What is known about the organisational hierarchy of Falun Dafa, if there is one? Are there connections to the Buddhist Association in different areas? Do local groups have presidents or chairmen, who meet with Master Li?
      2. What is the connection of Falun Gong with Buddhism? At the highest level of Falun Gong practice, does the body obtain "Buddha nature"?
    • CHN36823 - July 2010 (PDF)
      1. Is there any country information regarding treatment by officials of those associated with Falun Gong practitioners in Dalian City/ Liaoning province, including:
        a) whether persons accused of harbouring Falun Gong practitioners are breaching a particular criminal/other law; and
        b) whether such persons are detained administratively or sentenced through an official process; and
        c) whether such persons would have a criminal record which may impact on their ability to leave China and/or obtain official documentation?
    • CHN36905 - June 2010 (PDF)
      1. Would a Falun Gong practitioner, who has been detained on several occasions between 2005 and 2009 for periods ranging between a few days and three months, be regarded as having a criminal record in China?
    • CHN36903 - June 2010 (PDF)
      1. Information available from Falun Gong itself, suggests there was absolutely no problem at a demonstration by Falun Gong practitioners in Beijing on 25 April 1999 - no violence and no arrests. Can you confirm?
      2. In November 2009, did big police vans pick people up off the street, at work, and subject them to a battery of tests, over a number of hours, in order to check out their organs - on the basis they were known Falun Gong practitioners in the past. The Kilgour/Matas claims, even if true, do not support this method of organ harvesting -they refer to Falun Gong people sentenced to death and various institutions. Any reliable reports of this type of police activity?
    • CHN36204 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. Are persons practising Falun Gong exercises in their home likely to be detained by the police?
      2. What are the processes followed for arresting a person involved in Falun Gong? What are they charged with and under what regulations are they required to make a court appearance?
      3. Is it possible for a bribe to take place for the release of a Falun Gong practitioner and for charges to not be recorded?
    • CHN36203 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the treatment of FG practitioners. Are there ongoing arrests, in what circumstances do these arrests take place and how are those arrested treated, how are those released from prison treated and how are their relatives treated by the Chinese authorities?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • CHN105635.E - China: Monitoring of Chinese citizens who practice Falun Gong (Falun Dafa) outside of China; consequences upon return to China (2013-September 2016) - October 2016 (PDF)
    • CHN105282.EChina: Treatment of Falun Gong practitioners by state authorities; whether state authorities treat Falun Gong leaders differently than other Falun Gong practitioners (2013-September 2015) - October 2015 (PDF)
    • CHN104580.E - China: Treatment of family members of Falun Gong practitioners by authorities; situation of persons who assist Falun Gong practitioners; the treatment of such persons if they deny knowledge of having assisted Falun Gong practitioners, agree to cease such assistance, or denounce Falun Gong (2010-September 2013) - October 2013 (PDF)
    • CHN104187.E - China: Monitoring of Chinese citizens who practice Falun Gong (Falun Dafa) outside of China; consequences upon return to China (2008-2012) - October 2012 (PDF)
    • CHN103769.E - Treatment of Falun Gong practitioners by state authorities; whether state authorities treat Falun Gong leaders differently than other Falun Gong practitioners (2006 - 2011) - June 2011 (PDF)
    • CHN102867.E - Treatment of children of Falun Gong practitioners; whether children of Falun Gong practitioners are subject to sanctions, including reduced access to education and to health care - June 2008 (PDF)
    • CHN102560.E - Treatment of family members of Falun Gong practitioners by the Chinese authorities; situation of persons who unwittingly or knowingly assist Falun Gong practitioners (e.g., by allowing use or rental of property, offices, office equipment, vehicles, etc.); the treatment of such persons if they deny knowledge of having assisted Falun Gong practitioners, agree to cease such assistance, or denounce Falung Gong - July 2007 (PDF)
    • CHN100726 - Situation of Falun Gong practitioners and treatment by state authorities (2001 - 2005) - October 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN100430.E -the situation of persons who unwittingly or knowingly assist Falun Gong practitioners by allowing use or rental of property, offices, office equipment, vehicles or other items; the treatment of such persons by state authorities if they deny knowledge of having assisted Falun Gong practitioners, agree to cease such assistance or denounce Falun Gong (2003-2005) - September 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN33255 - Falun Dafa (Falun Gong, Falungong) update; update to CHN33180.EX of 26 November 1999; update to CHN33002.EX of 8 October 1999 regarding Falun Dafa in Fujian province; existence of any documentation associated with Falun Dafa practice - December 1999 (PDF)
    • CHN33180 - Falun Dafa (Falun Gong, Falungong); history, details of practice, organizational structures; treatment of practitioners; laws and practice regarding other non-recognized practices and religions - November 1999 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Human Rights Watch
    • Dangerous Meditation: China's Campaign Against Falungong - 2002
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center
    • Information required on Falun Gong membership: Information on its activities, objectives, faith, rituals, leadership, membership, history and current situation in China. Information on the treatment of those who are members or are perceived to be members of the group by the government and/or society. Is there free movement within China, would a Falun Gong member experience any legal or practical problems moving within the country? Would police provide protection/services to a Falun Gong member experiencing problems due to his membership? Is membership of the group a criminal offence in China? Is there any information available, on the treatment of Falun Gong members who have returned to China? - July 2009 (PDF)

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Sexual Orientation

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Sexual Orientation - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF),  2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF)
  • RIC Report
    • China: Information on Treatment of Homosexuals - March 2001 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Report - Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender persons - August 2011 (PDF), November 2010 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • CHN104301.E - China: Treatment of sexual minorities in Guangdong Province, including state protection and support services (2011-February 2013) - Feb 2014
    • CHN104302.E - China: Situation and treatment of sexual minorities, particularly in Guangdong and Fujian; state protection and support services (2011-February 2013) - Oct. 2013 (PDF)
    • CHN100544.E - The situation and treatment of homosexuals (2003 - 2005) - September 2005 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Human Rights Watch Profile - “Have You Considered Your Parents’ Happiness?” Conversion Therapy Against LGBT People in China - Nov. 2017 (PDF)
  • Austrian Center for Country Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD) - COI Compilation - Treatment of LGBTI persons - March 2014 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Armed Conflict

Non-Government Organizational Reports
  • International Crisis Group
    • Stirring up the south China Sea - April 2012 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Tibet

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Tibet - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF)
  • State Department International Religious Freedom Report - 2009 (PDF)
  • Congressional Executive Commission on China
    • Annual Report - Tibet - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
    • Special Report: Tibetan Self-Immolation - Rising Frequency, Wider Spread, Greater Diversity - Aug 2012 (PDF)
    • Special Report: Tibetan Monastic Self-Immolations Appear To Correlate With Increasing Repression of Freedom of Religion - Dec 2011 (PDF)
    • CECC Special Topic Paper: Tibet 2008 - 2009 - Oct 2009 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Report
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • CHN38618 - May 2011 (PDF)
      1. What is the current treatment of Tibetan lama in China?
      2. What is the treatment of Tibetan lama returning to China?
      3. i) Is there information to indicate that the passports of overseas Tibetan lama are not being re-issued? ii) Is there information to indicate that the Chinese government is restricting travel of Tibetan lama or tracking them on their return to China?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • ZZZ105134.E - India, Nepal, and China: Return of Tibetans from India and Nepal to China, including treatment of Tibetan returnees by Chinese authorities; return of Tibetans from China to Nepal and India (2013-April 2015) - May 2015 (PDF)
    • CHN104827.E - Ability of ethnic Tibetans who are Chinese citizens to obtain passports from inside of China and from embassies abroad (August 2013-September 2013) - March 2014 (PDF)
    • CHN101133.E - The "Green Book" issued to Tibetans; how it is obtained and maintained, and whether holders enjoy rights equivalent to Indian citizenship - April 2006 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • CORI Report
    • China (Tibet) - Treatment of Tibetans holding anti-China views, consequences for Tibetans leaving illegally, restrictions on Tibetans practicing Buddhism - June 2009 (PDF)
  • Freedom House
  • Human Rights Watch Report
    • “Illegal Organizations” China’s Crackdown on Tibetan Social Groups - July 2018 (PDF)
    • Relentless: Detention and Prosecution of Tibetans Under China’s Stability Maintenance” Campaign - May 2016 (PDF)
    • One Passport, Two Systems - China’s Restrictions on Foreign Travel by Tibetans and Others - July 2015 (PDF)
    • "I Saw It with My Own Eyes" Abuses by Chinese Security Forces in Tibet, 2008-2010 - July 2010 (PDF)
    • China's Forbidden Zones: Shutting the Media out of Tibet and Other "Sensitive" Stories - July 2008 (PDF)
    • China and Tibet: Profiles of Tibetan Exiles - 1999
  • World Directory of Minorities - Tibetans profile (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Hong Kong

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Hong Kong - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF), 2000 (PDF), 1999 (PDF), 1998 (PDF), 1997 (PDF), 1996 (PDF)
  • State Department International Religious Freedom Report -  2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), July - Dec. 2010 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF)
  • State Department Trafficking in Persons Report - Hong Kong - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF)
  • Congressional Executive Commission on China
  • Library of Congress - Law Library of Congress (LLOC)
    • Family Reunification Laws in Selected Jurisdictions - July 2014 (PDF)
  • US Congressional Research Service - Prospects for Democracy in Hong Kong: Results of the 2012 Elections - Sept 2012 (PDF)

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Report - Oct 2012 (PDF), August 2011 (PDF), November 2010 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • CHN105571.E - China: Whether flights between mainland China and Hong Kong or Macau are considered by authorities to be international flights (2014-August 2016) - Aug. 2016 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports


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Specific Country Issues - Fujian Province

Foreign Government Reports
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • Background Paper - Protestants in China - Situation of Protestants in Fujian Province - March 2013 (PDF)
    • CHN38129 - February 2011 (PDF) Please advise on the following questions in relation to an unmarried couple from Fuqing, Fujian Province, who had their first child (only) while the father was underage and have subsequently had a second child overseas.
      1. What is the penalty for the first child?
      2. What is the penalty for the second child?
      3. Could the parents get valid passports in Australia on the basis of ID documents only?
      4. If the parents marry now, could they avoid the social compensation fee for the first child?
    • CHN38219 - February 2011 (PDF)
      1. Is there such a place as Dalian island in Fujian province?
      2. Is there any country information that the people who live on Dalian Island are all Christians who belong to underground Christian churches?
      3. Is there any country information that from 2008 underground Christian churches on that island were demolished for the purpose of real estate development or for any purpose?
      4. Is there any country information that the underground church in Yuxian village was demolished in December 2009?
      5. Are there any official Chinese Christian churches on that island?
      6. How does the Chinese government treat Christians in underground churches on that island? Are they able to practice their religion?
    • CHN38077 - January 2011 (PDF)
      1. If the family returned to China, what fines would family planning officials impose on the parents for the three children born in Australia? (Fuijian)
    • CHN37989 - January 2011 (PDF)
      1. Please advise whether reports indicate that "compulsory re-education classes" or local "brainwashing" classes were utilised by the authorities in Fujian or China more broadly during the period 1988 - 2007 and whether there are any descriptions of such classes being run at schools, in particular as may apply to their discouragement of the Christian faith?
    • CHN37863 - December 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please comment on the application of the one-child policy in Fuqing, and in Shanghai prior to 2001 and currently.
        One-Child Policy in Shanghai prior to 2001
        Current One-Child Policy in Shanghai
        One-Child Policy in Fujian
      2. Please advise of any known groups or individuals operating in Fuqing or Shanghai in relation to protesting the one child policy or assisting women who were victim to it.
      3. Please comment on the probability that a person being able to legally depart China from Fujian province, who had been subject to family planning penalties and had actively protested against the one-child policy and assisted its victims.
    • CHN37814 - November 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please advise whether there have been any significant changes in the treatment of the Christian Assembly church since 2007. (Fuijian)
    • CHN37494 - October 2010 (PDF)
      1. What is known of the treatment of house church Christians in Jiangyin Town, Fuqing City, as compared with reports of the attitude of authorities to unregistered Christian worship in Fujian generally?
      2. Is "Mother's Day" celebrated in China and was it on 9 May this year? Could the writers mean a day in the church calendar such as Mothering Sunday?
      3. What is known about the checking of mail sent to China from overseas?
    • CHN37463 - October 2010 (PDF)
      1. Would someone wanted by the PSB or "border protection police" in one part of Fujian be able to be issued with a seafarer's passport by a different government agency in Fujian through bribery or connections with that agency?
      2. Does the fact that someone could get a seafarer's passport mean that they are of no interest to Chinese authorities?
      3. Is there a 'border protection police' in Pingtan County, Fujian Province?
    • CHN37475 - October 2010 (PDF)
      1. How difficult is it for a young woman to move to another province in China?
      2. What is the situation in Fujian at the present moment in relation to Local Church worshippers' Are they able to practise freely?
    • CHN37198 - September 2010 (PDF)
      1. According to Article 10 of The Population and Family Planning Regulations of Fujian Province 2002, rural couples can request permission to have a second child if their first child is a daughter. Article 13 of the Regulations states that there must be a time span of four years between two children. If the couple are rural, the first child is a daughter and there is a 4 year plus gap between the first and second child, is it possible that a social compensation fee would not be imposed for the second child upon return to China?
      2. If a couple are overseas must they seek prior approval to have a second child?
      3. Previous DFAT advice states that provincial family planning fines apply to Chinese nationals who have children overseas and then return to Fujian. Previous advice indicates that there are two circumstances in which couples returning to Fujian are exempt from family planning fees for an unauthorised second child, couples who have travelled overseas for study and Overseas students. Can you confirm that this advice is still accurate for Fujian province and China more generally?
      4. Are social compensation fees strictly implemented in relation to families returning to Fujian with additional children born overseas?
    • CHN37238 - September 2010 (PDF)
      1. Is it difficult to be admitted into a Fujian University? If a family had come to the attention of the Public Security Bureau (PSB), could that affect their members? ability to enrol at the university?
    • CHN37490 - September 2010 (PDF)
      1. Is there any information on the treatment of petitioners who protest against inadequate land compensation?
      2. Please provide background as to the law regarding compulsory acquisition of land in Fujian.
    • CHN36825 - June 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide an outline of how the family planning laws worked in Fujian province in 1998 (including how fines are calculated, applied, and any special rules applying where the first child is a girl). Is there a family planning policy allowing a couple to have another child within 5 years if the first born child is a girl?
      2. Please provide any information about women in Fujian in 1998 being forcibly sterilised on the basis of having two female children born two years apart.
      3. Please provide any information available about the authorities' response to/ treatment of victims of domestic violence in Fujian province.
    • CHN36714 - May 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information about the forced sterilisation of women who have had one child and become pregnant again in Fuqing, Fujian, China.
      2. Are such women forced to terminate their pregnancies?
      3. Do they have alternatives to termination e.g. payment of fine?
      4. What is the name of the organisation that oversees the one child policy in Fuqing?
      5. On a local level (Shang Jin Village, Shang Jing Town) what body oversees the one child policy?
      6. Is there information about the notices requiring sterilisation? Is there information about the contents of such a notice and the form it takes?
      7. Is there information about what happens to women who do not comply with a tubal ligation requirement?
    • CHN36489 - April 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide a map with the location of Kemen Village, Donghan.
      2. Provide information on the construction/route of the Yuxi'Pingtan highway.
      3. Please provide information on compensation for land expropriation in China. Is the process corrupt? What is the government doing to ensure fair compensation for land users?
      4. Are people detained for complaining about compensation or appealing to higher levels of government?
      5. Do police protect people from violence from money lenders?
    • CHN36515 - April 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide comprehensive information on the treatment of Catholics in Fujian province.
      2. Please provide comprehensive information on the treatment of Catholics in Fuqing and Fuzhou.
    • CHN36171 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. Is there any information indicating that local or provincial government land projects in the Fuqing City area have disrupted sea-farming operations or livelihoods?
      1. What is the process of appeal against such actions by the local government?
      2. Is there any information regarding corruption of officials in Fuqing City and Fujian province?
      3. Which department of the national government in Beijing would be the appropriate avenue for appeal?
      4. What happens to whistleblowers?
      5. Are there other examples of people in Fuqing City being detained or threatened with imprisonment for appealing to government authorities for compensation over lost business? What charges are commonly levelled against such people by the Court and to what sort of sentence might they be subjected?
      6. Are there any consequences for members of their family?
    • CHN36060 - February 2010 (PDF)
      1. Are children who are born out of wedlock and have gained household registration subject to discrimination or harm in China? If so, what is the nature of the discrimination and harm and is state protection available (both legally and in practice) in such circumstances?
      2. Can you provide any advice on societal attitudes in China towards children born out of wedlock?
      3. Can you provide any advice on the treatment of children born out of wedlock in Fujian province?
      4. Would a child born out of wedlock face societal discrimination if the parents were to stay together in a de facto relationship or were to marry at a future date?
      5. Would a woman face any risk of harm in China for having a child out of wedlock (beyond payment of the social compensation fee)?
      6. Is this situation different for a woman who has a child out of wedlock but remains in a relationship with the father of the child?
      7. Could any harm be mitigated by marriage subsequent to the birth of the child?
    • CHN36250 - February 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on forced abortion in Fujian Province.
    • CHN36164 - February 2010 (PDF)
      1. Are there any reports on the petitioning or demonstrating by citizens against local/district level government corruption in Putian or Fujian, and treatment of them by police and the authorities? Please provide information on what may happen more generally in China to such people.
      2. Are petitioners/demonstrators against government corruption detained for around 15 days for disturbing public order? If so, what are circumstances surrounding such detention?
      3. What are the repercussions for someone who fails to report to police as required by a formal order?
    • CHN36011 - January 2010 (PDF)
      1. How is the social compensation fee calculated for unmarried couples from Fuqing City (in Fujian Province) whose child is born outside of China?
      2. What impact does the failure to register a child have on the child (eg. access to services)? What would the cost of private services be?
      3. Is the child likely to face any social/state discrimination/ harm on the basis of being born outside China or out of wedlock, even if his parents pay a social compensation fee to have him registered? If so, what type of harm/ discrimination is he likely to face?
      4. What forms of discrimination or harm is a child born out of wedlock likely to face in Fuqing City, including social and state sanctioned discrimination.
    • CHN36072 - January 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please advise any details known about typhoons affecting Pingtan Town, Fujian Province in 2000 and in 2004, and any information about damage to oyster farms and relief given to persons affected by the typhoons.
      2. Please advise any information known about unregistered churches in Pingtan Town, Fujian Province in 2004 and 2005 and the attitude of the local government towards persons attending these churches.
    • CHN36020 - January 2010 (PDF)
      • Christians in Fujian Province
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • CHN104884.E - Instances when the Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issues a Fujian certificate of vaccination to "black children" (children born outside the family planning policy) and whether the certificate would have a "Child No." written on it (2013-May 2014) - May 2014 (PDF)
    • CHN104868.E - Cases of people sentenced to "re-education through labour" in Fujian, including cities and types of labour; whether authorities in Fujian seize or cancel documents such as hukou or driver's licenses of people sentenced to re-education; actions taken by authorities to track down someone who escaped from re-education, including issuing a chuanpiao (2013) - May 2014 (PDF)
    • CHN104189.E - Estimates of the number of Christians, particularly in the provinces of Fujian, Guangdong and Liaoning - October 2012 (PDF)
    • CHN103502.E - Family planning laws, enforcement and exceptions; reports of forced abortions or sterilization of men and women particularily in the provinces of Guangdong and Fujian (2007 - May 2010) - July 2010 (PDF)
    • CHN103500.E - Situation of Protestants and treatment by authorities, particularly in Fujian and Guangdong (2005 - May 2010) - June 2010 (PDF)
    • CHN103135.E - treatment of pregnant, unmarried women by state authorities, particularly in Guangdong and Fujian; whether unmarried women are obliged to undergo pregnancy tests by family planning officials (2005 - April 2009) - June 2009 (PDF)
    • CHN100386.E - China: Situation of Catholics and treatment by authorities, particularly in Fujian and Guangdong (2001-2005) - September 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN100387.E - Situation of Protestants and treatment by authorities, particularly in Fujian and Guangdong (2001-2005) - September 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN43165.E - Any reports of forced abortions and forced sterilization within the regions of Guangzhou (Guangdong Province) and Fuzhou (Fujian Province) covered by the urban hukou ; any reports of an easing or a tightening of family planning regulations since 2002 (2002-2005) - Feb 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN43031.E - Information on the 2002 family planning regulations for the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong, including their impact on married and unmarried women, on couples returning from overseas, and on rural families in Guangdong who are now subject to a single hukou classification system; copies of the regulations (2002-2004) - February 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN43017.E - Whether a resident of Fujian province has the ability to move elsewhere in the province without taking out a temporary resident permit (November 2004) - November 2004 (PDF)
    • CHN33638 - Protestants and Protestantism in China; treatment of Protestants; relations between the registered Three Patriotic Self Movement (TPSM) churches and unregistered churches; differences between Protestant forms of worship in China and elsewhere; differences in practice between the TPSM churches and house churches; beliefs, practices, holidays and ceremonies; update to CHN33002.EX of 8 October 1999 regarding Christians in Fujian province - February 2000 (PDF)
    • CHN33035 - Update to various aspects of family and family planning law and policy, particularly as it affects Fujian province - October 1999 (PDF)
    • CHN33002 - Freedom of religious practice and belief in Fujian province - October 1999 (PDF)
    • CHN32869 - Treatment of illegal emigrants repatriated to Fujian province; legal provisions for sanctions; actual practice - September 1999 (PDF)
    • CHN32917 - Treatment of returnees to Fujian by organized crime groups involved in illegal emigration (snakeheads) including whether they extort or threaten returnees; whether illegal emigrants use loan sharks to pay snakeheads' fees and, if so, whether loan sharks extort or threaten returnees - September 1999 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Treatment of Returnees

US Government Reports Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Country Policy and Information Note  - China: Fear of punishment for crimes for which the person was already charged in another country (‘Double jeopardy’ or re-prosecution) - May 2018 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Report - Treatment of Returnees - August 2011 (PDF), November 2010 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • CHN105635.E - China: Monitoring of Chinese citizens who practice Falun Gong (Falun Dafa) outside of China; consequences upon return to China (2013-September 2016) - October 2016 (PDF)
    • CHN100385.E - Penalties faced by couples returning from overseas who are in violation of family planning regulations (2001-2005) - Aug 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN43520.E - The possibility for an adult male returning from overseas, who was abused as a child by his father in China, to relocate to a new residence of his own and obtain a new hukou , or to move to another city to start working, if his father objects to either move (2003-2005) - May 2005 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • CHN36418 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the treatment of overseas Chinese who return to the PRC, with a view to whether such treatment may amount to serious harm.

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Austrian Center for Country Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD) - COI Compilation - Monitoring of Chinese asylum -seekers abroad and treatment of failed asylum seeker upon return - March 2014 (PDF)
  • Ireland Refugee Documentation Center -
    • Information regarding any problems faced by failed asylum seekers upon their return to China. Is there an increased risk for members of the Uighur ethnic group? - Dec 2010 (PDF)
    • Information relating to the arrests of Chinese nationals retuning to China from a foreign country who have breached the one child policy while living in a foreign country. How do the Chinese authorities treat Chinese nationals returning to China who have breached the one child policy while in a foreign country? - November 2010 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Coercive Population Control

US Government Reports
  • Congressional Executive Commission on China Annual Report - Population Planning - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
  • RIC Report
    • Family Planning: What is the policy regarding a Chinese couple with two children, one from the husband's previous marriage and one from the wife's previous marriage? - Oct 1998 (PDF)
    • Family Planning Policy and Practice in the People's Republic of China - March 1995 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Report - Family Planning (One Child Policy) - Dec 2013 (PDF), October 2012 (PDF), August 2011 (PDF), November 2010 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • CHN38652 - April 2011 (PDF)
      1. Are there any reported instances of selective enforcement of the PFP Law?
      2. Are there any reported instances of unduly harsh punishment for breaches of the PFP Law?
      3. Are Hebei Population and Family Planning implementation details (Promulgated 14 September 2004, Effective 1 November 2004) and Hebei Population and Family Planning Ordinance (Promulgated 18 July 2003, Effective 1 October 2003) still current?
    • CHN38303 - March 2011 (PDF)
      1. What would the approximate fine be for each child born in breach of the Hebei Family Planning laws?
      2. Is there any country information regarding the imposition of any other form of penalty in Hebei in addition to the fines or in the event that the fines could not be paid (such as forced sterilization)?
      3. Could any applicable fines be paid in instalments?
    • CHN38059 - February 2011 (PDF)
      1. Are there any reports of forced tubal ligation of a mother following the birth of one child in Hebei? Do the relevant family planning regulations raise this possibility?
      2. What fee would be payable in Hebei to register a first child born out of wedlock?
      3. Could such a fee be paid in instalments and over a period of time?
      4. Is there usually a committee in regard to local family planning issues or is one person in charge? Would there be any official interest in preventing a corrupt family planning official blackmailing parents to either pay more or forcing tubal ligation? How could such a corrupt official be reported?
    • CHN37998 - January 2011 (PDF)
      1. Please provide an outline of how the family planning laws are applied in Henan Province in 2010, including forced abortions, any special rules applying where the first child is a girl, and whether fines are applied.
      2. How often are maternity checks undertaken in Henan province?
      3. Please provide any information available about women who have already had a female child being subjected to forcible abortions during maternity check-ups or otherwise.
      4. Would the forced abortion be the only 'consequence' of the second pregnancy or would there be an additional consequence of 'forced sterilisation'? If so, to which party is the forced sterilisation normally applied?
      5. What would be the likelihood of the authorities pursuing a wife for forced sterilisation once her husband had left the country?
      6. Are there any 'centralised' records kept on people who are wanted by the local authorities for outstanding sterilisation procedures? If so, would a husband find it difficult to leave the country?
    • CHN37863 - December 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please comment on the application of the one-child policy in Fuqing, and in Shanghai prior to 2001 and currently.
        One-Child Policy in Shanghai prior to 2001
        Current One-Child Policy in Shanghai
        One-Child Policy in Fujian
      2. Please advise of any known groups or individuals operating in Fuqing or Shanghai in relation to protesting the one child policy or assisting women who were victim to it.
      3. Please comment on the probability that a person being able to legally depart China from Fujian province, who had been subject to family planning penalties and had actively protested against the one-child policy and assisted its victims.
    • CHN36267 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. Has the one child policy been relaxed in the Guangdong Province?
      2. If the child's parents return to their village what is the likely fee (fine) they will have to pay to obtain a hukou for the child?
      3. Is the child able to obtain Chinese citizenship?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • CHN105981.E - China: Effects of the implementation of the new Family Planning Policy on ethnic minorities and children born outside the country, including access to social services and benefits, in Guangdong, Fujian, and Hebei; whether the previous Family Planning Policy is being applied retroactively to those who have violated the policy, including in Guangdong, Fujian, and Hebei (October 2015-August 2017) - Oct 2017 (PDF)
    • CHN105499.E - China: Implementation of family planning policy changes permitting two children announced 29 October 2015 (November 2015-April 2016) - May 2016 (PDF)
    • CHN105359.E - China: Family planning policy changes permitting two children, announced 29 October 2015 (October 2015) - October 2015 (PDF)
    • CHN105281.E - China: Family planning-related documents issued by the family planning authorities and/or hospitals in Guangdong Province, including whether authorities issue reports detailing abortions, sterilizations, and/or implantations of IUDs (intrauterine devices); whether the family planning authorities issue a "Birth Control Service Card"; whether the family planning authorities issue written notices to appear for sterilization and/or receipts for family planning violation fines; format and contents of documents (2010-2015) - September 2015 (PDF)
    • CHN104963.E - Family planning laws, enforcement and exceptions, particularly in the provinces of Guangdong and Fujian; reports of forced sterilization of men and women; consequences to officials who force women to have an abortion; whether family planning authorities interact with the Public Security Bureau in enforcing their decisions (October 2012-September 2014) - October 2014 (PDF)
    • CHN104953.E - The 2009 and 2014 versions of the Regulations of Guangdong Province on Population and Family Planning - Sept 2014 (PDF)
    • CHN104185.E- Family planning laws, enforcement and exceptions in the provinces of Guangdong and Fujian; reports of forced abortions or sterilization of men and women; consequences to officials who force women to have an abortion; whether family planning authorities interact with the Public Security Bureau in enforcing their decisions (2010-September 2012) - October 2012 (PDF)
    • CHN103502.E - Family planning laws, enforcement and exceptions; reports of forced abortions or sterilization of men and women particularily in the provinces of Guangdong and Fujian (2007 - May 2010) - July 2010 (PDF)
    • CHN103176.E - whether men are under threat of sterilization due to family planning policies - July 2009 (PDF)
    • CHN102495.E - Whether forced abortions or sterilizations are still occuring; prevalence and location of forced abortions or sterilizations; reports of forced sterilization of men (2005 - 2007) - May 2007 (PDF)
    • CHN100627.E - Reports of forced abortions or sterilization in the province of Liaoning, including information about the circumstances surrounding any that may have taken place (2003 - 2005) - October 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN43165.E - Any reports of forced abortions and forced sterilization within the regions of Guangzhou (Guangdong Province) and Fuzhou (Fujian Province) covered by the urban hukou ; any reports of an easing or a tightening of family planning regulations since 2002 (2002-2005) - Feb 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN43367.E - Whether an "injection" was used for sterilization or contraception purposes among women in 1992; methods of sterilization and contraception prevalent in Guangdong in 1992; if applicable, on what part of the body injections were administered - Feb 2005 (PDF)
    • CHN33035 - Update to various aspects of family and family planning law and policy, particularly as it affects Fujian province - October 1999 (PDF)
    • Issue Paper -CHINA One-Child Policy - June 1999 (PDF)
    • Issue Paper -CHINA One-Child Policy - January 1995 (PDF)

Non Government Organization Reports

  • Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD) - COI Compilation - Family planning/one-child policy - March 2014 (PDF)
Law
  • Population and Family Planning Law of the People's Republic of China - 2002 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Political Prisoners

US Government Report

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Speech / Press / Internet

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Freedom Speech and Press - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF),  2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF),  2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF)
  • Congressional Research Service (CRS)
    • China, Internet Freedom, and U.S. Policy - June 2012 (PDF)
    • China, Internet Freedom, and U.S. Policy - July 2012 (PDF)
  • Congressional Executive Commission on China Annual Report - Freedom of Expression - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - China: Journalists - March 2016 (PDF)
  • UK Home Office Report - Freedom of Speech and Media - October 2012 (PDF), August 2011 (PDF), November2010 (PDF)
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • CHN36158 - February 2009 (PDF)
      1. Is there a newspaper in circulation called Northern Weekend?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs) -
    • CHN104762.E - China: The Public Security Bureau (PSB) Golden Shield Project, including implementation and effectiveness; Policenet, including areas of operation; level and effectiveness of information sharing by the authorities (2010- February 2014) - March 2014 (PDF)
    • CHN101060.E - Internet censorship, including state regulations, technical control, enforcement, and methods used to avoid censorship (2005 - 2006) - March 2006 (PDF)
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD)
    • COI Compilation - Freedom of expression, association and assembly - March 2014 (PDF)
    • COI Compilation - Freedom of media - March 2014 (PDF)
  • Freedom House

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Timeline

Foreign Government Report Media

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Trafficking

US Government Reports Foreign Government Reports

Intergovernmental Organization Reports

  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime - Global Report on Trafficking in Persons - Eastern Europe and Central Asia - 2016 (PDF)

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Terrorism

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Terrorism - 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF)

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Torture

US Government Reports
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF), 2009 (PDF)
Foreign Government Reports
  • Austrailian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • CHN36882 - July 2010 (PDF)
      • Please describe the conditions for Christians in Liaoning province in 2000 and currently.
      • Please provide information on the treatment of Christians in labour camps. In particular, is brainwashing and torture a common feature of this experience?
Non-Government Organization Reports
  • Human Rights Watch
  • "Special Measures" - Detention and Torture in the Chinese Communist Party's Shuanggui System - Dec. 2016 (PDF)
  • Tiger Chairs and Cell Bosses - Police Torture of Criminal Suspects in China - June 2015 (PDF)

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Updated August 3, 2018

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