Syrian Arab Republic

Citizenship and Country Documents

US Government Reports

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report
  • Australian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • SYR37688 - Nov. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on whether someone who claims to have been arrested as an opponent of the ruling regime in Syria would be expected to experience difficulties or delays in obtaining a Syrian passport.
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SYR105970.E - Syria: Requirements and procedures to obtain, renew, and replace passports and national identity cards, including in Canada and in neighbouring countries; information and details contained in each document, including physical characteristics – Sept. 2017 (PDF)
    • SYR105232.E - Requirements and procedures to obtain, renew, and replace passports and national identity cards; information and details contained in each document, including physical characteristics - August 2015 (PDF)
    • SYR104767.E - Exit controls and procedures at Damascus International Airport, including whether a foreigner's passport is stamped upon departure; whether airport authorities verify upon departure if a foreigner entered the country legally; consequences if entrance was illegal - January 2014 (PDF)
    • ZZZ104636.FE - Procedure for Syrians of Armenian origin to obtain Armenian citizenship from other countries, such as Canada - October 2013 (PDF)
    • SYR104510.E - Passport renewal options, requirements and procedures for Syrians living abroad, specifically those living in Canada and Greece - July 2013 (PDF)
    • SYR104456.E - Procedures to obtain, renew and replace national identity cards and passports; information contained in the passport and the identity card - July 2013 (PDF)
    • SYR104421.E - Requirements and procedures to obtain a passport from abroad, specifically for a Syrian citizen living in Jordan as a temporary resident; information contained in the passport - May 2013 (PDF)
    • ZZZ103297.E - Lebanon and Syria: Documents required by Syrians to reside and/or work in Lebanon; whether Syrians residing in Lebanon are required to return periodically to Syria to meet residency requirements of either Lebanese or Syrian authorities - October 2009 (PDF)
    • SYR102526.E - Syria: Follow-up to SYR102397 of 8 March 2007 on the procedures to obtain, renew and replace a passport; information contained in the passport - May 2007 (PDF)
    • SYR102398.E - Syria: Procedures to obtain, renew and replace a national identity card - April 2007 (PDF)
    • SYR102397.E - Syria: Procedures to obtain, renew and replace a passport; information contained in the passport - March 2007 (PDF)

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Children

US Government Reports

  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Children - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report - Children - September 2013 (PDF)
  • Coalition to stop the use of Child Soldiers - Child Soldiers Global Report - 2008 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch Profiles
    • “Maybe We Live and Maybe We Die” - Recruitment and Use of Children by Armed Groups in Syria - June 2014 (PDF)

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Corruption

US Government Reports

  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Corruption and Lack of Transparency in Government - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report - Corruption - September 2013 (PDF)
  • Australian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • SYR37688 - Nov. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the level of corruption in Syria and whether there are any reports of prisoners paying large bribes to secure their release from prison in Syria.
    • SYR33787 - Oct. 2008 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the extent of corruption within the government and the prevalence of bribery amongst government officials and bureaucrats in conducting citizens’ day to day affairs.
      2. How plausible are claims to the effect that, despite being the subject of a Travel ban, a person could obtain passports in 2006 and 2007, change the entry for their profession in the more recent passport, remove their name from a “black list” and leave the country via an international airport through the payment of bribes?

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Disabilities

US Government Reports

  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Disabilities - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report - Disability - September 2013 (PDF)

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Elections

US Government Reports

  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Elections - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports


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Ethnic Groups / Race

US Government Reports

  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - National/Racial/Ethnic Minorities - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
  • USCIS RIC Report - Master Exhibit Series - Syria - Persecution of Syrian (PDF)

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report - Ethnic Groups - September 2013 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Minority Rights Group International - State of the World's Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Alawis

Foreign Government Reports

  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SYR104429.E - The situation of Shias and Alawites, including treatment by authorities and insurgents; whether insurgents consider Shias and Alawites to be loyal to President al-Assad - June 2013 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • World Directory of Minorities - Alawis (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Christians, Armenians and Assyrians

Non-Government Organization Reports


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Ethnic Groups / Race - Druze

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • World Directory of Minorities - Druze (PDF)

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Ethnic Groups / Race - Isma'ili Shias

Non-Government Organization Reports


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Ethnic Groups / Race - Jews

US Government Reports


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Ethnic Groups / Race - Palestinians

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report - Palestinians - September 2013 (PDF)
  • Australian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • SYR33579Sept. 2008 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the situation of Palestinians in Syria?
      2. Please provide information on the “Palestinian Liberation Army” in Syria, including history, structure, objective, command and control. Is it part of the Syrian army?
      3. Is serving in the Palestinian Liberation Army compulsory for Palestinians in Syria? Are members or former members required to fight alongside the Syrian army in case of any armed conflict? What would be the likely punishment imposed upon deserters or those who refuse to fight?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SYR104658.E - The legal rights and obligations of a Palestinian who has been issued a Syrian travel document, including whether they must report for military service; whether the rights and obligations apply to Palestinians that have resided outside of the country for the majority of their life and only visited it briefly - November 2013 (PDF)
    • SYR104441.E - Situation of stateless Palestinians, including those in camps; whether they are being targeted by the government or rebel groups; information on the Yarmouk camp - July 2013 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports


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Ethnic Groups / Race - Kurds

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report - Kurds - September 2013 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SYR104167.FE - the situation of Kurds, including their treatment by the authorities since the start of the uprising - August 2012 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service
    • Kurds, Honour-killings and Illegal Departure - May 2007 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Human Rights Watch Profiles
    • Under Kurdish Rule - Abuses in PYD-run Enclaves of Syria - June 2014 (PDF)
    • The Silenced Kurds - Oct. 1996 (PDF)
  • World Directory of Minorities - Kurds (PDF)

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Gender

US Government Reports

  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Women - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report - Women - September 2013 (PDF)
  • Australian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • SYR34639 - May 2009 (PDF)
      1. Would a Syrian woman, whose spouse and children are not Syrian nationals and who have never entered Syria, be allowed under Syrian law to sponsor them to Syria?
      2. Is a Syrian woman’s right to sponsor her family to Syria, and to live with the spouse/children in Syria for as long as desired, less than the right afforded to Syrian men with foreign spouses? Is there discrimination against Syrian women that might result in their being separated from their foreign spouse/children?
    • SYR31333 - Feb. 2007 (PDF)
      1. If possible, could you also tell me approximately what proportion of university students in Syria is female?
      2. Do Sunnis form the majority of the university student population?
    • SYR31060 - Jan. 2007 (PDF)
      1. Is sexual harassment of women a widespread problem in Syria, and do the police generally provide protection to women who report incidents of sexual harassment or assault? (See Sexual Orientation) Do “Westernised” women in Syria face any serious discrimination?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SYR103487.E - Syria: State protection and recourse available to a person who is receiving death threats, in particular a woman not in the context of domestic violence - May 2010 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Freedom House
    • Womens Rights in the Middle East and North America - Syria - 2010 (PDF)

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Human Rights

US Government Reports

  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices -  2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)

Foreign Government Organization Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report - Human Rights - September 2013 (PDF)
  • Australian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • SYR37688 - Nov. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the interrogation methods used by security police and agencies in Syria. Do they use “rubber tyre torture”?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SYR104425.E - Frequency of abductions and extortion of civilians committed by rebel groups; rebel groups particularly involved in these acts and their areas of operation in the country; whether rebel groups target a particular social group, including Christians - May 2013 (PDF)
    • SYR103487.E - State protection and recourse available to a persons who is receiving death threats, in particular a woman not in the context of domestic volence - May 2010 (PDF)
    • ZZZ103298.E - Lebanon and Syria: Whether Syrian intelligence infiltrates or surveys Syrians living in Lebanon - Nov. 2009 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International - 2018 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF)
  • Amnesty International
    • “War of Annihilation” Devastating Toll on Civilians, Raqqa-Syria – June 2018 (PDF)
    • "Civilian Objects Were Not Damaged": Russia's Statements on its Attacks in Syria Unmasked - December 2015 (PDF)
    • Indiscriminate attacks terrorize and displace civilians - Sept. 2012 (PDF)
    • All-out Repression - Purging Dissent In Aleppo, Syria - Aug. 2012 (PDF)
    • Crackdown in Syria: Terror in Tell Kalakh - July 2011 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Services
    • Human rights issues concerning Kurds in Syria - March 2010 (PDF)
  • Freedom House -20172016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF)
  • Freedom House
    • Worst of the Worst - The World’s Most Repressive Societies - Syria - 2012 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch - 2018 (PDF), 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch Profiles
    • If the Dead Could Speak: Mass Deaths and Torture in Syria's Detention Facilities - December 2015 (PDF)
    • Torture Archipelago - Arbitrary Arrests, Torture, and Enforced Disappearances in Syria’s Underground Prisons since March 2011 - July 2012 (PDF)
    • In Cold Blood - Summary Executions by Syrian Security Forces and Pro-Government Militias - April 2012 (PDF)
    • By All Means Necessary - Individual and Command Responsibility for Crimes against Humanity in Syria - Dec. 2011 (PDF)
    • We Live as in War - Crackdown on Protesters in the Governorate of Homs - Nov. 2011 (PDF)
    • We’ve Never Seen Such Horror - Crimes against Humanity by Syrian Security Forces - June 2011 (PDF)
    • A Wasted Decade - Human Rights in Syria during Bashar al-Asad’s First Ten Years in Power - July 2010 (PDF)
    • No Room To Breath - State Repression of Human Rights Activism in Syria - Oct. 2007 (PDF)

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Justice System

US Government Reports

  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Arbitrary Arrest or Detention - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report - Judiciary - September 2013 (PDF)
  • Australian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • SYR37688 - Nov. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Is there any information on whether Mr Abdul Halim Khaddam was declared a traitor, and that he wanted to cooperate with the Americans?
      1. Please provide information on whether someone who claims to have been arrested as an opponent of the ruling regime in Syria would be expected to experience difficulties or delays in obtaining a Syrian passport.

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International
    • "Torture Was My Punishment" - Abductions, Torture and Summary Killings Under Armed Group Rule in Aleppo and Idleb, Syria - July 2016 (PDF)
    • Deadly Detention - Deaths In custody amid popular protest In Syria - Aug. 2011 (PDF)
    • Your Son Is Not Here - Disappearances From Syria’s Saydnaya Military Prison - July 2010 (PDF)
  • International Crisis Group
    • Flight of Icarus? The PYD’s Precarious Rise in Syria - May 2014 (PDF)
    • Blurring the Borders: Syrian Spillover Risks for Turkey - April 2013 (PDF)
    • Syria’s Phase of Radicalisation - April 2012 (PDF)

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Law

Foreign Government Reports

  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SYR102394.E - Syria: Divorce and custody laws that apply to Christians; validity in Syria of a divorce granted in Canada – March 2007 (PDF)

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Maps

Foreign Government Reports

  • Australian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal

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Medical Availability

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report - Medical Issues - September 2013 (PDF)

International Government Organization Reports

  • World Health Organization Page - Syria (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International
    • Health Crisis - Syrian Government Target's the Wounded and Health Workers - Oct. 2011 (PDF)

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Political Figures and Parties

US Government Reports

  • CIA - Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Governments - Syria (PDF)
  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Elections and Political Parties - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
  • Congressional Research Service Reports
    • Unrest in Syria and U.S. Sanctions Against the Asad Regime - Sept. 2011 (PDF)
    • U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues - July 2006 (PDF)
    • U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues - Feb. 2005 (PDF)
    • Political Conditions and Relations with the United States After the Iraq War - Feb. 2005 (PDF)

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report
  • Australian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • SYR38180 - Feb. 2011 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on Taher Ahmed el-Asaad, the party or group he represents, and the government's attitude to his associates
    • SYR37688 - Nov. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide some background information on the demographics, economics and politics of Syria.
      2. Please provide information on “Palestine Camp” in Damascus. Please provide information on “Rukneddin” in Damascus
      3. Please provide information on Mr Abdul Halim Khaddam. Please provide information on Mr Khaddam’s politics, his portfolio and any controversies he may have been associated with.
      4. Did Mr Abdul Halim Khaddam quit the Baath party or was he dismissed? What were the circumstances of his defection/dismissal and were there controversies associated with that?
      5. Was Mr Abdul Halim Khaddam dismissed from the Party because he was the only Sunni Muslim?
      6. Is there any information on whether Mr Abdul Halim Khaddam was declared a traitor, and that he wanted to cooperate with the Americans?
      7. Please provide information on the “Political Intelligence” or other security or intelligence agencies in Syria, including their political activities and whether they extend to harassment, detention, and torture of suspected political opponents.
      8. Please provide information on measures taken by the Syrian government to prevent political opponents or people it suspects support the opposition from leaving Syria.
    • SYR36679 - June 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the Social National Syrian Party – aims, objectives, formation, leaders in 2007 and around that time, and any information on the way it was viewed by the Syrian government in 2006/2007 and the way any members are currently viewed.
      2. Please provide information on Abdel Halim Khadam.
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SYR42939.E - Syria: Pro-Palestinian group known as the General Command Militia or the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC); its connection to Syrian authorities; relations between Syrian authorities and other pro-Palestinian militant organizations in Syria (2002-2004) – Sept. 2004 (PDF)
    • ZZZ42700.FE - Lebanon/Syrian Arab Republic: Treatment of Palestinian supporters or suspected supporters of Yasser Arafat's Fatah movement by the Lebanese and Syrian authorities (including their secret services) in Lebanon - May 2004 (PDF)
    • SYR41953.E - Syria: Labour Party of Syria - Sept. 2003 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD)
    • Syria: Treatment of former members of the Iraqi Ba'ath party on return to Syria;treatment of children of political opponents of the regime on return after exile - July 2009 (PDF)

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Refugees

US Government Reports

  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Protection of Refugees - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report - Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) - September 2013 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SYR102798.E - Description of the Refugee Certificate issued by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Syria in 2007 - April 2008 (PDF)

International Government Organization Reports

  • UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) -  International Protection Considerations with regard to people fleeing the Syrian Arab Republic, Update III - October 2014

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International
    • 'We Leave or We Die' - Forced Displacement Under Syria's 'reconciliation' Agreements – Nov. 2017 (PDF)
    • "I want a safe place" Refugee women from Syria uprooted and unprotected in Lebanon - Feburary 2016 (PDF)
    • Refugee and Asylum Seekers - 2014 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch Profiles
    • "I Just Wanted to be Treated like a Person" - How Lebanon's Residency Rules Facilitate Abuste of Syrian Refugees - February 2016 (PDF)
  • Internal Displacement Monitoring Center
    • Global Overview - 2012 (PDF)

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Religion

US Government Reports

  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Freedom of Religion - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
  • State Department International Religious Freedom Report - Syria - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
  • Congressional Research Service
    • The Islamic State and U.S. Policy - December 2015 (PDF)
    • Implications for Religious Minorities - July 2014 (PDF)
  • US Commission on International Religious Freedom - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF)
  • USCIS RIC Report
  • The Law Library of Congress - Syria: Treatment of Religious Minoriteis - August 2016 (PDF)

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report - Freedom of Religion - September 2013 (PDF)
  • Australian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • SYR37688 - Nov. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the present status and circumstances of Sunni Muslims in Syria.
    • SYR36307 - March 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the number, status, activities and profile of Catholics in Syria
      2. Please provide information on the attitude of the authorities towards Catholics in Syria. Is there any evidence to suggest that Catholics are being mistreated, prevented from practising their religion or denied access to services, in particular those engaged in proselytisation?
      3. Please provide information on the attitude of Islamists and/or Islamic groups towards Christians and Catholics, in particular those engaged in proselytisation.
    • SYR33192 - April 2008 (PDF)
      1. The establishment, evolution, ideology, leadership and structure of Ikhwan-ul-Moslemin in Syria.
    • SYR31060 - Jan. 2007 (PDF)
      1. Basic beliefs of Sunni Moslems (in Syria, if they differ in some basic way from beliefs of other Sunnis) – a brief summary.
      2. Are converts to Christianity able to go to church freely in Syria? Are they subjected to any serious discrimination or harm?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SYR105972.E - Syria: Information on the opposition forces involved in abductions and extortions and their areas of operation in the country; frequency of abductions and extortions of civilians committed by rebel groups; whether rebel groups target particular social groups, including Christians – Sept. 2017 (PDF)
    • SYR105230.E - Situation of atheists or individuals who are perceived to be atheists; treatment by society and authorities; state protection available - August 2015 (PDF)
    • SYR105229.E - The situation of Christians, including whether Christians are perceived to be loyal to President Assad; treatment of Christians by the regime and the opposition forces, including incidents of violence against them; state protection - August 2015 (PDF)
    • SYR104649.E - Situation of Jehovah's Witnesses, including treatment by society and authorities; state protection available in cases of discrimination or mistreatment - November 2013 (PDF)
    • ZZZ104593.E - Beliefs and practices of Coptic Christians in Egypt and Syriac Orthodox Christians in Syria, including sacraments, holy days, symbols and official documents; history and structure of the Coptic Church and Syriac Church, including leadership - October 2013 (PDF)
    • SYR104429.E - The situation of Shias and Alawites, including treatment by authorities and insurgents; whether insurgents consider Shias and Alawites to be loyal to President al-Assad - June 2013 (PDF)
    • SYR104275.FE - The situation of Christians, including acts of violence against them; positions held by Christians in President al-Assad’s regime - January 2013 (PDF)
    • SYR104132.E - Situation and treatment of Christians since March 2011; whether insurgents perceive Christians to be loyal to President Assad; treatment of Christians by insurgents in Homs - June 2012 (PDF)
    • SYR43574.FE - Syrian Arab Republic: Treatment of Jehovah's Witnesses by the authorities and society in general, and protection offered (2005) - Nov. 2005 (PDF)
    • SYR43576.FE - Syrian Arab Republic: Treatment of Christians by the authorities and by society, and protection offered (2005) - Nov. 2005 (PDF)
    • SYR42693.FE - Syrian Arab Republic: Forced marriages in Christian families; state protection available – May 2004 (PDF)
    • SYR42112.FE - Syrian Arab Republic: The treatment of Jehovah Witnesses and their right to practice their religion – Oct. 2003 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports


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Sexual Orientation

US Government Reports

  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Sexual Orientation - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report - Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity- September 2013 (PDF)
  • Australian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • SYR31060 - Jan. 2007 (PDF)
      1. Is sexual harassment of women a widespread problem in Syria, and do the police generally provide protection to women who report incidents of sexual harassment or assault?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SYR102393.E - Syria: Treatment of homosexuals by society and government authorities; legal recourse and protection available to homosexuals who have been subject to ill-treatment (2000 - 2006) - March 2007 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD)
    • Syria: Treatment and human rights situation of homosexuals: Legal provisions concerning homosexual activity; social treatment of homosexuals (including the issue of ‘honour killings) - May 2009 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Armed Conflict

US Government Reports

  • Congressional Research Service Report
    • Unrest in Syria and U.S. Sanctions Against the Asad Regime - Nov. 2011 (PDF), Sept. 2011 (PDF)

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance
    • Syria: Security and Humanitarian Situation - December 2014 (PDF)
    • Country of Information (COI) Report - Security Situation - September 2013 (PDF)
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SYR105972.E - Syria: Information on the opposition forces involved in abductions and extortions and their areas of operation in the country; frequency of abductions and extortions of civilians committed by rebel groups; whether rebel groups target particular social groups, including Christians – Sept. 2017 (PDF)
    • SYR105231.E - Information on the opposition forces involved in abductions and extortions and their areas of operation in the country; frequency of abductions and extortion of civilians committed by rebel groups; whether rebel groups target particular social groups, including Christians - August 2015 (PDF)
  • Danish Immigration Service
    • Recruitment Practices in Government-controlled Areas and in Areas under Opposition Control, Involvement of Public Servants and Civilians in the Armed Conflict and Issues Related to Exiting Syria - May 2017 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty International
    • "I Won't Forget This Carnage" Civilians Trapped In Battle for Raqqa - Aug. 2017 (PDF)
    • Indiscriminate attacks terrorize and displace civilians - Sept. 2012 (PDF)
    • All-out Repression - Purging Dissent In Aleppo, Syria - Aug. 2012 (PDF)
    • Deadly Reprisals - Deliberate Killings and other Abuses by Syria’s Armed Forces - June 2012 (PDF)
    • Crackdown in Syria: Terror in Tell Kalakh - July 2011 (PDF)
    • Your Son Is Not Here - Disappearances From Syria’s Saydnaya Military Prison - July 2010 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch - 2018 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch Profiles
    • All Feasible Precautions? Civilian Casualties in Anti-ISIS Coalition Airstrikes in Syria - Sept 2017 (PDF)
    • Death by Chemicals - The Syrian Government’s Widespread and Systematic Use of Chemical Weapons - May 2017 (PDF)
    • "He Didn't Have to Die" Indiscriminate Attacks by Opposition Groups in Syria - March 2015 (PDF)
    • We are Still Here - July 2014 (PDF)
    • Death from the Skies - April 2013 (PDF)
  • International Crisis Group
    • Syria’s Mutating Conflict - Aug. 2012 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Freedom of Movement

Foreign Government Reports

  • Australian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • SYR37688 - Nov. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on whether opponents of the governing regime in Syria would be likely to be permitted entry to Jordan and general information on the procedure for the entry of Syrian nationals to Jordan.
    • SYR33192 - April 2008 (PDF)
      1. Exit procedures, security controls and the likelihood of a Syrian national suspected of anti-government activities being able to depart Syria for Cyprus (in 1998) and Lebanon (in 2004), particularly if the national in question has been previously detained.
  • Danish Immigration Service
    • Kurds, Honour-killings and Illegal Departure - May 2007 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Military Service

Foreign Government Reports

  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SYR105971.E - Syria: Changes to legal exemptions from compulsory military service, including implementation – Sept. 2017 (PDF)
    • SYR104921.E - Compulsory military service, including age of recruitment, length of service; occasions where proof of military service status is required; whether the government can recall individuals who have already completed their compulsory military service; penalties for evasion - August 2014 (PDF)
    • SYR102396.E - Syria: Procedures followed by government authorities for calling a person to military service, including the documents that are issued and the name of the government offices involved - April 2007 (PDF)
    • SYR102395.E - Syria: Compulsory military service, including age limit for performing service; penalties for evasion; occasions where proof of military service status is required; whether the government can recall individuals who have already completed their compulsory military service - March 2007 (PDF)
    • SYR43111.E - Syria: Update to SYR33173.FE of 23 December 1999 on the age limit for performing military service – Nov. 2004 (PDF)
    • SYR42262.E - Syria: Procedures followed by government authorities for calling a person to military service, including the documents that are issued and the name of the government offices/authorities involved - Dec. 2003 (PDF)
    • SYR42261.E - Syria: Eligibility criteria for obtaining the amnesty from military service issued in October 2002; whether this amnesty can be applied to a person who had previously failed to complete his military service; the procedure for obtaining this amnesty – Dec. 2003 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Treatment of Returnees

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report - Returnees - September 2013 (PDF)
  • Australian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • SYR33787 - Oct. 2008 (PDF)
      1. What is the treatment vetted against those who depart Syria illegally and are then deported back to Syria? Would this treatment be different if a deportee was related to someone who was formerly detained for being involved in the Muslim Brotherhood?
      2. How strictly are travel bans enforced in Syria in terms of departure? What punishments are typically imposed on those who attempt departure in defiance of travel bans?
      3. What penalties or sanctions are imposed on those who return to Syria after travelling in breach of travel bans? How strictly are these penalties enforced?
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SYR105361.E - Treatment of returnees upon arrival at Damascus International Airport and international land border crossing points, including failed refugee claimants, people who exited the country illegally, and people who have not completed military service; factors affecting treatment, including age, ethnicity and religion - January 2016 (PDF)
    • SYR102807.E - Syria: The Syrian government's attitude towards, and its treatment of, citizens who have made refugee or asylum claims, particularly when the claim was made in Canada or the United States (US) - May 2008 (PDF)
    • SYR42016.E - Syria: Update to SYR20080.E of 4 April 1995 on the Syrian government's attitude towards, and its treatment of, citizens who have made refugee or asylum claims, particularly when the claim was made in Canada or the United States – Sept. 2003 (PDF)

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Specific Country Issues - Muslim Brotherhood

Foreign Government Reports

  • Australian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • SYR33192 - April 2008 (PDF)
      1. The current estimated number of members, activities, influence, areas of operation and geographical concentration of Muslim Brotherhood in Syria.
      2. The treatment of members or suspected members in the 1990’s and beyond, including the seriousness with which the authorities view any association with the organisation.
      3. Any demonstration or civil unrest in Hasaka in the last 10 years and the government’s response.

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Speech / Press / Internet

US Government Reports

  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Freedom of Speech and Press - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report - Freedom of Speech and Media - September 2013 (PDF)
  • Australian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • SYR37688 - Nov. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the level of political freedom and freedom of speech in Syria.
  • Canada Responses to Information Requests (RIRs)
    • SYR104276.FE - Situation of bloggers (Internet) in Syria and their treatment by the authorities - January 2013 (PDF)

Non-Government Organization Reports


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Timeline

Media


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Trafficking

US Government Reports

  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Trafficking in Persons - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)
  • Trafficking in Persons Report - Syria - 2018 (PDF), 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF), 2010 (PDF)

Foreign Government Reports

  • UK Home Office Country Information and Guidance - Country of Information (COI) Report - Trafficking - September 2013 (PDF)

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Terrorism

US Government Reports

  • State Department Country Reports on Terrorism - 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF)

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Torture

US Government Reports

  • State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment - 2017 (PDF), 2016 (PDF), 2015 (PDF), 2014 (PDF), 2013 (PDF), 2012 (PDF), 2011 (PDF)

Foreign Government Organization Reports

  • Australian Migration Review Tribunal - Refugee Review Tribunal
    • SYR37688 - Nov. 2010 (PDF)
      1. Please provide information on the interrogation methods used by security police and agencies in Syria. Do they use “rubber tyre torture”?
    • SYR37688 - Nov. 2010 (PDF)
    1. Please provide information on the “Political Intelligence” or other security or intelligence agencies in Syria, including their political activities and whether they extend to harassment, detention, and torture of suspected political opponents.

Non-Government Organization Reports

  • Amnesty Interational -
    • Human Slaughterhouse: Mass Hangings and Extermination at Saydnaya Prison, Syria – Feb. 2017 (PDF)
    • "Torture Was My Punishment" - Abductions, Torture and Summary Killings Under Armed Group Rule in Aleppo and Idleb, Syria - July 2016 (PDF)
  • Human Rights Watch Profiles
    • If the Dead Could Speak: Mass Deaths and Torture in Syria's Detention Facilities - December 2015 (PDF)
    • Torture Archipelago - Arbitrary Arrests, Torture, and Enforced Disappearances in Syria’s Underground Prisons since March 2011 - July 2012 (PDF)

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Updated July 24, 2018

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