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Competition And Monopoly: Single-Firm Conduct Under Section 2 Of The Sherman Act : Table Of Authorities

Update: Justice Department Withdraws Report on Antitrust Monopoly Law (05/11/2009)

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A.A. Poultry Farms, Inc. v. Rose Acre Farms, Inc., 881 F.2d 1396 (7th Cir. 1989)

AD/SAT v. Associated Press, 181 F.3d 216 (2d Cir. 1999)

Advo, Inc. v. Philadelphia Newspapers, Inc., 51 F.3d 1191 (3d Cir. 1995)

American Council of Certified Podiatric Physicians & Surgeons v. American Board of Podiatric Surgery, Inc., 185 F.3d 606 (6th Cir. 1999)

American Tobacco Co. v. United States, 328 U.S. 781 (1946)

Appalachian Coals, Inc. v. United States, 288 U.S. 344 (1933)

Arthur S. Langenderfer, Inc. v. S.E. Johnson Co., 729 F.2d 1050 (6th Cir. 1984)

Aspen Highlands Skiing Corp. v. Aspen Skiing Co., 738 F.2d 1509 (10th Cir. 1984), aff'd, 472 U.S. 585 (1985)

Aspen Skiing Co. v. Aspen Highlands Skiing Corp., 472 U.S. 585 (1985)

Associated General Contractors v. California State Council of Carpenters, 459 U.S. 519 (1983)

Associated Press v. United States, 326 U.S. 1 (1945)

Bacchus Industries, Inc. v. Arvin Industries, Inc., 939 F.2d 887 (10th Cir. 1991)

Bailey v. Allgas, Inc., 284 F.3d 1237 (11th Cir. 2002)

Ball Memorial Hospital, Inc. v. Mutual Hospital Insurance, Inc., 784 F.2d 1325 (7th Cir. 1986)

Barry Wright Corp. v. ITT Grinnell Corp., 724 F.2d 227 (1st Cir. 1983)

Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly, 127 S. Ct. 1955 (2007)

In re Biovail Corp., 134 F.T.C. 407 (2002)

Blue Cross & Blue Shield United of Wisconsin v. Marshfield Clinic, 65 F.3d 1406 (7th Cir. 1995)

Borough of Lansdale v. Philadelphia Electric Co., 692 F.2d 307 (3d Cir. 1982)

In re Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., 135 F.T.C. 444 (2003)

Broadcast Music, Inc. v. CBS, 441 U.S. 1 (1979)

Broadcom Corp. v. Qualcomm Inc., 501 F.3d 297 (3d Cir. 2007)

Broadway Delivery Corp. v. UPS, 651 F.2d 122 (2d Cir. 1981)

Brooke Group Ltd. v. Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp., 509 U.S. 209 (1993)

In re Brown Shoe Co., 62 F.T.C. 679 (1963)

Brown Shoe Co. v. United States, 370 U.S. 294 (1962)

Brunswick Corp. v. Pueblo Bowl-O-Mat, Inc., 429 U.S. 477 (1977)

Business Electronics v. Sharp Electronics Corp., 485 U.S. 717 (1988)

Cargill, Inc. v. Monfort of Colorado, Inc., 479 U.S. 104 (1986)

Cascade Health Solutions v. PeaceHealth, 515 F.3d 883 (9th Cir. 2008)

Colorado Interstate Gas Co. v. Natural Gas Pipeline Co. of America, 885 F.2d 683 (10th Cir. 1989)

Concord Boat Corp. v. Brunswick Corp., 207 F.3d 1039 (8th Cir. 2000)

Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians v. Weyerhaeuser Co., 411 F.3d 1030 (9th Cir. 2005), vacated and remanded sub nom. Weyerhaeuser Co. v. Ross-Simmons Hardwood Lumber Co., 127 S. Ct. 1069 (2007)

Continental T. V., Inc. v. GTE Sylvania Inc., 433 U.S. 36 (1977)

Conwood Co. v. U.S. Tobacco Co., 290 F.3d 768 (6th Cir. 2002)

Copperweld Corp. v. Independence Tube Corp., 467 U.S. 752 (1984)

Covad Communications Co. v. Bell Atlantic Corp., 398 F.3d 666 (D.C. Cir. 2005)

Data General Corp. v. Grumman Systems Support Corp., 36 F.3d 1147 (1st Cir. 1994)

Deauville Corp. v. Federated Department Stores, Inc., 756 F.2d 1183 (5th Cir. 1985)

Digital Equipment Corp. v. Uniq Digital Technologies, Inc., 73 F.3d 756 (7th Cir. 1996)

Domed Stadium Hotel, Inc. v. Holiday Inns, Inc., 732 F.2d 480 (5th Cir. 1984)

Eastman Kodak Co. v. Image Technical Services, Inc., 504 U.S. 451 (1992)

Eastman Kodak Co. v. Southern Photo Materials Co., 273 U.S. 359 (1927)

Exxon Corp. v. Berwick Bay Real Estate Partners, 748 F.2d 937 (5th Cir. 1984) (per curiam)

F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. v. Empagran S. A., 542 U.S. 155 (2004)

Fishman v. Estate of Wirtz, 807 F.2d 520 (7th Cir. 1986)

Ford Motor Co. v. United States, 405 U.S. 562 (1972)

Fortner Enterprises, Inc. v. U.S. Steel Corp., 394 U.S. 495 (1969)

FTC v. Brown Shoe Co., 384 U.S. 316 (1966)

FTC v. Indiana Federation of Dentists, 476 U.S. 447 (1986)

FTC v. Mylan Laboratories, Inc., 62 F. Supp. 2d 25 (D.D.C.), modified, 99 F. Supp. 2d 1 (D.D.C. 1999)

General Industries Corp. v. Hartz Mountain Corp., 810 F.2d 795 (8th Cir. 1987)

Georgia v. Evans, 316 U.S. 159 (1942)

Goldwasser v. Ameritech Corp., 222 F.3d 390 (7th Cir. 2000)

Harrison Aire, Inc. v. Aerostar International, Inc., 423 F.3d 374 (3d Cir. 2005)

Hartford-Empire Co. v. United States, 323 U.S. 386 (1945)

Hayden Publishing Co. v. Cox Broadcasting Corp., 730 F.2d 64 (2d Cir. 1984)

Hecht v. Pro-Football, Inc., 570 F.2d 982 (D.C. Cir. 1977)

Hilton v. Guyot, 159 U.S. 113 (1895)

IBM v. United States, 298 U.S. 131 (1936)

Illinois Tool Works Inc. v. Independent Ink, Inc., 547 U.S. 28 (2006)

Image Technical Services, Inc. v. Eastman Kodak Co., 125 F.3d 1195 (9th Cir. 1997)

In re Independent Service Organizations Antitrust Litigation, 203 F.3d 1322 (Fed. Cir. 2000)

Information Resources, Inc. v. Dun & Bradstreet Corp., 359 F. Supp. 2d 307 (S.D.N.Y. 2004)

Interface Group, Inc. v. Massachusetts Port Authority, 816 F.2d 9 (1st Cir. 1987)

International Salt Co. v. United States, 332 U.S. 392 (1947)

Invacare Corp. v. Respironics, Inc., No. 1:04 CV 1580, 2006 WL 3022968 (N.D. Ohio Oct. 23, 2006)

Jack Walters & Sons Corp. v. Morton Building, Inc., 737 F.2d 698 (7th Cir. 1984)

J.B.D.L. Corp. v. Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Nos. 1:01­CV­704, 1:03­CV­781, 2005 WL 1396940 (S.D. Ohio June 13, 2005), aff'd, 485 F.3d 880 (6th Cir. 2007)

Jefferson Parish Hospital District No. 2 v. Hyde, 466 U.S. 2 (1984)

Jerrold Electronics Corp. v. United States, 365 U.S. 567 (1961) (mem.) (per curiam)

Kelco Disposal, Inc. v. Browning-Ferris Industries of Vermont, Inc., 845 F.2d 404 (2d Cir. 1988), aff'd, 492 U.S. 257 (1989)

Klamath-Lake Pharmaceutical Association v. Klamath Medical Service Bureau, 701 F.2d 1276 (9th Cir. 1983)

Laker Airways Ltd. v. Sabena, Belgian World Airlines, 731 F.2d 909 (D.C. Cir. 1984)

Leegin Creative Leather Products, Inc. v. PSKS, Inc., 127 S. Ct. 2705 (2007)

LePage's Inc. v. 3M, 324 F.3d 141 (3d Cir. 2003) (en banc)

Lorain Journal Co. v. United States, 342 U.S. 143 (1951)

Mandeville Island Farms, Inc. v. American Crystal Sugar Co., 334 U.S. 219 (1948)

Maryland & Virginia Milk Producers Association v. United States, 362 U.S. 458 (1960)

Masimo Corp. v. Tyco Health Care Group, L.P., No. CV 02­4770 MRP, 2006 WL 1236666 (C.D. Cal. Mar. 22, 2006)

Massachusetts v. Microsoft Corp., 373 F.3d 1199 (D.C. Cir. 2004) (en banc)

Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. v. Zenith Radio Corp., 475 U.S. 574 (1986)

McGahee v. Northern Propane Gas Co., 858 F.2d 1487 (11th Cir. 1988)

MCI Communications Corp. v. AT&T, 708 F.2d 1081 (7th Cir. 1983)

MetroNet Services Corp. v. Qwest Corp., 383 F.3d 1124 (9th Cir. 2004)

Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co. v. Appleton Papers Inc., 35 F. Supp. 2d 1138 (D. Minn. 1999)

Morris Communications Corp. v. PGA Tour, Inc, 364 F.3d 1288 (11th Cir. 2004)

Movie 1 & 2 v. United Artists Communications, Inc., 909 F.2d 1245 (9th Cir. 1990)

Multistate Legal Studies, Inc. v. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Legal & Professional Publications, Inc., 63 F.3d 1540 (10th Cir. 1995)

National Society of Professional Engineers v. United States, 435 U.S. 679 (1978)

NCAA v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma, 468 U.S. 85 (1984)

Neumann v. Reinforced Earth Co., 786 F.2d 424 (D.C. Cir. 1986)

New York v. Microsoft Corp., 224 F. Supp. 2d 76 (D.D.C. 2002), aff'd sub nom. Massachusetts v. Microsoft Corp., 373 F.3d 1199 (D.C. Cir. 2004) (en banc)

NLRB v. Express Publishing Co., 312 U.S. 426 (1941)

Northeastern Telephone Co. v. AT&T, 651 F.2d 76 (2d Cir. 1981)

Northern Pacific Railway Co. v. United States, 356 U.S. 1 (1958)

NYNEX Corp. v. Discon, Inc., 525 U.S. 128 (1998)

Olympia Equipment Leasing Co. v. Western Union Telegraph Co., 797 F.2d 370 (7th Cir. 1986)

Omega Environmental, Inc. v. Gilbarco, Inc., 127 F.3d 1157 (9th Cir. 1997)

Ortho Diagnostic Systems, Inc. v. Abbott Laboratories, Inc., 920 F. Supp. 455 (S.D.N.Y. 1996)

Otter Tail Power Co. v. United States, 410 U.S. 366 (1973)

Pacific Engineering & Production Co. of Nevada v. Kerr-McGee Corp., 551 F.2d 790 (10th Cir. 1977)

PepsiCo, Inc. v. Coca-Cola Co., 315 F.3d 101 (2d Cir. 2002) (per curiam)

Rebel Oil Co. v. Atlantic Richfield Co., 51 F.3d 1421 (9th Cir. 1995)

Re/Max International, Inc. v. Realty One, Inc., 173 F.3d 995 (6th Cir. 1999)

Response of Carolina, Inc. v. Leasco Response, Inc., 537 F.2d 1307 (5th Cir. 1976)

Roland Machinery Co. v. Dresser Industries, Inc., 749 F.2d 380 (7th Cir. 1984)

Rothery Storage & Van Co. v. Atlas Van Lines, Inc., 792 F.2d 210 (D.C. Cir. 1986)

Schor v. Abbott Laboratories, 457 F.3d 608 (7th Cir. 2006)

SmithKline Corp. v. Eli Lilly & Co., 427 F. Supp. 1089 (E.D. Pa. 1976), aff'd, 575 F.2d 1056 (3d Cir. 1978)

Spectrum Sports, Inc. v. McQuillan, 506 U.S. 447 (1993)

Spirit Airlines, Inc. v. Northwest Airlines, Inc., 431 F.3d 917 (6th Cir. 2005)

Spirit Airlines, Inc. v. Northwest Airlines, Inc., No. 00-71535, 2003 WL 24197742 (E.D. Mich. Mar. 31, 2003), rev'd, 431 F.3d 917 (6th Cir. 2005)

Standard Fashion Co. v. Magrane-Houston Co., 258 U.S. 346 (1922)

Standard Oil Co. of California v. United States (Standard Stations), 337 U.S. 293 (1949)

Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States, 221 U.S. 1 (1911)

State of Illinois ex rel. Burris v. Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Co., 935 F.2d 1469 (7th Cir. 1991)

State Oil Co. v. Kahn, 522 U.S. 3 (1997)

Stearns Airport Equipment Co. v. FMC Corp., 170 F.3d 518 (5th Cir. 1999)

Stop & Shop Supermarket Co. v. Blue Cross & Blue Shield of Rhode Island, 373 F.3d 57 (1st Cir. 2004)

Sunshine Books, Ltd. v. Temple Univ., 697 F.2d 90 (3rd Cir. 1982)

Swift & Co. v. United States, 196 U.S. 375 (1905)

Tampa Electric Co. v. Nashville Coal Co., 365 U.S. 320 (1961)

Times-Picayune Publishing Co. v. United States, 345 U.S. 594 (1953)

Tops Markets, Inc. v. Quality Markets, Inc., 142 F.3d 90 (2d Cir. 1998)

Town of Concord v. Boston Edison Co., 915 F.2d 17 (1st Cir. 1990)

Transamerica Computer Co. v. IBM, 698 F.2d 1377 (9th Cir. 1983)

United Shoe Machinery Corp. v. United States, 258 U.S. 451 (1922)

United States v. Aluminum Co. of America, 148 F.2d 416 (2d Cir. 1945)

United States v. Aluminum Co. of America, 91 F. Supp. 333 (S.D.N.Y. 1950)

United States v. American Tobacco Co. 221 U.S. 106 (1911)

United States v. AMR Corp., 335 F.3d 1109 (10th Cir. 2003)

United States v. AMR Corp., 140 F. Supp. 2d 1141 (D. Kan. 2001), aff'd, 335 F.3d 1109 (10th Cir. 2003)

United States v. AT&T, 552 F. Supp. 131 (D.D.C. 1982), aff'd mem. sub nom. Maryland v. United States, 460 U.S. 1001 (1983)

United States v. AT&T, 524 F. Supp. 1336 (D.D.C. 1981)

United States v. Colgate & Co., 250 U.S. 300 (1919)

United States v. Dentsply International, Inc., 399 F.3d 181 (3d Cir. 2005)

United States v. Eastman Kodak Co., 1954 Trade Cas. (CCH) ¶ 67,920 (W.D.N.Y. 1954)

United States v. E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., 366 U.S. 316 (1961)

United States v. E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., 351 U.S. 377 (1956)

United States v. General Motors Corp., 1965 Trade Cas. (CCH) ¶ 71,624 (E.D. Mich. 1965)

United States v. Grinnell Corp., 384 U.S. 563 (1966)

United States v. IBM, 1956 Trade Cas. (CCH) ¶ 68,245 (S.D.N.Y. 1956)

United States v. Jerrold Electronics Corp., 187 F. Supp. 554 (E.D. Pa. 1960)

United States v. Loew's Inc., 371 U.S. 38 (1962)

United States v. Microsoft Corp., 253 F.3d 34 (D.C. Cir. 2001) (en banc) (per curiam)

United States v. Microsoft Corp., 147 F.3d 935 (D.C. Cir. 1998)

United States v. Microsoft Corp., 231 F. Supp. 2d 144 (D.D.C. 2002), aff'd sub nom. Massachusetts v. Microsoft Corp., 373 F.3d 1199 (D.C. Cir. 2004) (en banc)

United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc., 334 U.S. 131 (1948)

United States v. Syufy Enterprises, 903 F.2d 659 (9th Cir. 1990)

United States v. Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis, 224 U.S. 383 (1912)

United States v. United Shoe Machinery Corp., 391 U.S. 244 (1968)

United States v. United Shoe Machinery Corp., 110 F. Supp. 295 (D. Mass. 1953), aff'd, 347 U.S. 521 (1954) (per curiam)

United States v. United Shoe Machinery Co., 264 F. 138 (E.D. Mo. 1920), aff'd, 258 U.S. 451 (1922)

United States v. United Shoe Machinery Co. of New Jersey, 247 U.S. 32 (1918)

United States v. U.S. Gypsum Co., 340 U.S. 76 (1950)

United States v. Waste Management, Inc., 743 F.2d 976 (2d Cir. 1984)

United States v. Western Electric Co., 1956 Trade Cas. (CCH) ¶ 68,246 (D.N.J. 1956)

U.S. Anchor Mfg., Inc. v. Rule Industries, Inc., 7 F.3d 986 (11th Cir. 1993)

U.S. Healthcare, Inc. v. Healthsource, Inc., 986 F.2d 589 (1st Cir. 1993)

U.S. Philips Corp. v. Windmere Corp., 861 F.2d 695 (Fed. Cir. 1988)

U.S. Steel Corp. v. Fortner Enterprises, Inc., 429 U.S. 610 (1977)

Utah Pie Co. v. Continental Baking Co., 386 U.S. 685 (1967)

Verizon Communications Inc. v. Law Offices of Curtis V. Trinko,, 540 U.S. 398 (2004)

Virgin Atlantic Airways Ltd. v. British Airways PLC, 257 F.3d 256 (2d Cir. 2001)

Virgin Atlantic Airways Ltd. v. British Airways PLC, 69 F. Supp. 2d 571 (S.D.N.Y. 1999), aff'd, 257 F.3d 256 (2d Cir. 2001)

Walker Process Equipment, Inc. v. Food Machinery & Chemical Corp., 382 U.S. 172 (1965)

Wallace v. IBM, 467 F.3d 1104 (7th Cir. 2006)

Weiss v. York Hospital, 745 F.2d 786 (3d Cir. 1984)

Western Parcel Express v. United Parcel Service of America, Inc., 190 F.3d 974 (9th Cir. 1999)

Weyerhaeuser Co. v. Ross-Simmons Hardwood Lumber Co., 127 S. Ct. 1069 (2007)

William Inglis & Sons Baking Co. v. ITT Continental Baking Co., 668 F.2d 1014 (9th Cir. 1981)

Williamsburg Wax Museum, Inc. v. Historic Figures, Inc, 810 F.2d 243 (D.C. Cir. 1987)

Yoder Bros., Inc. v. California-Florida Plant Corp., 537 F.2d 1347 (5th Cir. 1976)

Zenith Radio Corp. v. Hazeltine Research, Inc., 395 U.S. 100 (1969)


Sherman Act § 1, 15 U.S.C. § 1 (2000)

Sherman Act § 2, 15 U.S.C. § 2 (2000)

Robinson-Patman Act § 1, 15 U.S.C. § 13 (2000)

Clayton Act § 3, 15 U.S.C. § 14 (2000)

Clayton Act § 4, 15 U.S.C. § 15 (2000)

Clayton Act § 4A, 15 U.S.C. § 15a (2000)

Clayton Act § 4C, 15 U.S.C. § 15c (2000)

FTC Act § 5, 15 U.S.C. § 45 (2000)

Export Trading Company Act § 306, 15 U.S.C. § 4016 (2000)

International Antitrust Enforcement Assistance Act of 1994 §§ 2­13, 15 U.S.C. §§ 6201­12 (2000)

18 U.S.C. § 3571 (2000)

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008, Pub. L. No. 110-161, 121 Stat. 1884

Telecommunications Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-104, 110 Stat. 56 (codified as amended in scattered sections of 47 U.S.C.)



Brief for the United States as Amicus Curiae Supporting Petitioner, Weyerhaeuser Co. v. Ross-Simmons Hardwood Lumber Co., 127 S. Ct. 1069 (2007) (No. 05-381), available at http:// www. usdoj. gov/atr/ cases/ f217900/217988.pdf

Brief for the United States as Amicus Curiae, 3M v. LePage's Inc., 542 U.S. 953 (2004) (No. 02-1865), available at http:// www. usdoj. gov/ atr/ cases/ f203900/203900.pdf

Brief for the United States & the Federal Trade Commission as Amici Curiae Supporting Petitioner, Verizon Commc'ns Inc. v. Law Offices of Curtis V. Trinko, LLP, 540 U.S. 398 (2004) (No. 02-682), available at cases/ f201000/201048.pdf

Brief of Amici Curiae American Antitrust Institute, Consumer Federation of America and Consumers Union Supporting McKenzie-Williamette and Affirmance, Cascade Health Solutions v. PeaceHealth, 515 F.3d 883 (9th Cir. 2008) (Nos. 05-36153, 05-36202)

Brief of Amici Curiae Genentech, Inc., Honeywell International Inc., Kimberly-Clark Corp., Kraft Foods, Inc., The Coca-Cola Company, and United Technologies Corp. in Support of Appellant/Cross-Appellee PeaceHealth, Cascade Health Solutions v. PeaceHealth, 515 F.3d 883 (9th Cir. 2008) (Nos. 05-035627, 05-35640)

Brief of Amici Curiae Law Professors in Support of Defendant-Appellant and Cross-Appellee PeaceHealth Supporting Reversal of the Verdict Concerning Bundled Discounts, Cascade Health Solutions v. PeaceHealth, 515 F.3d 883 (9th Cir. 2008) (Nos. 05-35627, 05-35640, 05-36153, 05-36202)

Brief of Pacific Bell Telephone Company (D/B/A AT&T California) and Visa U.S.A. Inc. as Amici Curiae Supporting Reversal, Cascade Health Solutions v. PeaceHealth, 515 F.3d 883 (9th Cir. 2008) (Nos. 05-35627, 05-35640, 05-36153, 05-36202)

Brief for Appellant United States of America, United States v. AMR Corp., 335 F.3d 1109 (10th Cir. 2003) (No. 01-3202), available at atr/cases/f9800/9814.pdf

Governmental Materials

153 Cong. Rec. H15741 (daily ed. Dec. 17, 2007 )

Antitrust Modernization Comm'n, Report and Recommendations (2007), available at

Canadian Competition Bureau, Enforcement Guidelines: Predatory Pricing (2008), available at Guidelines-e.pdf/$file/Predatory_Pricing_Guidelines-e.pdf

Competitive Impact Statement, United States v. Microsoft Corp., 56 F.3d 1448 (D.C. Cir. 1995) (Nos. 95-5037, 95-5039), available at

Directorate for Fin. and Enter. Affairs Competition Comm., Org. for Econ. Co-operation and Dev., Remedies and Sanctions in Abuse of Dominance Cases (2007), available at

Directorate-Gen. for Competition, European Comm'n, Discussion Paper on the Application of Article 82 of the Treaty to Exclusionary Abuses (2005), available at

Fed. Trade Comm'n & U.S. Dep't of Justice, U.S. Federal Trade Commission's and Department of Justice's Experience with Technical Assistance for the Effective Application of Competition Laws (2008), available at

FTC Policy Statement on Monetary Equitable Remedies in Competition Cases, 68 Fed. Reg. 45,820 (Aug. 4, 2003)

H.R. Rep. No. 63-627 (1914)

Int'l Competition Network, Waivers of Confidentiality in Merger Investigations (n.d.), available at

Int'l Competition Policy Advisory Comm., Final Report (2000), available at

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Dev., Best Practice Roundtables on Competition Policy,,3343,en_2649_34715_2474918 _1_1_1_37463,00.html (last visited Aug. 28, 2008)

Organisation for Econ. Co-operation & Dev., Revised Recommendation of the Council Concerning Co-operation Between Member Countries on Anticompetitive Practices Affecting International Trade (1995), available at dataoecd/60/42/21570317.pdf

Unilateral Conduct Working Group, Int'l Competition Network, Dominance/Substantial Market Power Analysis Pursuant to Unilateral Conduct Laws: Recommended Practices (2007), available at library/unilateral_conduct/Unilateral_ WG_1.pdf

Unilateral Conduct Working Group, Int'l Competition Network, Report on Predatory Pricing (2008), available at media/library/unilateral_conduct/ FINALPredatory Pricing PDF.pdf

Unilateral Conduct Working Group, Int'l Competition Network, Report on Single Branding/Exclusive Dealing (2008), available at media/library/unilateral_conduct/Unilateral_ WG_4.pdf

Unilateral Conduct Working Group, Int'l Competition Network, Report on the Objectives of Unilateral Conduct Laws, Assessment of Dominance/Substantial Market Power, and State Created Monopolies (May 2007), available at

Unilateral Conduct Working Group, Int'l Competition Network, State-Created Monopolies Analysis Pursuant to Unilateral Conduct Laws: Recommended Practices (n.d.), available at Unilateral_WG_2.pdf

U.S. Dep't of Justice, Antitrust Cooperation Agreements, (last visited Aug. 27, 2008)

U.S. Dep't of Justice, Antitrust Division Policy Guide to Merger Remedies (2004), available at guidelines/205108.pdf

U.S. Dep't of Justice, Sherman Act Violations Yielding a Corporate Fine of $10 Million or More (2008), available at

U.S. Dep't of Justice & Fed. Trade Comm'n, Antitrust Enforcement Guidelines for International Operations (1995), available at internat.htm

U.S. Dep't of Justice & Fed. Trade Comm'n, Antitrust Enforcement and Intellectual Property Rights: Promoting Innovation and Competition (2007), available at hearings/ip/222655.pdf

U.S. Dep't of Justice & Fed. Trade Comm'n, Horizontal Merger Guidelines (rev. ed. 1997), available at

Articles and Books

Alden F. Abbott & Michael A. Salinger, Learning from the Past: The Lessons of Vietnam, IBM, and Tying, Competition Pol'y Int'l, Spring 2006, at 3

Walter Adams, Dissolution, Divorcement, Divestiture: The Pyrrhic Victories of Antitrust, 27 Ind. L.J. 1 (1951)

Phillip Areeda, Essential Facilities: An Epithet in Need of Limiting Principles, 58 Antitrust L.J. 841 (1990)

Phillip Areeda, Monopolization, Mergers, and Markets: A Century Past and the Future, 75 Cal. L. Rev. 959 (1987)

Phillip E. Areeda et al., Antitrust Law (2d ed. 2000, 2d ed. 2004 & 3d ed. 2007)

Phillip E. Areeda & Herbert Hovenkamp, Antitrust Law (1996, 2d ed. 2002, 2d ed. 2004 & Supp. 2007)

Phillip Areeda & Donald F. Turner, Antitrust Law (1978)

Phillip Areeda & Donald F. Turner, Predatory Pricing and Related Practices Under Section 2 of the Sherman Act, 88 Harv. L. Rev. 697 (1975)

Thomas C. Arthur, The Costly Quest for Perfect Competition: Kodak and Nonstructural Market Power, 69 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1 (1994)

Donald I. Baker, Compulsory Access to Network Joint Ventures Under the Sherman Act: Rules or Roulette?, 1993 Utah L. Rev. 999

Jonathan B. Baker, Market Definition: An Analytical Overview, 74 Antitrust L.J. 129 (2007)

Jonathan B. Baker, Predatory Pricing After Brooke Group: An Economic Perspective, 62 Antitrust L.J. 585 (1994)

Jonathan B. Baker, Promoting Innovation Competition Through the Aspen/Kodak Rule, 7 Geo. Mason L. Rev. 495 (1999)

Jonathan B. Baker & Timothy F. Bresnahan, Empirical Methods of Identifying and Measuring Market Power, 61 Antitrust L.J. 3 (1992)

Thomas O. Barnett, Section 2 Remedies: A Necessary Challenge, in 2007 Annual Proceedings of the Fordham Competition Law Institute (Barry E. Hawk ed., 2008)

William J. Baumol, The Free-Market Innovation Machine (2002)

William J. Baumol, Predation and the Logic of the Average Variable Cost Test, 39 J.L. & Econ. 49 (1996)

William J. Baumol, Principles Relevant to Predatory Pricing, in Swedish Competition Authority, The Pros and Cons of Low Prices 15 (2003)

C. Frederick Beckner III & Steven C. Salop, Decision Theory and Antitrust Rules, 67 Antitrust L.J. 41 (1999)

George J. Benston, Accounting Numbers and Economic Values, 27 Antitrust Bull. 161 (1982)

William Blumenthal, The Challenge of Sovereignty and the Mechanisms of Convergence, 72 Antitrust L.J. 267 (2004)

Patrick Bolton et al., Predatory Pricing: Strategic Theory and Legal Policy, 88 Geo. L.J. 2239 (2000)

Robert H. Bork, The Antitrust Paradox (1978)

Michael Boudin, Antitrust Doctrine and the Sway of Metaphor, 75 Geo. L.J. 395 (1986)

Ward S. Bowman, Restraint of Trade by the Supreme Court: The Utah Pie Case, 77 Yale L.J. 70 (1967)

Malcolm R. Burns, New Evidence of Price Cutting, 10 Managerial & Decision Econ. 327 (1989)

Malcolm R. Burns, Predatory Pricing and the Acquisition Cost of Competitors, 94 J. Pol. Econ. 266 (1986)

Dennis W. Carlton, Does Antitrust Need to Be Modernized?, J. Econ. Persp., Summer 2007, at 155

Dennis W. Carlton, A General Analysis of Exclusionary Conduct and Refusal to Deal--Why Aspen and Kodak Are Misguided, 68 Antitrust L.J. 659 (2001)

Dennis W. Carlton, Market Definition: Use and Abuse, Competition Pol'y Int'l, Spring 2007, at 3

Dennis W. Carlton, The Relevance for Antitrust Policy of Theoretical and Empirical Advances in Industrial Organization, 12 Geo. Mason L. Rev. 47 (2003)

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Dennis W. Carlton & Jeffrey M. Perloff, Modern Industrial Organization (4th ed. 2005)

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David Genesove & Wallace P. Mullin, Predation and Its Rate of Return: The Sugar Industry, 1887­1914, 37 RAND J. Econ. 47 (2006)

Douglas H. Ginsburg & Leah Brannon, Determinants of Private Antitrust Enforcement in the United States, Competition Pol'y Int'l, Autumn 2005, at 29

Kenneth L. Glazer & Brian R. Henry, Coercive vs. Incentivizing Conduct: A Way Out of the Section 2 Impasse?, Antitrust, Fall 2003, at 45

Kenneth L. Glazer & Abbott B. Lipsky, Jr., Unilateral Refusals to Deal Under Section 2 of the Sherman Act, 63 Antitrust L.J. 749 (1995)

Mark A. Glick et al., Importing the Merger Guidelines Market Test in Section 2 Cases: Potential Benefits and Limitations, 42 Antitrust Bull. 121 (1997)

Elizabeth Granitz & Benjamin Klein, Monopolization by "Raising Rivals' Costs": The Standard Oil Case, 39 J.L. & Econ. 1 (1996)

Patrick Greenlee et al., An Antitrust Analysis of Bundled Loyalty Discounts, 26 Int'l J. Indus. Org. 1132 (2008)

Patrick Greenlee & David S. Reitman, Competing with Loyalty Discounts (Jan. 7, 2006) (unpublished working paper), available at

Andrew T. Guzman, Antitrust and International Regulatory Federalism, 76 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1142 (2001)

Scott C. Hall, Ross-Simmons v. Weyerhaeuser: Antitrust Liability in Predatory Bidding Cases, Antitrust, Spring 2006, at 55

George A. Hay, A Monopolist's "Duty to Deal": The Briar Patch Revisited, 3 Sedona Conf. J. 1 (2002)

George A. Hay, Trinko: Going All the Way, 50 Antitrust Bull. 527 (2005)

Ken Heyer, A World of Uncertainty: Economics and the Globalization of Antitrust, 72 Antitrust L.J. 375 (2005)

Herbert Hovenkamp, The Antitrust Enterprise (2005)

Herbert Hovenkamp, Antitrust Law (2d ed. 2005)

Herbert Hovenkamp, Exclusion and the Sherman Act, 72 U. Chi. L. Rev. 147 (2005)

Herbert Hovenkamp, Federal Antitrust Policy (3d ed. 2005)

Herbert Hovenkamp, The Law of Exclusionary Pricing, Competition Pol'y Int'l, Spring 2006, at 21

Herbert Hovenkamp, The Monopolization Offense, 61 Ohio St. L.J. 1035 (2000)

Herbert Hovenkamp, Signposts of Anticompetitive Exclusion: Restraints on Innovation and Economies of Scale, in 2006 Annual Proceedings of the Fordham Competition Law Institute 409 (Barry E. Hawk ed., 2007)

Herbert Hovenkamp et al., IP and Antitrust (Supp. 2006)

Keith N. Hylton & Michael Salinger, Tying Law and Policy: A Decision-Theoretic Approach, 69 Antitrust L.J. 469 (2001)

Michael Jacobs, Introduction: Hail or Farewell? The Aspen Case 20 Years Later, 73 Antitrust L.J. 59 (2005)

Jonathan M. Jacobson, Exclusive Dealing, "Foreclosure," and Consumer Harm, 70 Antitrust L.J. 311 (2002)

Jonathan M. Jacobson & Scott A. Sher, "No Economic Sense"Makes No Sense for Exclusive Dealing, 73 Antitrust L.J. 779 (2006)

Charles A. James, The Real Microsoft Case and Settlement, Antitrust, Fall 2001, at 58

Frédéric Jenny, Globalization, Competition and Trade Policy: Convergence, Divergence and Cooperation, in International and Comparative Competition Law and Policies 31 (Yang-Ching Chao et al. eds., 2001)

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John B. Kirkwood, Buyer Power and Exclusionary Conduct: Should Brooke Group Set the Standards for Buyer-Induced Price Discrimination and Predatory Bidding?, 72 Antitrust L.J. 625 (2005)

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William Kolasky, Reinvigorating Antitrust Enforcement in the United States: A Proposal, Antitrust, Spring 2008, at 85

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John E. Lopatka & William H. Page, A (Cautionary) Note on Remedies in the Microsoft Case, Antitrust, Summer 1999, at 25

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Barry Nalebuff, Bundling as an Entry Barrier, 119 Q.J. Econ. 159 (2004)

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Aaron M. Panner, Bundled Discounts and the Antitrust Modernization Commission, eSapience Center for Competition Policy, July 2007, at 6

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Mark S. Popofsky, Defining Exclusionary Conduct: Section 2, the Rule of Reason, and the Unifying Principle Underlying Antitrust Rules, 73 Antitrust L.J. 435 (2006)

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Steven C. Salop, Exclusionary Conduct, Effect on Consumers, and the Flawed Profit-Sacrifice Standard, 73 Antitrust L.J. 311 (2006)

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Section of Antitrust Law, Am. Bar Ass'n, Antitrust Law Developments (6th ed. 2007)

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Gregory J. Werden, Identifying Exclusionary Conduct Under Section 2: The "No Economic Sense" Test, 73 Antitrust L.J. 413 (2006)

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Gregory J. Werden, Market Delineation Under the Merger Guidelines: Monopoly Cases and Alternative Approaches, 16 Rev. Indus. Org. 211 (2000)

Gregory J. Werden, Remedies for Exclusionary Conduct Should Protect and Preserve the Competitive Process, 76 Antitrust L.J. (forthcoming 2009)

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Richard O. Zerbe, Jr., Monopsony and the Ross-Simmons Case: A Comment on Salop and Kirkwood, 72 Antitrust L.J. 717 (2005)

Richard O. Zerbe, Jr. & Michael T. Mumford, Does Predatory Pricing Exist? Economic Theory and the Courts After Brooke Group, 41 Antitrust Bull. 949 (1996)

Speeches and Testimony

Antitrust Modernization Commission: Public Hearing Hr'g Tr., Feb. 15, 2006, available at International_Transcript_ reform.pdf

Thomas O. Barnett, Assistant Attorney Gen., U.S. Dept. of Justice, Section 2 Remedies: A Necessary Challenge (Sept. 28, 2007), available at

Thomas O. Barnett, Assistant Attorney Gen., U.S. Dept. of Justice, Section 2 Remedies: What to Do After Catching the Tiger by the Tail (June 4, 2008), available at public/speeches/233884.pdf

Eleanor M. Fox, Walter J. Derenberg Professor of Trade Regulation, N.Y. Univ. Sch. of Law, Testimony Before the Antitrust Modernization Commission Hearing on International Issues (Feb. 15, 2006), available at statement_Fox_final.pdf

William E. Kovacic, Gen. Counsel, Fed. Trade Comm'n, Private Participation in the Enforcement of Public Competition Laws (May 15, 2003), available at

R. Hewitt Pate, Assistant Attorney Gen., U.S. Dep't of Justice, Antitrust in a Transatlantic Context--from the Cicada's Perspective (June 7, 2004), available at

Steven C. Salop, Avoiding Error in the Antitrust Analysis of Unilateral Refusals to Deal (Sept. 21, 2005), available at

Alexander Schaub, Dir. Gen., DG Competition, European Comm'n, Continued Focus on Reform: Recent Developments in EC Competition Policy (Oct. 25, 2001), available at

Carl Shapiro, Exclusionary Conduct: Testimony Before the Antitrust Modernization Commission (Sept. 29, 2005), available at

Randolph W. Tritell, Assistant Dir. for Int'l Antitrust, International Antitrust Issues (Feb. 15, 2006), available at

Updated March 18, 2022