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Participant Presentations and Session Transcript for May 8

1

1 UNITED STATES FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION
 
2 and
 
3 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
 
4
 
5
 
6
 
7 SHERMAN ACT SECTION 2 JOINT HEARING
 
8 UNDERSTANDING SINGLE-FIRM BEHAVIOR:
 
9 CONDUCT AS RELATED TO COMPETITION
 
10 TUESDAY, MAY 8, 2007
 
11
 
12
 
13
 
14
 
15 HELD AT:
 
16 UNITED STATES FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION
 
17 HEADQUARTERS BUILDING, ROOM 432
 
18 600 PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE, N.W.
 
19 WASHINGTON, D.C.
 
20 9:00 A.M. TO 1:00 P.M.
 
21
 
22
 
23
 
24 Reported and transcribed by:
 
25 Brenda Smonskey

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1 MODERATORS:
 
2 DEBORAH PLATT MAJORAS
 
3 Chairman
 
4 Federal Trade Commission
 
5 and
 
6 TOM BARNETT
 
7 Assistant Attorney General
 
8 Antitrust Division, U.S. Department of Justice
 
9
 
10 PANELISTS:
 
11
 
12 Susan Creighton
 
13 Jeff Eisenach
 
14 Tim Muris
 
15 Bob Pitofsky
 
16 Doug Melamed
 
17 Jim Rill
 
18 Charles F. (Rick) Rule
 
19 Greg Sidak
 
20
 
21
 
22
 
23
 
24
 
25  

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1 C O N T E N T S
 
2
 
3 Introduction........................................................................................................................................................... 4
 
4
 
5 Moderated Discussion......................................................................................................................................... 13
 
6
 
7 Conclusion.........................................................................................................................................................162
 
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9
 
10
 
11
 
12
 
13
 
14
 
15
 
16
 
17
 
18
 
19
 
20
 
21
 
22
 
23
 
24
 
25  

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1 P R O C E E D I N G S
 
2 - - - - -
 
3 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Good morning, everyone.
 
4 Welcome to this final wrap-up panel of the
 
5 hearings that we, the FTC, together with the DOJ
 
6 Antitrust Division have been holding over the course
 
7 of almost the past year.
 
8 I'm delighted to be here today to moderate
 
9 this final session with my very good friend and
 
10 colleague, Tom Barnett, Assistant Attorney General
 
11 for the Antitrust Division.
 
12 So I thank you all for being here. I also
 
13 thank our panelists for taking the time away to be
 
14 with us this morning.
 
15 Before I get started, I should ask all of
 
16 you just as a courtesy that if you have anything on
 
17 that rings or otherwise makes noise, if you could
 
18 turn off at least that part of it. We would
 
19 appreciate it.
 
20 We ask that you not make comments, at least
 
21 not above your breath, during the session or yell
 
22 out questions from the audience, please.
 
23 I want to start this morning by thanking the
 
24 staff from the FTC and from the Department of
 
25 Justice Antitrust Division for their incredible work

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1 over the course of the last year in putting together
 
2 27 Section 2 hearing sessions over the course of the
 
3 year.
 
4 These things have gotten to the point where
 
5 I think they go so well and so smoothly that you
 
6 forget how much work is going on behind the scenes.
 
7 But I see Pat here and Bill Cohen and Gail.
 
8 They can tell you all the work that has gone on
 
9 behind the scenes. We are truly grateful for their
 
10 contributions.
 
11 I also want to express my appreciation to
 
12 the 130 panelists we have had over the course of
 
13 these sessions. They have made an incredible
 
14 contribution to these hearings.
 
15 I wanted to convene the hearings because it
 
16 seemed to me that the debate over where we should be
 
17 drawing the permissible lines for conduct by firms
 
18 with market power needed something of a boost.
 
19 I was a little bit worried that it might be
 
20 getting stuck. It seemed like we were drawing
 
21 lines, to be sure, but we were drawing more like
 
22 battle lines around certain tests or certain
 
23 arguments.
 
24 And our hope was that through these hearings
 
25 we could identify or highlight areas certainly of

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1 broad consensus in enforcement against single-firm
 
2 conduct and then also draw out the areas that
 
3 require further rigorous analysis and guidance.
 
4 So starting with the opening session on June
 
5 20th, we have held hearings on a wide range of
 
6 conduct, from predatory pricing to exclusive dealing
 
7 to bundled and loyalty rebates and the whole
 
8 spectrum, as well as sessions on monopoly power,
 
9 remedies, market definition.
 
10 We also held a session on empirical
 
11 research, during which we heard about the research
 
12 that exists on Section 2 areas as well as areas
 
13 where further research would be helpful.
 
14 We held a session on international
 
15 perspectives, where we heard from a number of
 
16 foreign competition agency officials as well as
 
17 practitioners and academics in the field.
 
18 We held a session on business history in
 
19 which we examined some of the more important
 
20 monopolization cases of the past century.
 
21 We had a session on business strategy so we
 
22 could learn more about what business schools are
 
23 teaching future business leaders and executives,
 
24 what they are teaching them and how that could
 
25 ultimately impact competition and conduct.

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1 I had hoped, as you all know, from the very
 
2 beginning that we could get a fair amount of input
 
3 from the business community so we could actually
 
4 really think about certain types of conduct, why
 
5 folks are engaged in it.
 
6 And I was pleased that we were able to hold
 
7 two out of town hearings this time, get outside the
 
8 Beltway. We held a hearing in Berkeley, California
 
9 and Chicago, Illinois, which I was very pleased
 
10 about.
 
11 Through all this, we have endeavored to
 
12 select panelists that could provide a wide diversity
 
13 for us of viewpoints on these important topics.
 
14 So here we are. We are at the last
 
15 roundtable discussion. We held another almost last
 
16 roundtable discussion last week. So here we are
 
17 today.
 
18 We will ask our panelists to comment on a
 
19 wide range of issues.
 
20 We will not have speaker presentations
 
21 today. We will get directly into questions from our
 
22 panelists, which we thought would be a richer forum
 
23 to take advantage of the great wisdom and experience
 
24 of this distinguished panel.
 
25 With that, I will tell you -- I think you

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1 probably know who they are, but I'm going to tell
 
2 you.
 
3 I will start with four of the panelists who
 
4 I will introduce. Tom will introduce the others.
 
5 I will introduce all the former FTC folks,
 
6 and Tom will introduce the former DOJ folks plus
 
7 one.
 
8 I was thinking what we might do is have them
 
9 duke it out. Maybe we can solve all the problems.
 
10 We have a new form of clearance agreement of some
 
11 sort.
 
12 So to my far right is Susan Creighton.
 
13 Susan is a partner at the Wilson Sonsini firm after
 
14 having served here as the director of the FTC's
 
15 Bureau of Competition, and it has been my great
 
16 pleasure to work with Susan.
 
17 Susan is quite well known in this area of
 
18 Section 2 law and in particular of late in the area
 
19 of cheap exclusion.
 
20 So we will look forward to her comments
 
21 today.
 
22 Jeff Eisenach is the chairman of Criterion
 
23 Economics and adjunct professor at the George Mason
 
24 School of Law.
 
25 He has served in senior policy positions at

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1 the FTC and also at the Office of Management and
 
2 Budget. He was a cofounder of the Progress and
 
3 Freedom Foundation. And he is also someone willing
 
4 to play golf with me.
 
5 Tim Muris -- I can't introduce Doug because
 
6 he used to be at DOJ. Sorry, Doug. So did I.
 
7 Tim Muris will be here. We knew that he
 
8 would have to be a little bit late today. I will go
 
9 ahead and introduce him anyway.
 
10 He is a George Mason University Foundation
 
11 professor of law, of counsel at O'Melveny & Myers
 
12 and a co-chair of that firm's antitrust practice.
 
13 He also, of course, served as chairman of
 
14 the FTC until 2004. And in his previous life in the
 
15 '80s was director both of the Bureau of Competition
 
16 and the Bureau of Consumer Protection.
 
17 Tim will be here later this morning.
 
18 Finally, to Tom's left we have Bob Pitofsky,
 
19 the Joseph and Madeline Sheehy professor in
 
20 antitrust and trade regulation law at Georgetown
 
21 University Law Center, where he formerly served as
 
22 dean.
 
23 He is also counsel at Arnold & Porter and
 
24 formerly chairman of the FTC, prior to Tim Muris, of
 
25 course.

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1 We have a lot for which we are grateful to
 
2 Bob, but one I think is that Bob really
 
3 reinvigorated this concept of hearings at the FTC
 
4 during his tenure.
 
5 That, of course, is the tremendous legacy
 
6 that brings us here today. So thank you.
 
7 Now I would like to turn it over to Tom
 
8 Barnett.
 
9 MR. BARNETT: Thank you, Debbie.
 
10 I also would like to underscore my thanks to
 
11 the staff, who have worked very hard. And in some
 
12 sense it seems like yesterday, it was almost a year
 
13 ago when Debbie and I stood up, I think over in that
 
14 corner of the room, along with a few other people
 
15 and helped launch these hearings.
 
16 But to the staff I have a feeling that may
 
17 seem like about 10 years ago, given the number of
 
18 sessions and panelists and issues.
 
19 As we were working through the preparation
 
20 for the hearing today, one of the things that really
 
21 struck me is the range of issues and the depth of
 
22 thought that has gone into preparing each and every
 
23 one of these sessions.
 
24 I know it is a tremendous amount of time and
 
25 effort. But I also agree with Debbie that this is

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1 an extraordinarily important topic.
 
2 I have long viewed this, along with I think
 
3 Judge Posner who said this as well, really to be the
 
4 most challenging area of antitrust enforcement in
 
5 many ways, because large dominant firms can impose
 
6 very significant costs in terms of consumer welfare.
 
7 It is also the most difficult area in which
 
8 to avoid making mistakes as a government enforcer,
 
9 both in terms of condemning conduct that actually
 
10 can be beneficial, and even if you find a problem,
 
11 in crafting remedies that will fix the problem
 
12 without doing more harm than good.
 
13 And while I do agree that there are many
 
14 areas of consensus at least within the United States
 
15 in this area -- and I think the hearings have done a
 
16 good job of highlighting some of those things -- I
 
17 also think there are some very important issues that
 
18 remain open.
 
19 And I'm optimistic with the wide range of
 
20 experience and talent that we have had, the benefit
 
21 of economists, lawyers, business people, academics,
 
22 and certainly with the degree of experience and
 
23 wisdom we have at the panel here today, I expect we
 
24 will have resolved all of this by 1:00 today.
 
25 With that, I do want to move toward the

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1 discussion, which we have a lot to cover in a lot of
 
2 very -- it seems like a long time, but I have a
 
3 feeling it will go quickly.
 
4 So let me just move to the introductions.
 
5 I will start off with introducing Doug
 
6 Melamed, who is a partner and co-chair of
 
7 WilmerHale's -- do you say WilmerHale?
 
8 MR. MELAMED: I am supposed to.
 
9 MR. BARNETT: -- antitrust and competition
 
10 department and former Deputy Assistant Attorney of
 
11 the Department of Justice's Antitrust Division,
 
12 where he had a little bit of experience in some
 
13 Section 2 matters.
 
14 And then over to my left is Jim Rill, who
 
15 I'm sure everyone knows, who is a partner at Howrey
 
16 and the former Assistant Attorney General of the
 
17 Antitrust Division.
 
18 To his left is Rick Rule, who is a partner
 
19 at Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft and also a former
 
20 Assistant Attorney General at the Antitrust
 
21 Division.
 
22 And down at the left is Greg Sidak, who is a
 
23 visiting professor of law at Georgetown University
 
24 Law Center and a founder of Criterion Economics.
 
25 He served as the deputy general counsel of

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1 the FCC and senior counsel and economist to the
 
2 Council of Economic Advisors over in the executive
 
3 branch.
 
4 So welcome to everyone. And with that I say
 
5 why don't we get to it.
 
6 In terms of format, Debbie and I thought we
 
7 would basically play tag team in terms of who will
 
8 lead off each topic, with the idea, however, that
 
9 each of us will jump in as seems useful.
 
10 And we are going to start off with the first
 
11 topic being general standards and issues.
 
12 I will ask the very first question in the
 
13 broadest possible form, which is I would like to ask
 
14 which one or two issues -- and I would ask no more
 
15 than two to keep it short -- that you think are the
 
16 biggest problems or concerns facing antitrust
 
17 enforcement today in the area of Section 2 that we
 
18 should try to address in the report that comes out
 
19 of this.
 
20 To start off, why don't I ask Jim Rill to
 
21 jump in.
 
22 MR. RILL: Thank you, Tom.
 
23 Let me say it is an extraordinary honor to
 
24 be here on this panel of august personages and to be
 
25 invited to participate.

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1 I think one issue stands out in a claim
 
2 being addressed in the report, and I emphasize
 
3 report, not necessarily guidelines, but an
 
4 analytical report -- hopefully with some sense of
 
5 conclusion and advocacy -- and that is the area of
 
6 bundled pricing and loyalty discounts.
 
7 The area has abounded in some confusion ever
 
8 since the LePage's-3M decision. There are several
 
9 court decisions on the way up that may add clarity
 
10 or possibly further confusion to the issue.
 
11 But trying to provide advice in that
 
12 particular area is daunting. I think that there are
 
13 a number of solutions out there, or at least
 
14 potential solutions out there as we get into more
 
15 the merits of the discussion today.
 
16 But I think those particular areas are ones
 
17 that really stand out above the others in looking
 
18 for a detailed analysis and what I would propose to
 
19 be a report, which I earnestly hope is forthcoming
 
20 as a results of these hearings.
 
21 MR. BARNETT: Thank you.
 
22 Bob, would you like to give us your
 
23 perspective?
 
24 MR. PITOFSKY: Thank you.
 
25 It is very similar to Jim.

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1 We talked about whether we could reach
 
2 consensus. I suspect the best chance we have of
 
3 reaching consensus is on the issue of what is the
 
4 most pressing set of issues facing antitrust, and I
 
5 think it is defining exclusionary behavior under
 
6 Section 2.
 
7 I think it is a set of issues that is most
 
8 confusing, hard to predict, hard to counsel, hard
 
9 for judges to deal with.
 
10 Some people will hold out for the Robinson
 
11 Patman Act, but I don't quite think that is really
 
12 the toughest set of questions.
 
13 And as we will discuss today, what sort of
 
14 rule should we build on? Is it the balancing test
 
15 that was unanimously adopted by the Court of Appeals
 
16 in Microsoft and echoed I think in Aspen, or these
 
17 unitary tests. We all know the balancing test has
 
18 its flaws in terms of unpredictability and
 
19 difficulty in implementing in the context of a legal
 
20 proceeding.
 
21 But should we look for a unitary test, which
 
22 people understandably and with my admiration have
 
23 tried to come up with -- sacrifice of profits,
 
24 driving out a less efficient competitor and so
 
25 forth.

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1 I will give away my bottom line right now.
 
2 I think the unitary tests, much as I admire the
 
3 creativity of them, don't work, do more harm than
 
4 good. And therefore, I would stick with the
 
5 balancing test.
 
6 But I think that's what a lot of our
 
7 discussion this morning should be directed toward.
 
8 MR. BARNETT: Doug?
 
9 MR. MELAMED: I think the most important
 
10 thing that can come out of these hearings would be
 
11 an explicit clarification or articulation of the
 
12 purpose of rules about exclusionary conduct.
 
13 I had occasion before coming today to look
 
14 through some of the summaries of the hearings that
 
15 you have held thus far. I haven't read all the
 
16 testimony. But I did look at the summaries.
 
17 I had the impression that it was like an
 
18 unbounded exercise for a public policy class at the
 
19 Kennedy School.
 
20 There are all sorts of people with all sorts
 
21 of views about how to address tying, exclusive
 
22 dealing, predatory pricing, whatever the topic is,
 
23 unstated often in the dialogue, and I think often
 
24 explaining the disagreements among the parties, were
 
25 differences in assumptions about the purpose of

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1 antitrust.
 
2 Is it consumer welfare? Is it total
 
3 welfare? Is it dynamic analysis? Is it static
 
4 analysis? And so forth.
 
5 This problem doesn't arise in cases of
 
6 collusion, because in these cases, I think both the
 
7 normative and the analytical converge on the
 
8 understanding that the issue is, does the
 
9 arrangement increase or decrease the output of the
 
10 parties to the agreement.
 
11 In exclusion cases, we are often dealing
 
12 with a trade-off between the efficiency benefits to
 
13 the defendant and the exclusionary impact on rivals.
 
14 And I think we don't have a clear understanding of
 
15 what the antitrust objective is dealing with that
 
16 trade-off.
 
17 My own view is that none of the sort of
 
18 economic factors mentioned above is a sufficient
 
19 statement of the objectives. If you look at the
 
20 cases, and I think the cases are wise in this
 
21 regard, you see, of course, Trinko, saying that
 
22 monopoly profits can be a good thing.
 
23 More important, I think, you see some of the
 
24 earlier cases, Grinnell and ALCOA, cases that say in
 
25 effect quite explicitly that, if a monopolist gains

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1 his monopoly power by skill, foresight and industry,
 
2 that's okay.
 
3 Those cases embrace a normative proposition
 
4 that is very important to the fact that antitrust
 
5 has been supported by the political system in this
 
6 country for 120 years. That normative proposition
 
7 is that if the conduct is permissible, in some sense
 
8 defined without regard to its consequences, it's
 
9 okay.
 
10 So what we have to do on the conduct
 
11 element, exclusionary conduct, is to focus on the
 
12 quality of the conduct defined without regard to its
 
13 impact on consumer welfare or dynamic welfare or
 
14 whatever.
 
15 It happens, I believe, that if you do that,
 
16 you are adopting, at least if you do it the way I
 
17 would do it, what works out to be a very good proxy
 
18 in the real world, given the problems of
 
19 administrability and so forth, for achieving the
 
20 economic objectives.
 
21 In any event, I think you cannot focus just
 
22 on the economic objectives. You have to identify
 
23 clearly the normative objectives of exclusionary
 
24 conduct law.
 
25 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Anybody want to take that

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1 on in terms of whether that is enough, whether
 
2 looking at the conduct of the defendant rather than
 
3 the impact on consumers or competitors is adequate?
 
4 MR. PITOFSKY: I already said I'm
 
5 uncomfortable with that. It puts the focus in the
 
6 wrong place.
 
7 My concern is not the behavior of the
 
8 monopolist, the defendant. I thought antitrust laws
 
9 were designed to advance and I think the bottom line
 
10 is, consumer welfare.
 
11 If you are looking for consumer welfare, I
 
12 think it is relevant but not dispositive to know
 
13 what the intent of the monopolist is and what the
 
14 nature of its conduct is.
 
15 But I want to pick up that just because the
 
16 monopolist behavior is efficient or involves a
 
17   sacrifice of profit doesn't answer the question. I
 
18 want to know how anticompetitive it is with respect
 
19 to consumers.
 
20 I thought at least in this country consumer
 
21 welfare and not total welfare -- maybe you can
 
22 challenge it in academia, but as far as the courts
 
23 are concerned -- consumer welfare is what it's
 
24 about.
 
25 MR. MELAMED: Can I make a brief comment in

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1 response to Bob, just a question?
 
2 Bob, if a firm builds a better mousetrap and
 
3 as a result obtains enduring market power, and the
 
4 effect of the enduring market power is overall to
 
5 make consumers worse off than they would have been
 
6 if they never built the mousetrap, do you condemn
 
7 that conduct because --
 
8 MR. PITOFSKY: How do consumers come out
 
9 worse off in the face of a better mousetrap?
 
10 MR. MELAMED: My mousetrap is 5 percent
 
11 better than the incumbents', I drive the incumbents
 
12 all out of business; after they leave, I raise
 
13 prices 5 percent. It is easy to think of
 
14 hypotheticals where consumers are worse off.
 
15 MR. PITOFSKY: That's superior skill as far
 
16 as I'm concerned and I don't have any problem with
 
17 it. But it's not the typical case.
 
18 MR. BARNETT: I'm not sure we have so much
 
19 disagreement.
 
20 Rick, you want to jump in?
 
21 MR. RULE: Sure. I am for once to the left
 
22 of both Doug and Bob. And perhaps I wouldn't say it
 
23 is one of the few times, because I actually agree
 
24 with them a lot.
 
25 But I think I agree with Bob probably

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1 wholeheartedly, I guess. I said this before.
 
2 I worry about the unitary approaches to
 
3 single-firm conduct. I think it creates a lot of
 
4 issues.
 
5 My own personal view is, as I said before, I
 
6 don't think the world would be a terrible place
 
7 without Section 2 of the Sherman Act, because I
 
8 think most of the conduct that is worthy of
 
9 condemnation can be attacked through various other
 
10 legal means.
 
11 So to me, I would say the biggest issue is
 
12 cabining Section 2 and focusing it.
 
13 The problem with the unitary standards is, I
 
14 think, they presume a sort of capability of
 
15 regulators and enforcers and courts to distinguish
 
16 efficient from inefficient conduct that just doesn't
 
17 exist.
 
18 I think that I have always been very
 
19 impressed by some of the writings of Judge
 
20 Easterbrook and particularly the limits of
 
21 antitrust.
 
22 And the fact is, if you look, I think,
 
23 historically at tests that put a burden on a
 
24 defendant to justify its conduct as efficient,
 
25 inevitably the courts find it very difficult to

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1 agree or to see an efficiency.
 
2 So I think the focus really ought to be on
 
3 whether or not there is exclusion, foreclosure, or
 
4 whatever you want to say of competition.
 
5 I don't think that is a sufficient condition
 
6 to condemn something, but I think it is necessary.
 
7 It may be that the foreclosure, or the
 
8 exclusion is due to the fact that there is a better,
 
9 more desirable mousetrap, and that is an efficiency
 
10 defense, and I think there ought to be allowed an
 
11 efficiency defense.
 
12 But I think that an absolutely necessary
 
13 condition is market power on the part of the
 
14 individual and exclusion of competition.
 
15 The last point that I would make that I
 
16 think is often left unsaid in these sorts of
 
17 discussions but I think is very important, when you
 
18 are talking about going after unilateral conduct and
 
19 you don't have an agreement, you don't have all the
 
20 issues that I think, quite rightly, warrant
 
21 antitrust enforcement when you are talking about an
 
22 agreement. When you are talking about going after
 
23 unilateral conduct, you are essentially talking
 
24 about the government regulating behavior of
 
25 individuals, maybe companies. But it is unilateral

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1 action.
2 And there, I think, we as a society, given
 
3 the way we are organized, should be very concerned
 
4 not only about the adverse economic effects, the
 
5 false positives, but also about the impact on
 
6 liberty, on creativity, and on all of the benefits,
 
7 not only to the economy, but also to our political
 
8 life that individual freedom and liberty bring.
 
9 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Susan, you were going to
 
10 make a comment before Rick.
 
11 MS. CREIGHTON: That's all right. I can
 
12 encompass it in my remarks, which was I have sort of
 
13 a 1 and 2A and B. Hopefully that is not breaking
 
14 the rules.
 
15 So the first point and I think actually
 
16 maybe directly in contrast to Doug, the first thing
 
17 I would love to see come out of the report is an
 
18 affirmation that the principle that I think
 
19 underlies the rule of reason both for Section 1 and
 
20 Section 2, which is consumer welfare as sort of the
 
21 touchstone for our analysis, should be really the
 
22 governing principle in terms of what we adopt for
 
23 specific rules for conduct under Section 2.
 
24 I think, like Bob, I'm not saying we can
 
25 come up with a single unifying test that would cover

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1 all that type of conduct. But I believe that we
 
2 should be assessing the particular tests that we
 
3 adopt with respect to particular conduct in terms of
 
4 whether or not it does maximize consumer welfare and
 
5 is consistent with the rule of reason.
 
6 So I would use something like the Microsoft
 
7 test as sort of our default unless and until we can
 
8 conclude with respect to particular types of
 
9 behavior that there is another type of test that we
 
10 have in predatory pricing that more specifically
 
11 advances the balance of maximizing consumer welfare
 
12 for that particular type of conduct.
 
13 The second thing that I would like to see
 
14 come out of the report, and this may be a little bit
 
15 outside the direct question of the adoption of
 
16 substantive rules under Section 2, is I think that
 
17 there are two powerful ways in which our analysis of
 
18 Section 2 substantive standards gets distorted by
 
19 things that don't directly relate to the merits of
 
20 Section 2 liability, which is, first, the prospect
 
21 of treble damages in private litigation, and the
 
22 second is the question of the scope of privileges
 
23 and immunities.
 
24 I think just as in our analysis of patent
 
25 reform, I think many people in the antitrust

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1 community thought it is important not to remedy
 
2 problems with the patent system by adjusting
 
3 antitrust.
 
4 In the same way, I think it would be
 
5 important to try not to distort our analysis of
 
6 substantive antitrust analysis because of the fear
 
7 of treble damage liability, and if there is a
 
8 perspective that that is influencing or has a
 
9 powerful negative effect in terms of how Section 2
 
10 is being applied, that the agencies I would
 
11 encourage to address that head on as something that
 
12 Congress needs to address.
 
13 And in the same way, on sort of the opposite
 
14 side, I think that the ever-expanding scope of
 
15 privileges and immunities, the ability of people to
 
16 protect conduct that otherwise would be subject to
 
17 Section 2 is probably the single biggest deterrent
 
18 to the ability of the agencies effectively to
 
19 enforce against anticompetitive conduct.
 
20 That also would be an issue for the agencies
 
21 to identify for Congress and for the courts.
 
22 MR. BARNETT: Not hearing a lot of support
 
23 for a single unified test.
 
24 If I can turn to a slightly more specific
 
25 question, I guess, which is do you think that there

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1 should be particular safe harbors, maybe conduct
 
2 specific or conduct-specific safe harbors under
 
3 Section 2, and if so, what are a couple of the areas
 
4 you would focus on?
 
5 I don't know if -- Greg or Jeff, you haven't
 
6 jumped in yet. If you want to tackle that one
 
7 initially.
 
8 MR. EISENACH: Let may say two things.
 
9 First of all, in my view, we have missed the
 
10 biggest issue in the room, and it is not in the
 
11 room, it is a couple thousand miles away across the
 
12 Atlantic and across the Pacific.
 
13 I agree with Jim, the LePage's decision
 
14 was -- what does Obi-Wan Kenobi say -- a powerful
 
15 disturbance in the force, and we all felt that
 
16 something bad had happened.
 
17 But that was a perturbance in a vastly more
 
18 settled pond than what we see going on around the
 
19 world.
 
20 I think reading the Article 82 Green paper
 
21 is in many ways an exercise in cognitive dissonance
 
22 for American antitrust professionals.
 
23 I guess if I were to suggest a number one
 
24 priority, both from a substantive perspective and
 
25 from the procedural perspective of venue shopping

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1 and so forth, one of them has got to be trying to
 
2 continue the process of achieving convergence in the
 
3 major antitrust venues around the world. The EU is
 
4 not alone.
 
5 So I didn't want to let that go.
 
6 The second thing is that it seems to me that
 
7 the dichotomy between safe harbors and presumptions
 
8 on the one hand and a complete consumer welfare
 
9 approach on the other hand is a false one, and I
 
10 think it is captured in Doug's comment.
 
11 The question that Doug leaves me with is
 
12 what is the underlying analytical basis of the rules
 
13 that we do adopt? If it is not a consumer welfare
 
14 standard, then I don't know what it is.
 
15 I think our current safe harbors are quite
 
16 unsophisticated ones in many cases. I find it
 
17 inexplicable that 40 years after we began departing
 
18 from the structure conduct performance paradigm, we
 
19 are back at a point where the share of the number
 
20 one firm is somehow the proposed safe harbor in the
 
21 first step of a market power test.
 
22 I don't know what 75 percent or 50 percent
 
23 or 40 percent means out of context. And surely we
 
24 can state the safe harbors in more sophisticated
 
25 ways.

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1 But it does not seem to me that there is any
 
2 necessary conflict between a safe harbor test or a
 
3 series of safe harbors or presumptions on one hand
 
4 and a consumer welfare analysis on the other hand.
 
5 Had Microsoft had some legitimate business
 
6 purposes for some of the conduct for which it was
 
7 found liable in the Court of Appeals ruling, it
 
8 might not have been found liable.
 
9 That's a good example, I think, of a
 
10 presumption for a safe harbor which very much is
 
11 within the context of the whole rule of reason
 
12 analysis.
 
13 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Can I just follow-up on
 
14 that for a second?
 
15 I would like to see what others think about
 
16 that.
 
17 When we look at what the Court of Appeals
 
18 did in Microsoft and we talk about it as a balancing
 
19 test, I have always looked at it as a weighted
 
20 balancing test.
 
21 I think we are right about this. If you
 
22 read, as the Court of Appeals went through every
 
23 allegation of conduct, any time Microsoft put up any
 
24 plausible business justification for it, that ruled
 
25 the day and that was the end of it.

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1 It was just, I think when Microsoft said
 
2 "no, actually we didn't do those things," that then
 
3 the court said "oh, yes, you did, and because you
 
4 said you didn't, you didn't put forth a
 
5 justification, therefore you lose on that one."
 
6 It seemed to me the balancing test was
 
7 pretty weighted.
 
8 What do people think about that? Does that
 
9 make you feel better or worse about if the so-called
 
10 balancing test ended up sort of dominating in this
 
11 area going forward?
 
12 I know Doug is dying to weigh in.
 
13 MR. MELAMED: I think you are completely
 
14 right that the Microsoft Court never in fact
 
15 balanced.
 
16 In the two instances I believe it found that
 
17 there was a legitimate justification, and that was
 
18 the end of the analysis. Microsoft won.
 
19 In other instances, either because Microsoft
 
20 didn't advance a justification or the court rejected
 
21 it on the facts, Microsoft lost.
 
22 Let me comment on this idea of balancing
 
23 rule of reason in Section 2. It is a meaningless
 
24 concept. It is at best a throwback to the Chicago
 
25 Board of Trade case.

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1 In collusion cases, we know that rule of
 
2 reason means, did the agreement increase or decrease
 
3 the outcome of the parties to the agreement.
 
4 There is no metric, no meaning to rule of
 
5 reason, where you have both benefits and harms and
 
6 you are trying to balance them or, in Hovenkamp's
 
7 terms, assess proportionality.
 
8 As to safe harbors, I agree with Rick.
 
9 There ought to be a safe harbor where the conduct
 
10 did not exclude rivals or create or maintain
 
11 monopoly power.
 
12 And on the other extreme, I think that cheap
 
13 exclusion and other forms of naked exclusion, in
 
14 which there is no efficiency you can condemn the
 
15 conduct if it excludes rivals and injures
 
16 competition, without more.
 
17 But to talk about rule of reason or
 
18 balancing as a solution to the problem where you
 
19 have both benefit and harm it seems to me is
 
20 nonsense. And I don't think any court does it.
 
21 My experience is that courts find either a
 
22 justification, in which case defendant wins, or no
 
23 justification, in which case plaintiff wins.
 
24 It seems to me talking about rule of reason
 
25 is an empty vessel that leads courts to do what the

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1 LePage's court did, which is to say "I don't know
 
2 how to balance this, I don't know what to do with
 
3 this" and then come up with some crummy law because
 
4 it finds no guidance in the prior cases.
 
5 MR. PITOFSKY: The balancing test is the
 
6 baseline of all of antitrust.
 
7 The rule of reason compares procompetitive
 
8 justifications, anticompetitive effects.
 
9 Is there another way to get there without
 
10 examining the anticompetitive effects? That is true
 
11 of exclusive dealing, true of tying, true of
 
12 virtually everything regulated by antitrust, joint
 
13 ventures.
 
14 Merger is really a rule of reason analysis.
 
15 Why do you single out Section 2 of the Sherman Act
 
16 as an area where balancing is nonsense?
 
17 MR. MELAMED: Because I think of it as
 
18 collusion versus exclusion, not Section 1 versus
 
19 Section 2.
 
20 If you and I agree to a joint venture, we
 
21 can ask a simple question. Do the efficiencies
 
22 trump the market power? That is, does our output go
 
23 up or down?
 
24 If you exclude me from the market because
 
25 you have a more efficient exclusive dealing

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1 agreement that enhances your ability to distribute
 
2 your product, you have the efficiency gains to you
 
3 and the exclusion to me and the consequences for my
 
4 customers.
 
5 I don't know of an algorithm that makes any
 
6 sense for weighing those two against each other.
 
7 MR. BARNETT: Rick.
 
8 MR. RULE: The only point I would make is
 
9 that, in this case, you are both right, I would say.
 
10 Bob's observation is sort of fundamentally
 
11 true about antitrust. Inherently in antitrust, you
 
12 are trying to balance harms to consumer welfare
 
13 against gains to consumer welfare.
 
14 I think Doug is right in the sense that it
 
15 becomes infinitely more difficult to make that
 
16 operational in a Section 2 context for a variety of
 
17 reasons.
 
18 So I agree with Doug that there is a need in
 
19 light of that to look for, if you will, operational
 
20 rules that incorporate that sort of insight of
 
21 balancing, but it is done in a way that courts can
 
22 actually manage.
 
23 You could argue that maybe they didn't do
 
24 such a great job in the Microsoft case. My
 
25 perspective is a little different than Debbie's, for

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1 perhaps obvious reasons.
 
2 I think a lot of the company's
 
3 justifications were given the back of the hand,
 
4 frankly.
 
5 But I do believe that -- and I think this is
 
6 pretty consistent in Section 2 -- there is this
 
7 tendency, although it is a very difficult hurdle for
 
8 defendants to get over, but if defendants can show
 
9 that their conduct has a legitimate justification
 
10 for it, it typically is a good defense to a Section
 
11 2 claim, regardless of its impact.
 
12 I think that is probably an appropriate way
 
13 to approach it. Maybe Doug agrees with that.
 
14 The concern I have always had with a lot of
 
15 these tests is that at the end of the day, you have
 
16 to conclude that the conduct actually does exclude
 
17 somebody.
 
18 One of the reasons that you look at the
 
19 number one firm's market power, I would say, is a
 
20 legal reason. Section 2 talks about monopolization,
 
21 for better or worse.
 
22 That concept, other than a firm's market
 
23 power and its position relative to its competitors,
 
24 is meaningless. You have to give some meaning to
 
25 the law. That is what the law is.

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1 That's the single basis for attacking
 
2 unilateral behavior.
 
3 MR. PITOFSKY: The sentence was there are a
 
4 number of reasons why the rule of reason works in
 
5 many areas of antitrust but not Section 2.
 
6 I would be curious as to what those other
 
7 reasons are.
 
8 MR. RULE: If I said that, I'm not sure --
 
9 I think the concept of reasonableness is the
 
10 appropriate way to approach it.
 
11 The question of what the rule looks like in
 
12 Section 2 is more difficult.
 
13 One, it is more difficult because, unlike
 
14 Section 1 where you have an obvious target which is
 
15 an agreement that is in some way explicit between
 
16 two parties and you can look at it, in Section 2,
 
17 the conduct is not that explicit. It tends to be
 
18 implicit. It is something a company has done
 
19 unilaterally.
 
20 It is also very difficult to extricate it
 
21 from all the other competitive conduct that a
 
22 company engages in and evaluate it that way.
 
23 You have the fact that intent evidence, in
 
24 my opinion, is completely worthless in this area,
 
25 because you can't distinguish intent evidence that

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1 shows a desire to be vigorously procompetitive or
 
2 vigorously anticompetitive.
 
3 You also have the fact that -- and this was
 
4 really Doug's point, which was perhaps his principal
 
5 point -- unlike Section 1, where you can look and
 
6 say, "okay, gee, we have an agreement and what does
 
7 it do to market power, does it create it, is it an
 
8 exercise of market power?"
 
9 In Section 2, it is always indirect. First
 
10 off, we don't condemn a company unilaterally from
 
11 exercising market power.
 
12 One of the things that's interesting about
 
13 Trinko is the point the court makes that, rather
 
14 than condemning a monopolist for charging monopoly
 
15 price, we actually want him to do that because
 
16 that's his reward if he has gotten it through luck,
 
17 skill or foresight in doing it.
 
18 So instead, in a monopolization case, what
 
19 you are looking at is some sort of indirect impact
 
20 because there is an adverse effect on a competitor,
 
21 which you then have to translate into some impact on
 
22 consumer welfare.
 
23 Then you have to compare it with the
 
24 procompetitive benefits. That's very difficult.
 
25 That goes sort of to Doug's point.

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1 There is no algorithm for making that
 
2 comparison that I'm aware of from economists.
 
3 Instead, you have to try to develop rules,
 
4 whether they are safe harbors, whether they are sort
 
5 of general market power screens or something,
 
6 because I think saying that you are going to
 
7 directly measure and balance the procompetitive and
 
8 anticompetitive effects is probably fooling yourself
 
9 and the courts because it is not really possible.
 
10 Instead, you have to come up with rules that
 
11 are directed to trying to make that balance but
 
12 probably in some kind of gross fashion.
 
13 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: I have a question about
 
14 the safe harbor concept.
 
15 Before I do, Greg, you have been so patient
 
16 down there. Is there anything you want to add on
 
17 any of these topics?
 
18 MR. SIDAK: I was going to go off in a
 
19 completely different direction.
 
20 Okay. I think that one of the big questions
 
21 that Section 2 poses is whether the jurisprudence in
 
22 this area is robust with respect to alternative
 
23 objective functions of the firm, alternative revenue
 
24 models, alternative production technologies.
 
25 By that, I mean suppose you change the

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1 assumption that a firm is a profit maximizer. Does
 
2 our existing jurisprudence on predatory pricing, for
 
3 example, give us much guidance?
 
4 It is not such a hypothetical question. For
 
5 example, the U.S. Postal Service is now subject to
 
6 antitrust -- it has had its antitrust immunity
 
7 lifted with respect to products that are not within
 
8 the statutory monopoly.
 
9 The last time I checked, the U.S. Postal
 
10 Service was not a profit maximizer.
 
11 With respect to revenue models, implicit in
 
12 a lot of the discussion we have had so far is that
 
13 we are talking about product markets that are pretty
 
14 easy to get our arms around, relatively mature
 
15 products.
 
16 What if we are talking about some of the
 
17 kinds of products and services that are at the
 
18 intersection of the Internet, telecommunications,
 
19 financial services and the like, where you have
 
20 multisited markets, you have multiproduct firms.
 
21 We can all agree that consumer welfare is
 
22 what we are trying to maximize. But which
 
23 consumers?
 
24 A given business practice may result in some
 
25 service being given away for free to one set of

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1 consumers. And that clearly benefits them. But is
 
2 there an adverse effect on some other set of
 
3 consumers?
 
4 So I think the consumer welfare objective is
 
5 just the beginning of the analysis.
 
6 When we are looking at some of these more
 
7 complex markets with multiple sides or firms that
 
8 are multiproduct firms, in which they may be
 
9 subsidizing a particular product in order to
 
10 stimulate the network effects and then with respect
 
11 to the production technology point, I think that
 
12 antitrust jurisprudence, compared to the traditional
 
13 law and economics of sector-specific regulation is
 
14 not very agile with respect to multiproduct firms.
 
15 I think this is one place where the
 
16 Europeans actually have shown some greater skill
 
17 than American courts.
 
18 In a case like the Deutsche predatory
 
19 pricing case in the EC, where they explicitly
 
20 recognized the multiproduct nature of the firm and
 
21 had to calibrate the predatory pricing rule to
 
22 reflect the fact that there were multiple products
 
23 involved.
 
24 So they used Jerry Fowell-Haber's
 
25 combinatorial cost test to try to establish what the

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1 appropriate price floor was for the particular
 
2 service in question that was allegedly being priced
 
3 below its cost.
 
4 So I think that the robustness of Section 2
 
5 jurisprudence across these different economic
 
6 dimensions is an important issue.
 
7 The other really big thing -- and I will
 
8 stop here -- is remedies and evaluation of the
 
9 efficacy of enforcement and of particular remedies.
 
10 We don't have much of a tradition. I'm not
 
11 sure we have much of a tool kit for knowing whether
 
12 we are systematically improving or reducing consumer
 
13 welfare over the long haul.
 
14 Much of the discussion about whether one
 
15 kind of rule is better than a different kind of rule
 
16 is really a question of are we minimizing the sum of
 
17 type 1 and type 2 errors under one approach rather
 
18 than another.
 
19 I don't know how we can possibly answer that
 
20 question unless we have some sort of time series to
 
21 look at.
 
22 Lawyers, that's not their stock in trade to
 
23 do that sort of thing. It is a very difficult task
 
24 to undertake.
 
25 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: I agree with you on

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1 remedies. I'm looking forward to discussing that
 
2 further with you.
 
3 I know Jim Rill was going to make a comment.
 
4 MR. RILL: I would just as soon follow-up if
 
5 you are going to start on safe harbors. If you want
 
6 to lead that off.
 
7 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Yes, I will. What is
 
8 interesting is, Jeff, I understand your point about,
 
9 for heaven's sakes, when you talk about safe
 
10 harbors, aren't you really talking about a market
 
11 share of safe harbor, and then aren't we going
 
12 backward, not forward, in terms of structural
 
13 analysis.
 
14 I heard what Doug said in agreeing with Rick
 
15 on what the safe harbor ought to be. That requires
 
16 some real analysis to get there.
 
17 A safe harbor not based on structural
 
18 presumptions might help you if you are actually in
 
19 court because it gives you a better chance of
 
20 winning.
 
21 How does that help lawyers who are
 
22 counseling their clients and trying to keep them out
 
23 of there initially?
 
24 What kind of a safe harbor can we have that
 
25 is truly meaningful and keeps people out of the

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1 legal system from the very beginning?
 
2 MR. EISENACH: Just very briefly. There are
 
3 others wiser than me on this.
 
4 First, I'm not opposed in any way to a 75
 
5 percent safe harbor or a 70 percent safe harbor. It
 
6 is better than a 50 percent safe harbor.
 
7 My point really went to the notion that
 
8 surely we can do better than share of the top firm
 
9 as a metric. That surely can't be the best we can
 
10 do.
 
11 But the second point would be that, again, I
 
12 think that the metrics can become more robust and
 
13 more sophisticated without becoming less useful.
 
14 Also, do we have it upside down when we look
 
15 at market shares first and entry second? I think we
 
16 do.
 
17 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Interesting. Jim?
 
18 MR. RILL: I think history has embedded us
 
19 with the notion of at least a market share test for
 
20 a safe harbor, at least as a starting point, only as
 
21 a starting point.
 
22 The International Competition Network
 
23 recently surveyed, as part of its single firm
 
24 conduct working group, the question of whether or
 
25 not -- first of all, I think something like 70

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1 percent agreed that consumer welfare of the 35
 
2 nations that responded to the questionnaire, that
 
3 consumer welfare was the appropriate underlying
 
4 fundamental principle of monopolization Section 2,
 
5 Article 82 and related enforcement technology
 
6 techniques. But very little probing beyond that as
 
7 to what consumer welfare meant.
 
8 I think I have to say that Bob is a little
 
9 bit simplistic on this notion, and I think there is
 
10 a lot more latitude, but that is another issue.
 
11 I think that is a starting point. Again,
 
12 any number, about 70, 80, 90 percent of respondents
 
13 to the questionnaire would use a safe harbor
 
14 threshold of some level of market share, market
 
15 power, if you will.
 
16 Now, some of those safe harbors are rather
 
17 low. I think Japan is around 10 percent, which
 
18 doesn't give me a lot of comfort. 70 percent sounds
 
19 reasonable to me, maybe a little higher.
 
20 But I think we can get beyond that. I think
 
21 there is enough -- a lawyer quite clearly can
 
22 demonstrate, an economist can demonstrate that there
 
23 is a rich body of law in the United States stemming
 
24 from the law of predatory pricing which can bring
 
25 into the notion of consumer welfare certain

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1 operational tests, if you will, that can be safe
 
2 harbors applicable not only in the predatory pricing
 
3 area but with some further depth analysis into areas
 
4 that go beyond single firm predatory pricing, in
 
5 fact, in all pricing areas, bundled pricing, loyalty
 
6 discounts and maybe developing into the areas of
 
7 coercive tying, one wants to think about not
 
8 contractual tie but price-related tie.
 
9 I think a thought given to that kind of an
 
10 operational safe harbor approach is not inconsistent
 
11 either with the unilateral or unitary test.
 
12 It doesn't seem inconsistent with a consumer
 
13 welfare analysis stemming from some of the
 
14 literature, at least in the Trinko decision and more
 
15 recently in the Weyerhaeuser decision, where the
 
16 Supreme Court provided that kind of approach to a
 
17 safe harbor from a legal operational basis and would
 
18 provide significantly greater clarity to those of us
 
19 who are trying to counsel companies and to
 
20 enforcement agencies as they move to the next stage.
 
21 MR. BARNETT: I think Jim's comments
 
22 actually began to quite conveniently and
 
23 appropriately blend into our next topic, having to
 
24 do with a definition of what is monopoly power and
 
25 by your reference to defining that through market

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1 shares.
2 Debbie, I think you are going to lead off on
 
3 that.
 
4 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: I will.
 
5 Doug, you have been dying to jump in on this
 
6 issue. I think it relates. If you want to go
 
7 first.
 
8 MR. MELAMED: I will be very brief.
 
9 Debbie, I was very glad that you asked the
 
10 safe harbor question in terms of the impact on
 
11 counseling rather than just the impact on
 
12 litigators, because the impact of antitrust rules in
 
13 litigation, it seems to me is much less important
 
14 than the impact of those rules on the millions of
 
15 decisions that businesses make every day that don't
 
16 reach the courts, that is, on the guidance that
 
17 antitrust law gives to the business community.
 
18 From my experience in counseling, market
 
19 share-type screens are of limited value because
 
20 market share depends on market definition, and it is
 
21 a binary concept and we are often sitting there,
 
22 saying well, gidgets might be in the market with
 
23 widgets, but they might not be and who knows.
 
24 In my experience, much more useful to the
 
25 client are guidelines and safe harbors that focus on

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1 the nature of the defendant's conduct, things like
 
2 is the price below your avoidable cost, does it make
 
3 business sense, are you sacrificing a profit,
 
4 whatever it may be.
 
5 Even rules of that type I think are bad
 
6 rules are useful for counseling -- rules such as:
 
7 Is the exclusive dealing contract for a duration of
 
8 a year or less?
 
9 Those things that enable the defendant to
 
10 look at his conduct are much more valuable as safe
 
11 harbors than those that require him to analyze the
 
12 market.
 
13 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Okay.
 
14 Susan, as we look at the concept of monopoly
 
15 power and we typically begin the analysis with that
 
16 in a Section 2 context as well as in a Section 1
 
17 context, I should say -- welcome, Tim.
 
18 MR. MURIS: Thanks.
 
19 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: As we look at this, do
 
20 you think it is useful for us to establish a sort of
 
21 conclusive presumption on market share?
 
22 We have had a couple comments here that the
 
23 market share screens are really not that useful and
 
24 you have to do so much analysis anyway in order to
 
25 define the market that it is not that useful.

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1 You have certainly been on the enforcement
 
2 side. What do you think about those kinds of safe
 
3 harbors?
 
4 MS. CREIGHTON: I think both Professor
 
5 Elhauge and also maybe Tom Krattenmaker and
 
6 Professors Lande and Salgo have written a couple of
 
7 articles talking about how market power -- not
 
8 market power -- the percentage of the market that
 
9 you control actually can be helpful as direct
 
10 evidence regarding how profitable is it likely to be
 
11 to you and both your incentives and your ability to
 
12 enter into some kind of exclusionary conduct.
 
13 So it can be direct evidence and quite
 
14 important in that way.
 
15 I do get concerned about using, at least in
 
16 attempt cases, as a screen, because I think if you
 
17 looked at Unocal or Rambus, for example, without
 
18 getting into the -- sort of any standard-setting
 
19 case, the person may have had no market share at all
 
20 in whatever the relevant market was.
 
21 That does not necessarily dictate how
 
22 likely -- what the market share would have been or
 
23 their market power would have been if the
 
24 exclusionary conduct was successful.
 
25 So I would be concerned about saying it is

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1 always required as a preliminary step before you get
 
2 to the question of -- one of the advantages that I
 
3 think or one of the things that American law
 
4 emphasizes which maybe the Europeans don't as much
 
5 is I think for them, they really do focus on market
 
6 share dominance, and then they have very strict
 
7 definitions of if you are one of those folks, what
 
8 can you do.
 
9 In the course of that, they really lose
 
10 sight of the question of the causation and whether
 
11 or not the conduct is conduct that we are concerned
 
12 about in terms of increasing barriers to entry or
 
13 otherwise increasing somebody's market power in a
 
14 way we would be concerned about.
 
15 I would be concerned also about using a
 
16 market power screen in the first instance to make
 
17 sure we don't lose sight of that important
 
18 additional causation requirement.
 
19 I think that could be a danger.
 
20 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: On the question of
 
21 durability, I know that in prior panels the
 
22 panelists really agreed that we need to look at
 
23 market power and whether it is both substantial and
 
24 durable.
 
25 Susan, you certainly but I think everybody

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1 today now does so much work in dynamic industries
 
2 and technology industries in which even if you have
 
3 market power, it might be quite fleeting. There may
 
4 not be a durability.
 
5 Does that make it even less the case today,
 
6 that we should be looking first at market share
 
7 screens as a way to at least start to get into the
 
8 analysis?
 
9 Bob?
 
10 MR. PITOFSKY: I think you put it just right
 
11 toward the end of your remarks.
 
12 Marketshare is the ramp that leads you into
 
13 the analysis. The problem is sometimes judges and
 
14 lawyers think the ball game is over because of the
 
15 way in which the market has been defined. We
 
16 shouldn't do that.
 
17 When you get to the end of the analysis and
 
18 you look at conduct and barriers and all that, you
 
19 go back and see if your market share analysis is
 
20 correct in light of all these factors.
 
21 Of course, substantiality and durability are
 
22 critical. If you have market power, but it only
 
23 survives for a year and then is displaced by some
 
24 other product that is not really market power.
 
25 We know the barrier to entry is important.

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1 This applies to high-tech. I have always been an
 
2 admirer of Andrew Groves' book "Only the Paranoid
 
3 Survive."
 
4 The whole idea of Learned Hand that market
 
5 power is a narcotic and competition is a stimulant,
 
6 you can't say that about these big high-tech
 
7 companies. They are extremely aggressive in their
 
8 innovation, and that's a factor that has to be taken
 
9 into account.
 
10 But unless you start with market power, I
 
11 don't know where else you start. It gets you going,
 
12 because some things, some behavior engaged in by a
 
13 company with 10 percent of the market is legal and
 
14 is illegal if the firm has 90 percent of the market
 
15 is illegal.
 
16 You have to address that question at an
 
17 early point. I skipped over the safe harbor.
 
18 Let me just say that first of all, I'm not
 
19 comfortable with safe harbors. I like rebuttable
 
20 presumptions because there are too many quirky
 
21 situations.
 
22 Somebody has 40 percent of the market but
 
23 everybody else has one percent each. So I think
 
24 that presumption of a safe harbor is rebuttable.
 
25 Secondly, the safe harbor is going to vary

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1 according to the behavior you are dealing with. We
 
2 have safe harbors for exclusive dealing.
 
3 We have safe harbors for tie-in sales in
 
4 terms of the market power of the seller instituting
 
5 that program, 30, 40, 50 percent and so forth.
 
6 When you get to lying to the Patent Office,
 
7 I don't think there is a safe harbor. I don't think
 
8 there should be a safe harbor.
 
9 So I think safe harbors, of course, are
 
10 useful to people who are advising firms about what
 
11 they can and cannot do, but they should vary
 
12 according to the nature of the conduct.
 
13 MR. BARNETT: What if you lie to the Patent
 
14 Office and get a patent that actually confers no
 
15 market power, what do you mean there is no safe
 
16 harbor? Have you violated Section 2 then?
 
17 MR. PITOFSKY: If you lie to the Patent
 
18 Office? You are talking about Walker Process
 
19 insisting on defining the relevant market in order
 
20 to make out a violation for lying to the Patent
 
21 Office?
 
22 MR. BARNETT: The statement was if you lie
 
23 to the Patent Office, there should be no safe
 
24 harbor.
 
25 I'm just wondering what that means in terms

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1 of if you get a patent, I think most of us agree
 
2 that doesn't necessarily give you market power if
 
3 you end up with a patent which does not give you
 
4 market power.
 
5 Have you violated Section 2 or not?
 
6 MR. PITOFSKY: Fair enough. My answer is
 
7 there are no redeeming virtues to lying to the
 
8 Patent Office, none whatsoever.
 
9 MR. BARNETT: I understand. But if I can
 
10 perhaps -- I thought it was a yes or no question.
 
11 MR. PITOFSKY: Okay. Here's my answer to
 
12 that.
 
13 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: You are back in Congress.
 
14 MR. PITOFSKY: Horizontal price fixing may
 
15 confer no market power. We declare it illegal.
 
16 I think lying to the Patent Office is the
 
17 same thing.
 
18 MR. BARNETT: Fair enough.
 
19 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: We have talked about --
 
20 Bob, you and some others have said if we don't start
 
21 with market share, where do we start. We have
 
22 started there for very long time.
 
23 But Jeff Eisenach said why don't we think
 
24 about entry first. I think that's what you said,
 
25 Jeff.

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1 Anybody have any -- Greg?
 
2 MR. SIDAK: I haven't heard anybody utter
 
3 the words price elasticity. That's what I care
 
4 about. I don't care about market shares or entry.
 
5 If I can directly observe the price
 
6 elasticity of demand, I can make an inference about
 
7 whether it is profitable or not profitable to raise
 
8 price.
 
9 Let me give you a hypothetical example.
 
10 Suppose some high-tech industry, a firm has 40
 
11 percent of the market, casually defined.
 
12 It raises the price by 10 percent, and its
 
13 competitors over the same period of time lose market
 
14 share.
 
15 Would we infer that there is not a problem
 
16 because the market share is only 40 percent and that
 
17 is way below Judge Hand's ALCOA threshold or would
 
18 we look at a price increase or loss of competitor
 
19 market share and say that is a more direct set of
 
20 facts that elucidates what the price elasticity of
 
21 demand is?
 
22 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Rick Rule, could you
 
23 counsel a client on that basis?
 
24 MR. RULE: On price elasticities?
 
25 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Not you personally. I

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1 have no doubt you could.
 
2 MR. RULE: I have generally not had to do
 
3 that, fortunately.
 
4 But there are always difficulties, and you
 
5 have to exercise care when you are counseling a
 
6 client. But frankly, I have always found the market
 
7 share requirements of Section 2 to be helpful in
 
8 terms of advising clients.
 
9 There are edge cases where it can be a
 
10 little difficult, and you can tell the client, "gee,
 
11 I know you don't think you have a monopoly and that
 
12 you are in a very competitive world, but there are
 
13 ways in which a court could find the opposite, so
 
14 you have to exercise some care."
 
15 But for a lot of companies, given the nature
 
16 of the industries they are in and what they are
 
17 doing, it is pretty clear that they don't have
 
18 market power, and you can worry about other parts of
 
19 the antitrust laws.
 
20 I will say that it is probably more
 
21 difficult as technology has moved along and as the
 
22 economy has gotten somewhat more dynamic and
 
23 complex, particularly for information industries.
 
24 It becomes a little more difficult to use the market
 
25 power and monopoly power market share screen that

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1 traditionally we have used.
 
2 And I guess for that reason, when you are
 
3 counseling clients, you kind of have to have in the
 
4 back of your mind that there could be a way to
 
5 define the market that would suggest they do have
 
6 monopoly power.
 
7 So then you go directly to conduct. And in
 
8 those industries, particularly, conduct safe harbors
 
9 would probably be very helpful.
 
10 So to some extent, I think conduct safe
 
11 harbors are appropriate there. I will also say,
 
12 interestingly, in information industries, you rarely
 
13 get that concerned, at least I do, about pricing
 
14 issues. Because if you think about it, if they are
 
15 information industries, generally marginal cost will
 
16 be pretty low and you will recognize that predatory
 
17 pricing issues are not that problematic.
 
18 Generally, I think market share screens have
 
19 worked. They are more complex today, but they have
 
20 some value in counsel.
 
21 MR. BARNETT: Related to that, if I could
 
22 follow-up with Greg for a little bit, the economists
 
23 generally tell me that if you think about perfect
 
24 competition, the way you deal with that is you graph
 
25 that and it would be a perfectly horizontal demand

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1 curve, and if you have downward sloping demand
 
2 curve, you have some degree of market power.
 
3 And if you measure that directly, it is
 
4 probably true that the vast majority of firms in the
 
5 United States have a somewhat downward-sloping
 
6 demand curve.
 
7 Does that mean they all have market power
 
8 and we should just move on from there? Or should we
 
9 try to deal with that in some meaningful sense to
 
10 help in part from a counseling perspective?
 
11 MR. SIDAK: Of course, they may have
 
12 differentiated products that explain the downward
 
13 slope of their firm demand curves.
 
14 The slope of the demand curve, of course,
 
15 doesn't tell you whether the firm is earning
 
16 monopoly rent or just quasi, a risk-adjusted return
 
17 on investment in innovative activities, for example.
 
18 So I don't think that the downward-sloping
 
19 demand curve itself is a cause for antitrust
 
20 intervention.
 
21 In terms of the market share, market power
 
22 filter that we have been discussing, I think it is
 
23 possible to directly infer something about the price
 
24 elasticity of demand for a firm even in the absence
 
25 of market shares if you have certain evidence.

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1 So in other words, I don't think you should
 
2 necessarily back away and say, well, this is way
 
3 below Judge Hand's threshold in ALCOA, there is no
 
4 way this could be a monopoly problem. It might be a
 
5 monopoly problem.
 
6 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Tim, you had a comment.
 
7 MR. MURIS: I thought Tom's point was quite
 
8 perceptive. It is not just differentiated products.
 
9 If you walk on the Mall, any hot dog vendor
 
10 who raises his price won't lose all his sales. That
 
11 means the demand is a downward-sloping curve. The
 
12 reason is transaction costs more than anything else;
 
13 in a world of positive costs, just about everybody
 
14 has a downward-sloping demand curve.
 
15 This fact has profound implications for
 
16 antitrust economics. Ben Klein has written the best
 
17 about this in his analysis of the Kodak case and
 
18 other articles.
 
19 It means that it is difficult to have simple
 
20 uses of Lerner indexes and downward sloping demand
 
21 as measures of anything meaningful.
 
22 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Any comment? No?
 
23 MR. SIDAK: A common problem when you start
 
24 looking at industries that are subject to some kind
 
25 of public service regulation, of course, is that

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1 they may be compelled to sell products at low prices
 
2 or even below costs.
 
3 So the Lerner index actually has its
 
4 causation reversed. They have a high market share
 
5 because they are compelled to charge low margins or
 
6 negative margin.
 
7 I agree with Tim that the Lerner index is
 
8 uninformative and potentially misleading in
 
9 situations where you have significant economies of
 
10 scale.
 
11 MR. BARNETT: Jim, I will turn to you for
 
12 our next topic to lead off, because that is bundled
 
13 discounts. You have already revealed a particular
 
14 interest in that area.
 
15 We recently had a report issued by the
 
16 Antitrust Modernization Commission that addressed
 
17 this topic and set forth a three-part test to
 
18 determine whether or not there is a violation of
 
19 Section 2 from bundled discounts.
 
20 Just briefly, the first prong is allocating
 
21 all of the discounts to the competitive product --
 
22 sometimes referred to as the Ortho test -- second,
 
23 whether or not the defendant -- whether it is below
 
24 cost under that measure. Second, whether or not the
 
25 defendant is likely to recoup those losses. And

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1 thirdly, whether the bundled or rebate program has
 
2 had or is likely to have an adverse effect on
 
3 competition.
 
4 Aside from the fact that the third prong
 
5 seems to sort of ask the ultimate question there,
 
6 the question is is this appropriate standard, is it
 
7 appropriate as a safe harbor but perhaps not the
 
8 standard or is it just something we should be
 
9 looking in a different direction?
 
10 MR. RULE: First of all, I think the AMC is
 
11 looking at it only when it relates to conduct by
 
12 someone who is judged to be a monopolist.
 
13 Moving on from that to the operational test,
 
14 I have some difficulty with let's call it the Ortho
 
15 or AMC allocation formula, both from an operational
 
16 and from, I think, an analytical standpoint.
 
17 From an operational standpoint, the
 
18 allocation itself of the totality of the discount
 
19 across to the single let's call it target product
 
20 creates something of a daunting task, and there is a
 
21 margin or opportunity for error there that I think
 
22 is quite substantial.
 
23 Secondly, from an analytical standpoint, I
 
24 think maybe it is operational as well, it raises the
 
25 problem of double counting or multiple penalties.

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1 Just to take a hypothetical industry, if
 
2 someone sues on Post-its, and someone else sues on
 
3 sponges, and someone else sues on tape, and there
 
4 are three cases going on at the same time, does one
 
5 allocate the totality of the package discount to
 
6 each of those products, and in what position does
 
7 that put the defendant in?
 
8 However, I think I prefer that there is a
 
9 solid operational test to safe harbor. The
 
10 proposition that I think is embraced in Tim's
 
11 statement to the AMC is that the allocation of total
 
12 cost to total bundles would be a better way of
 
13 looking at a test that might suggest illegality.
 
14 On the other hand, it is possible that the
 
15 allocation test or the Ortho or AMC formula of
 
16 allocation, would be appropriate as a safe harbor.
 
17 This is the position taken in the brief of
 
18 several law professors recently filed in the Ninth
 
19 Circuit in the Peace Health case, Professor Crane
 
20 and others.
 
21 Recognizing that the difficulties that we
 
22 have suggested with that test as a presumption of
 
23 illegality, it might serve a purpose at least of a
 
24 safe harbor if practicable.
 
25 So far as recoupment is concerned, I think

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1 in a pricing case, recoupment should be an element
 
2 of the offense and should be considered as part of
 
3 the potential safe harbor.
 
4 MR. BARNETT: Bob?
 
5 MR. PITOFSKY: Let me second what Jim has
 
6 just said and then let people take shots at it.
 
7 First of all, back to Doug's excellent point
 
8 in opening this whole discussion.
 
9 What is this all about? What are we
 
10 quarreling about here? It seems to me the point of
 
11 bundled discounts is it gives consumers a break. We
 
12 ought to not be too aggressive in deterring it.
 
13 We should not overdeter it, it, but be
 
14 careful in this area. Second, it seems to me to be
 
15 more sensible, as the Aveeda-Turner Treatise
 
16 originally said about this question when it first
 
17 came up, you want to allocate the discounts product
 
18 by product rather than put all of the discounts to
 
19 one product.
 
20 There is a serious danger that will drive
 
21 the price of that product below whatever predatory
 
22 pricing turns out to be.
 
23 So I share Jim's view. I think LePage's was
 
24 wrong, and if the court gets to overturn it and come
 
25 up with a more sensible rule, the better off we all

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1 are.
 
2 MR. BARNETT: Tim?
 
3 MR. MURIS: Obviously, anything is better
 
4 than 3M, than turning it over to the jury.
 
5 The AMC deserves credit for trying to devise
 
6 a test. But there are serious theoretical,
 
7 empirical, and practical problems.
 
8 As Dennis Carlton said in the AMC report,
 
9 the bundled discounts can be used for procompetitive
 
10 reasons. For example, price discrimination can be
 
11 anticompetitive or procompetitive. It is difficult
 
12 to separate pro from anti and we need to be careful
 
13 for that reason.
 
14 The second theoretical problem is the
 
15 premise of the AMC allocation is to protect "equally
 
16 efficient competitors." The problem -- and there is
 
17 a nice footnote in the government's LePage's brief
 
18 about this -- is that someone who sells you one
 
19 thing that you want can't be as efficient as someone
 
20 who sells you two things that you want.
 
21 So the AMC's premise is a problem.
 
22 Moreover, empirically we know almost nothing that
 
23 tells us that there are anticompetitive problems
 
24 from bundling. Vernon Smith and I have put together
 
25 a paper that summarizes the work of his group, which

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1 spent a lot of time using experimental economics to
 
2 take the theories of anticompetitive bundling and
 
3 show they actually hurt consumers.
 
4 Well, it was almost impossible to do. They
 
5 did find some ambiguous cases. Yet, if you do
 
6 anything to those ambiguous cases, bundling becomes
 
7 efficient. Thus, if the monopolist lacks a 100
 
8 percent share, if there are any efficiencies, like
 
9 transaction cost savings, and if you don't have very
 
10 strange-looking demand curves, bundling becomes
 
11 efficient. Obviously, experimental economics has
 
12 its limits, but it is certainly superior to simple
 
13 theoretical arguments.
 
14 There is also a tremendous practical
 
15 problem. Greg has done a lot of useful work in
 
16 valuing regulatory agencies, and there is some older
 
17 and good literature about allocating joint and
 
18 common costs. If you start trying to do this across
 
19 the products in a bundle, it is completely arbitrary
 
20 in terms of allocating these costs to some products
 
21 and not to others.
 
22 Finally, I do agree we need a safe harbor.
 
23 The Brooke Group allocation, the more general
 
24 allocation that Jim and Bob are discussing is the
 
25 one that I would support.

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1 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Doug?
 
2 MR. MELAMED: There is a lot of force to
 
3 Tim's points.
 
4 I completely agree that economies of scope
 
5 are relevant economies and should be taken into
 
6 account in the efficiency analysis.
 
7 I think there is a lot of force to Tim's
 
8 notion that maybe because we don't have a lot of
 
9 confidence that, bundling is likely over a lot of
 
10 cases to reduce consumer welfare, we should paint
 
11 with a broad brush and apply the Brooke Group test
 
12 to the package.
 
13 But, ultimately, I don't agree with Tim
 
14 because, first of all, I think the premise which Tim
 
15 didn't state but I think Bob did, that bundled
 
16 discounting is like single-firm price cutting --
 
17 that it is a price reduction that has short-term
 
18 benefits for the consumer -- is not necessarily
 
19 correct. In order to say that, we need to know what
 
20 the but-for pricing would have been. I think it may
 
21 well be the case that, in the absence of bundling,
 
22 the stand-alone prices would be lower than they
 
23 would be with the bundled offering provided. So the
 
24 discount might be mythic.
 
25 One can imagine situations in which one

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1 would increase the price on the monopoly product and
 
2 use the margins there to subsidize below-cost
 
3 pricing on another product, and you can imagine some
 
4 competitive harm from that.
 
5 So where I come out is to think that the
 
6 AMC's three-part test -- ought to be a safe harbor,
 
7 but it shouldn't be the end of the analysis.
 
8 I agree with Dennis Carlton. I think his
 
9 articulation in the AMC Report is right. That's a
 
10 safe harbor. But you also have to -- Dennis
 
11 actually admitted this, although he is not a
 
12 supporter of the no economic sense test, he admitted
 
13 what he was articulating as his separate statement
 
14 was that no economic sense test.
 
15 You ought to allow the defendant and the
 
16 plaintiff to duke it out over whether the bundling
 
17 made economic sense.
 
18 MR. PITOFSKY: Very briefly.
 
19 MR. BARNETT: Sure.
 
20 MR. PITOFSKY: I have never seen a bundling
 
21 that you can have A, B, C separate price, if you
 
22 take all three, I will give you 10 percent off. I
 
23 have never seen a situation where that produces
 
24 higher prices than bundling produces.
 
25 More important, the idea that we should

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1 somehow examine bundling by taking into account the
 
2 efficiency of the bundler and the efficiency of the
 
3 company that doesn't have the bundled offering, just
 
4 think about that from the point of view of
 
5 counseling.
 
6 Just think about the businessman saying,
 
7 "well, if I do this, will I be in trouble?"
 
8 "No, not if the other fellow is not equally
 
9 efficient as you and therefore is driven out. On
 
10 the other hand, if they are equally efficient and
 
11 this puts them out of business, you are in a lot of
 
12 trouble."
 
13 How does the businessman know what the level
 
14 of efficiency is? Not only doesn't he know his own
 
15 level of efficiency, but how is he possibly going to
 
16 know the level of efficiency of the other guy?
 
17 I think -- I have been there. I tried to
 
18 draft a subpoena to figure out whether the other
 
19 company was equally efficient. It was a disaster.
 
20 It wasted a lot of money and we never got anywhere.
 
21 MR. BARNETT: You are not going to get
 
22 private counselor subpoena power, I assume.
 
23 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: I think Jeff wanted --
 
24 MR. EISENACH: I want to speak up in defense
 
25 of recoupment. And in the same spirit as earlier,

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1 speak about the importance of entry.
 
2 All of these behaviors are designed to
 
3 foreclose in the sense of capturing market share.
 
4 The question I think we want to look to is
 
5 whether enforcement offers a way of going forward to
 
6 police prices at or near the competitive level and
 
7 police behavior at or near the competitive level.
 
8 If recoupment isn't possible, then it seems unlikely
 
9 to me that enforcement is improving consumer
 
10 welfare.
 
11 MR. BARNETT: Can I ask, is there a
 
12 difference -- and maybe this would go to Jim and Bob
 
13 as much as anyone -- if the plaintiff comes in and
 
14 alleges a bundled discount, you apply the standard
 
15 that you were suggesting or the plaintiff comes in,
 
16 same set of facts, and says this is an illegal
 
17 tie-in.
 
18 Is it the same analysis? I assume we agree
 
19 that at some level a pricing structure could be
 
20 labeled a de facto tie-in and tying theoretically
 
21 could apply.
 
22 Does it matter what label the plaintiff puts
 
23 on it or is there some other way to distinguish
 
24 between those two types of claims?
 
25 MR. RILL: I assume you are talking about

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1 what would be a pricing tie rather than a clear
 
2 contractual tie.
 
3 With respect to I think the unicorn of a
 
4 pricing tie, I see no reason why there would be any
 
5 different test as to what is the nature of the
 
6 plaintiff's claim.
 
7 I know that Hovenkamp and others would
 
8 suggest that tying analysis is the right analysis to
 
9 apply to bundled pricing.
 
10 At the same time, at the end of the day, he
 
11 comes out with a test that is very much like,
 
12 depending on when and what you read in Hovenkamp, it
 
13 is either Ortho or Brooke Group, depending on
 
14 whether it is the book or the most recent article.
 
15 I think the analytical formula should be
 
16 exactly the same. If it is time to apply tying
 
17 rules to Section 2, I think that's a good move, too.
 
18 The tying should be analyzed under Section 2
 
19 rather than as a per se offense as the courts at
 
20 least currently view it.
 
21 I see no reason why you would deviate from
 
22 the kind of safe harbor approach in tying as you
 
23 would in a claim that is a pure pricing claim.
 
24 MR. PITOFSKY: I must say that's a tough
 
25 one. The treatise position, as I recall it, is if

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1 everybody takes the discount offer, it's a tie.
 
2 That doesn't mean it is illegal. It should
 
3 be treated as a tie.
 
4 If a relatively small number of people say
 
5 "I don't want that deal, I will stick with buying
 
6 separately," then you treat it generously. It is
 
7 not a tie; it is bundling. And for all the reasons
 
8 that we have already discussed here, it turns out
 
9 the customer gets a bargain.
 
10 That is about as generous as I think we
 
11 probably ought to go, although, as I say, I did
 
12 contend once that as long as you can buy the
 
13 products separately, if you can get them for less, I
 
14 wouldn't be unhappy if that were per se legal.
 
15 MR. RULE: I think the question about
 
16 tie-ins and comparing that to bundled discounts is a
 
17 good one because it points out one of the flaws in
 
18 the AMC rule and a lot of the rules, from my
 
19 perspective.
 
20 I think it is true that the kind of three
 
21 parts, at least the first part, ought to be viewed
 
22 as a safe harbor. And if that condition exists,
 
23 that you allocate all of the discount to the
 
24 supposed competitive product and the price is still
 
25 above some incremental cost, then it seems to me

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1 that it ought to be in the safe harbor.
 
2 But ultimately the question of whether or
 
3 not it is illegal ought to be related to the degree
 
4 of exclusion or foreclosure that is created.
 
5 The problem in saying that that's not
 
6 incorporated in the AMC test is who knows what the
 
7 third step means. Maybe that's what they meant by
 
8 the third step.
 
9 I think noting that a bundled discount could
 
10 be viewed, under certain circumstances at least, as
 
11 a price tie points out, or to some extent
 
12 exclusionary conduct generally points out, the fact
 
13 that all of the tests ought to be focused at the end
 
14 of the day on the extent to which they exclude
 
15 competition, not just competitors from the
 
16 marketplace.
 
17 There ought to be some notion of that. For
 
18 example, if relatively few consumers actually take
 
19 the discount, then it is a little difficult to say
 
20 that there is some sort of exclusionary impact. And
 
21 that ought to be the end of the story, whether you
 
22 view it as a tie or bundled discount or anything
 
23 else.
 
24 One of the problems -- and this is one of
 
25 the problems I had with the unitary rules, profit

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1 sacrifice and that sort of thing -- is they don't
 
2 focus on the degree of foreclosure or exclusion.
 
3 I think if you ignore that, you potentially
 
4 end up challenging a lot of conduct that is not
 
5 necessarily anticompetitive.
 
6 It is also the reason that I think the
 
7 incorporation of the recoupment test, as a couple
 
8 people have already said, in a number of different
 
9 areas is at least a start in terms of focusing on
 
10 exclusion, because the recoupment test sort of
 
11 presumes that there is exclusion and that there
 
12 cannot be reentry, and that's the way recoupment
 
13 occurs.
 
14 So at least the recoupment test has that
 
15 benefit. In my mind, at least, in predatory
 
16 pricing, that has been the principal innovation that
 
17 has made it less of a problem, because the cost
 
18 tests were always very hard and difficult and
 
19 time-consuming to litigate.
 
20 The recoupment test, which I think can
 
21 dispose of a large fraction of predatory pricing
 
22 cases and probably a lot of these other cases at the
 
23 end of the day, indicates that there is really no
 
24 harm to consumer welfare; there is no exclusion that
 
25 you need to be concerned about.

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1 MR. BARNETT: Tim?
 
2 MR. MURIS: Theoretically, tying is
 
3 different. The problem is in what is mostly the
 
4 vast wasteland of modern IO, of which I'm not a fan,
 
5 obviously, tying can be a problem.
 
6 What we know about bundling is that it is
 
7 efficient and the experimental evidence really
 
8 supports what Bob is saying. If it is really a
 
9 bundle, which means that it is not a tie, there are
 
10 people buying the bundle products as separate
 
11 products. The bundle thus is not a de facto tie.
 
12 It is hard for me to envision a case where
 
13 we would attack bundle. Yet from what we know about
 
14 the theoretical literature of tying and the lack of
 
15 evidence there is slightly more support for worrying
 
16 about tying.
 
17 There is a Sibley paper, which says that the
 
18 problem with bundling is that it is a de facto tie.
 
19 Yet, the second version showed you need to
 
20 have perfect competition to have a problem. Of
 
21 course, we don't have perfect competition.
 
22 So, the de facto tie didn't prove to be a
 
23 very strong reason to worry. We tried to test that
 
24 in the experimental setting. Again, that proved
 
25 something close to the empty set for anticompetitive

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1 conduct.
 
2 MR. BARNETT: Doug?
 
3 MR. MELAMED: Two things. Rick repeatedly
 
4 said we ought to have a rigorous requirement of harm
 
5 to competition.
 
6 I assume we all agree with that. That's not
 
7 the issue.
 
8 Certainly at least one person who has
 
9 written in favor of a so-called unitary test -- I
 
10 think two of us actually did -- tried to make it
 
11 perfectly clear that of course you have to have
 
12 proof that the conduct had an impact, injured
 
13 competition, but then went on to say, let's talk
 
14 about a second way a defendant could win the case
 
15 even if the conduct excludes competition because a
 
16 better mousetrap could do that. Let's focus on the
 
17 conduct element.
 
18 I assume everybody agrees here we have to
 
19 have a rigorous competitive effects test.
 
20 On the question of, is it tying or is it
 
21 bundling and what is the difference, and listening
 
22 to Tim talk, I can't help but ask why are we
 
23 worrying about the kind of analogical issue of what
 
24 category does the conduct fall into.
 
25 To do that, we have to define the conduct.

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1 Then we have to put it into a category. Then think
 
2 of the rule for that category. We wind up with a
 
3 lot of formal distinctions and without overarching
 
4 principles to give guidance to a court like the
 
5 LePage's court when it has something that doesn't
 
6 fall into a specific category.
 
7 Why don't we simply think of the facts of a
 
8 case of bundling, for example, and ask, how do we
 
9 think we ought to analyze it, without worrying about
 
10 what is the better analogy -- predatory pricing or
 
11 tying or exclusive dealing or whatever the next
 
12 category of the day might be.
 
13 MR. BARNETT: If I can briefly follow-up
 
14 though.
 
15 If we abandoned the unitary test and are
 
16 going to apply different operational tests to
 
17 different contexts, doesn't that necessarily create
 
18 the need to decide which bucket you are in?
 
19 MR. MELAMED: I guess I would say we
 
20 shouldn't have that need.
 
21 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Really?
 
22 MR. RULE: Let me make one point.
 
23 It is nice when folks say that exclusion
 
24 ought to be an element. It wasn't really in the
 
25 government's brief, as I read it, when they

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1 articulated the unitary effect test.
 
2 It is simply some harm to a competitor,
 
3 which is very different. That's what it said.
 
4 There was no quantitative exclusion.
 
5 The only place I have ever seen it is in
 
6 exclusive dealing cases. Even there, to some
 
7 extent, the government backed off of that in some of
 
8 the cases.
 
9 So you may be right and maybe that's a
 
10 standard. But that is not generally how it has been
 
11 articulated to the court.
 
12 If you look at what Judge Jackson said in
 
13 the Microsoft case in the District Court, that is
 
14 not how he viewed it.
 
15 The profit sacrifice test is generally
 
16 viewed as being a problem and negating the need to
 
17 actually look at whether there is a quantitative
 
18 measure of exclusion of competition from the
 
19 marketplace.
 
20 But if you are saying that, "no, in fact
 
21 that is a precursor and this is another way and all
 
22 the unitary test is designed to do is provide an
 
23 additional safe harbor," I guess I don't dislike it
 
24 as much as I thought I did.
 
25 But that's not the way I have ever seen it

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1 articulated in any of the court's briefs and I
 
2 thought in your articles as well as others, but I
 
3 will have to go back and reread them.
 
4 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Anything else before we
 
5 move on to loyalty discounts?
 
6 I will ask a bridge question, bundled
 
7 discounts, bundled rebates and loyalty discounts.
 
8 And that is we do hear a lot that this is an area
 
9 within antitrust law in which everyone could use
 
10 more guidance. I certainly understand that.
 
11 But I have a question that's related which
 
12 is how big a problem is it that there isn't more
 
13 guidance? In other words, how often is this coming
 
14 up?
 
15 Obviously, you can't tell me in some
 
16 measured sense. I'm just curious, as you are
 
17 counseling clients, whether these are issues, these
 
18 pricing and discounting issues are sort of burning
 
19 on the agenda for clients on a pretty regular basis.
 
20 Doug?
 
21 MR. MELAMED: I think that, because there is
 
22 less, there is probably more confusion or unease
 
23 about the bundling law post LePage's, it is probably
 
24 an area where the clients and their counselors feel
 
25 a little less sure footed.

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1 It is a problem. Is it crippling the
 
2 American economy? No.
 
3 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: I'm glad about that.
 
4 Jim?
 
5 MR. RILL: Look at some of the cases coming
 
6 up and you will see it is a problem.
 
7 You have cases that are for some strange
 
8 reason being focused in the Third Circuit on bundled
 
9 prices and loyalty discounts.
 
10 You have a case coming up in the Ninth
 
11 Circuit, Cascade, the Sixth Circuit, Wyatt, all of
 
12 which are being argued. And in the Ninth Circuit
 
13 District Court construction is literally lifted from
 
14 LePage's that resulted in a plaintiff's verdict
 
15 there.
 
16 Yes, it is an important problem.
 
17 Let me bridge, to use your term, to the
 
18 global aspect of the problem, because I think we
 
19 can't ignore and shouldn't ignore the uncertainty
 
20 and prevalence of the uncertainty surrounding these
 
21 kinds of practices overseas.
 
22 I think we are aware of circumstances in
 
23 Europe and the Far East where the law is, if you
 
24 will, less developed or developing, not developing
 
25 in the way we would want to develop it.

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1 I think to the extent that the views of the
 
2 United States in these areas could be made known and
 
3 enforcement agencies in these areas could be made
 
4 known explicitly in an effort through international
 
5 organizations to secure convergence, dealing with a
 
6 problem that is not a theoretical or merely an
 
7 academically interesting problem but one that has
 
8 real meaning overseas to companies that operate in
 
9 the global marketplace, which are increasing.
 
10 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: A question related to one
 
11 of Bob's points.
 
12 The difficulty is we can't know how much the
 
13 uncertainty contributes to inhibiting procompetitive
 
14 discounting of price cutting certainly.
 
15 It is interesting, and Susan will appreciate
 
16 this. Tim Muris walked into the room and the
 
17 temperature in my Commission room mysteriously went
 
18 way down to below levels that I think are
 
19 appropriate.
 
20 Susan.
 
21 MS. CREIGHTON: Representing a lot of
 
22 high-tech clients --
 
23 MR. MURIS: I didn't do anything. But I'm
 
24 warm.
 
25 MS. CREIGHTON: It is not the thermometer.

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1 It is just your presence that causes that.
 
2 MR. MURIS: I'm not sure what to make of
 
3 that.
 
4 MS. CREIGHTON: I can't actually speak to
 
5 the counseling question you asked, Debbie, because I
 
6 mostly have high-tech clients, and price bundling
 
7 isn't a pressing issue so much for them.
 
8 But I wonder whether some of the problem in
 
9 bundling isn't so much that this is a huge issue so
 
10 much as just the LePage's decision was so bad.
 
11 I would note in the Peace Health case which
 
12 is one of the ones in the Ninth Circuit, the jury
 
13 actually found for the defendant in the tying claim,
 
14 they found no competitive effect.
 
15 I would throw out the possibility that any
 
16 reasonable standard amongst whether the AMC or the
 
17 one that Tim has articulated might go a long way
 
18 towards addressing the problem.
 
19 So it is not that you have to get it exactly
 
20 right than it is the one we have right now is so
 
21 wrong that it really generates problems that might
 
22 otherwise be unmanageable.
 
23 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Thank you.
 
24 Let's move to loyalty discounts and talk
 
25 about that a little bit. I have a couple of

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1 questions that I want to throw out.
 
2 One is once again looking at what our
 
3 standard ought to be as we look at this again. This
 
4 is an area involving price cutting and discounting.
 
5 So if we are looking at -- when we look at
 
6 predatory pricing, when we look at bundled
 
7 discounts, as Bob Pitofsky points out, we have to be
 
8 careful because discounting is most often
 
9 pro-consumer.
 
10 The interesting thing for me when I look at
 
11 loyalty discounts is to look first at exclusive
 
12 dealing and the way we look at that. And we find so
 
13 often that exclusive dealing is not in fact an
 
14 anticompetitive problem.
 
15 And loyalty discounts I think, it seems in
 
16 my mind, then move even closer on the scale toward
 
17 the area in which we don't have a big problem with
 
18 it, right, because in many ways, I would think,
 
19 loyalty discounts are less exclusionary than
 
20 exclusive dealing, it seems. Yet we do see
 
21 complaints about loyalty discounts in markets.
 
22 There is no question about it.
 
23 First, if you have any views on my general
 
24 point, and then second, looking at what the test
 
25 ought to be.

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1 I know Professor Hovenkamp has said, as
 
2 others have, you basically apply a Brooke Group type
 
3 test to loyalty discounts.
 
4 What does the group think about what how we
 
5 ought to be evaluating these situations?
 
6 Nobody interested in loyalty discounts.
 
7 MR. MELAMED: No. You were speaking. I was
 
8 listening.
 
9 MR. PITOFSKY: I know little about this.
 
10 Therefore, I will speak on it.
 
11 I think there is less of a problem with
 
12 loyalty discounts then with exclusive dealing for
 
13 two simple reasons. Almost all loyalty discounts I
 
14 have ever seen are less than 100 percent. They are
 
15 partial exclusive dealing contracts.
 
16 Secondly, if halfway through the year you
 
17 decide it is not worth it, you just opt out of the
 
18 program. Somebody else comes along and says now for
 
19 an exclusive dealing contract, I will give you an
 
20 even better deal, you say, okay, I lose out on my
 
21 loyalty discount but take your deal.
 
22 I don't regard it as much of a clog on
 
23 competition, and it is lowering price in the
 
24 direction of the consumer.
 
25 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Not a big issue.

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1 MR. RULE: Just out of the need to fill some
 
2 dead air, I again think this is an area where, if
 
3 you focus on what the exclusionary impact is, it
 
4 will get rid of a lot of cases.
 
5 To the extent I have seen loyalty discounts,
 
6 they tend to have the benefit and they tend to be
 
7 used with certain distribution channels to incent
 
8 them to do certain things. It can be a pretty
 
9 effective tool, at least in theory.
 
10 The one place where the Department of
 
11 Justice at least has conducted more than one
 
12 investigation -- I'm sure they have done it in other
 
13 places, but the one I'm aware of -- is with respect
 
14 to travel agent commission overrides in the airline
 
15 industry.
 
16 Every time they have looked at them, they
 
17 have concluded they were not really a problem.
 
18 One of the reasons they weren't a problem
 
19 is, first, they were designed to incent travel
 
20 agents to sell a particular airline's tickets.
 
21 But, second, by and large, notwithstanding
 
22 certain articles that have been written by certain
 
23 people that travel agent commission overrides tended
 
24 to reinforce hub dominance, the fact is that when
 
25 you actually looked at the evidence, they weren't

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1 effective in keeping discounters out who came in on
 
2 a route-by-route basis and basically could get
 
3 travel agents to sell their tickets on the
 
4 individual routes as opposed to the network the
 
5 incumbent carriers had.
 
6 Generally, I'm not aware of any good case
 
7 that's ever been pointed to where a loyalty discount
 
8 has really had an anticompetitive effect.
 
9 So for that reason, I do think that it is
 
10 probably not something worth spending a lot of time
 
11 on. Probably, if you apply a Brooke Group test to
 
12 it, it will dispose of virtually all of the cases
 
13 anybody could bring.
 
14 MS. CREIGHTON: Maybe I could articulate a
 
15 slightly dissenting view.
 
16 One of the things that strikes me about
 
17 loyalty discounts, as compared to exclusive dealing,
 
18 is they are not found in nature.
 
19 You find everybody who has exclusive dealing
 
20 contracts, whether they have 1 percent market share
 
21 or 50 percent market share. I think we only see
 
22 loyalty discounts from firms which have substantial
 
23 positions in the market.
 
24 I do think it is a question about whether or
 
25 not in a particular case they can be used to keep

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1 rivals from gaining effective scale.
 
2 So I think that would be the one context in
 
3 which I would be interested in knowing more, is
 
4 whether or not if there are markets in which
 
5 achieving sufficient scale is critical and the
 
6 purpose of the loyalty discount really is to
 
7 foreclose that.
 
8 MR. MELAMED: I think both of Susan's
 
9 comments are quite right.
 
10 But I also think that what Rick said a
 
11 minute ago is also correct. And that is, if you
 
12 look at competitive effects, you often can allay the
 
13 concerns about loyalty discounts because the best
 
14 theoretical arguments I have heard against loyalty
 
15 discounts have to do with the steep kind of cliff
 
16 discount at a particular output, where you are in
 
17 effect paying a huge discount or sometimes even
 
18 negative price for the marginal sale.
 
19 There are many instances in which, if you
 
20 allocate the discount, as it were, to a handful of
 
21 sales in order to make the discount look like it is
 
22 below cost, you will be talking about a volume of
 
23 sales too small to have an impact on competition.
 
24 And so, if you marry both Susan's concerns
 
25 and Rick's focus on competitive effects, I think you

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1 still find very few instances in which loyalty
 
2 discounts are likely to be anticompetitive.
 
3 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Tim?
 
4 MR. MURIS: The point Susan makes about
 
5 scale is the modern theory of negative exclusion.
 
6 But, it has problems.
 
7 Michael Winston pioneered this theory. In
 
8 this room on September 11, 2001, unfortunately, we
 
9 had leading IO economists talking about the issue.
 
10 Michael said, "it may have helped my reputation, but
 
11 I don't have a clue if it has any empirical
 
12 meaning."
 
13 If what Susan says is correct -- and I don't
 
14 know that it is or is not -- unlike bundling and
 
15 exclusive dealing which we find everywhere, loyalty
 
16 discounts are somehow a practice that we only find
 
17 with firms with very large market shares, and that
 
18 would be a very interesting fact. I don't know if
 
19 somebody has done a survey or has published
 
20 something. But that would be a fact that would
 
21 distinguish it from other practices.
 
22 I still agree with the sentiment that it is
 
23 hard to think that this kind of pricing practice
 
24 would be generally anticompetitive. But maybe it is
 
25 different. I just don't know of that evidence.

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1 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Okay. Why don't we take
 
2 a 15-minute break at this point, and we will see you
 
3 at roughly 11:15.
 
4 (Recess.)
 
5 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: All right. We will get
 
6 back to it, then.
 
7 I'm going to start the second half here
 
8 talking a little bit about tying.
 
9 We have obviously done some of that
 
10 naturally in our other discussion, which highlights
 
11 the fact that it is not very easy to put these in
 
12 distinct buckets as one might think.
 
13 Let me just start with a question. There
 
14 was a lot of discussion on the panels about
 
15 Jefferson Parish, about the per se rule or maybe you
 
16 could say the so-called per se rule that the court
 
17 in Jefferson Parish seems to be laying out there.
 
18 There was a lot of discussion in our panels
 
19 about that and I think the belief of a lot of people
 
20 that in fact they are not even sure that Jefferson
 
21 Parish really did set out a real per se rule and if
 
22 it did, that that rule has seen better days and
 
23 that, in fact, we ought to get on with moving toward
 
24 admitting that we are moving toward a rule of reason
 
25 in the tying area.

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1 Do folks agree with this? Is this almost
 
2 without controversy anymore in the United States?
 
3 Jeff?
 
4 MR. EISENACH: Yes.
 
5 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: That's what I thought.
 
6 That's why I wanted to get it out of the way.
 
7 Anybody else?
 
8 MR. SIDAK: I agree. Uncontroversial.
 
9 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Anybody want to take a
 
10 dissenting view on that?
 
11 All right. That's what I thought. We will
 
12 move on.
 
13 I want to talk a little bit about something
 
14 that I find to be more interesting and potentially
 
15 very important not only in the United States in our
 
16 dynamic economy today but certainly around the
 
17 world, and that is tying obviously can be achieved
 
18 through contract, which is how I think we most often
 
19 think of it, but it can also be achieved
 
20 technologically, which we think about more today
 
21 because the Microsoft case brought it front and
 
22 center to our attention. But in fact this has been
 
23 going on forever.
 
24 Air conditioners, as I understand it --
 
25 though of course I can't remember this -- used to be

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1 an add-on in your car. I was told this.
 
2 MR. MURIS: We all know you are a mere
 
3 child.
 
4 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: I wouldn't go that far.
 
5 But as I was told, air conditioners used to be
 
6 something you would put in under your dashboard.
 
7 And eventually the air conditioner became actually
 
8 part of the car that you buy today.
 
9 So you could call that, I suppose, a
 
10 technological tie.
 
11 Should our standard for legality be
 
12 different, whether we are talking about contractual
 
13 tying or technological tying?
 
14 Greg?
 
15 MR. SIDAK: I argued since the early '80s
 
16 that technological tying with respect to product
 
17 innovations ought to be per se legal, that if you
 
18 had to choose between per se illegality or per se
 
19 legality, I think the error costs are such that you
 
20 are better off not trying to chase this particular
 
21 business conduct.
 
22 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Susan?
 
23 MS. CREIGHTON: I'm actually of mixed mind
 
24 on this.
 
25 I strongly understand the need to have clear

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1 rules, and I suppose if one -- I can see the strong
 
2 argument for having a rule of per se legality.
 
3 I think the only question I have in my mind
 
4 is if it were shown that the technological tie
 
5 actually decreased performance of the product, would
 
6 that cause me to have any different view would be
 
7 the only reason to tie actually.
 
8 I don't know. Is this a version of no
 
9 economic sense? If it actually hampered your
 
10 ability to sell the product or its performance,
 
11 would I still be of the same view? And I guess I
 
12 would throw that out as a question.
 
13 I'm not sure how I would come out on it.
 
14 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Doug, do you have
 
15 anything?
 
16 MR. MELAMED: I understand all the reasons
 
17 why courts have to tread very carefully in the area
 
18 of product design innovation. But if a tie or any
 
19 innovative product design has a tie-out feature,
 
20 then I don't think we should be talking about per se
 
21 legality.
 
22 For example, let's imagine that Microsoft,
 
23 instead of trying to do in Netscape the way the
 
24 court found it did, had done it by designing a new
 
25 operating system that included not only its own

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1 bundler but incompatibility with Netscape,
 
2 ostensibly because that was the best way to make
 
3 Explorer work well with the operating system.
 
4 I don't think that kind of so-called
 
5 innovation should be beyond the reach of the courts.
 
6 A test something like Susan articulated would be the
 
7 right test.
 
8 MR. SIDAK: Do you think that as a practical
 
9 matter the outcomes will be much different under the
 
10 two different rules?
 
11 MR. MELAMED: The problem is when we talk
 
12 about practical matter, we are often asking
 
13 ourselves whether can we think of any cases that
 
14 would have been decided differently.
 
15 But if you ask a different question --
 
16 whether the business community might behave
 
17 differently -- there is a real risk that a safe
 
18 harbor for innovation, will induce some firms to
 
19 manipulate their interfaces and their product
 
20 designs to exclude nascent rivals.
 
21 I can't prove that, of course, because we
 
22 are trying to prove a world which didn't have the
 
23 deterrent attributes that the law has brought to the
 
24 world we have experienced. But that would be my
 
25 conjecture.

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1 MS. CREIGHTON: My experience has been
 
2 counseling on both sides of that question that that
 
3 kind of arbitrary interface problem actually is
 
4 rampant in high technology.
 
5 So I don't think it is actually a
 
6 hypothetical question. While I'm very sympathetic
 
7 to the policy concerns about anything less than
 
8 per se legality, having something less than that
 
9 could make quite a difference in high technology.
 
10 MR. RULE: I'm curious, as somebody who
 
11 occasionally counsels on this issue, how you think
 
12 that rule would work, Doug.
 
13 Because it is true that if you have to
 
14 choose interfaces, sometimes you choose interfaces
 
15 that, typically you will choose that, allow your
 
16 products to work better and probably differ from
 
17 some competitor's product and require the competitor
 
18 to change its product in order to operate as well.
 
19 MR. MELAMED: Here's what I would do. I
 
20 would not do balancing and not do a rule of reason
 
21 analysis and all that stuff I criticized already
 
22 this morning.
 
23 I would say the plaintiff whose product has
 
24 been excluded by the new design of his dominant
 
25 rival's product has the burden of proving that the

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1 particular aspect or feature or component of the new
 
2 product that excludes him didn't serve a legitimate
 
3 purpose.
 
4 MR. RULE: The problem is that, for example,
 
5 in choosing interfaces, from what I have seen, to
 
6 some extent there is an element of arbitrariness or
 
7 at least subjectivity on the part of the software
 
8 designer.
 
9 They have to make choices. And they may
 
10 make choices that can be viewed objectively by
 
11 certain engineers -- and, again, the problem with
 
12 asking an engineer a question is every engineer
 
13 comes to a problem with his or her own bias. So it
 
14 is a little hard to ask an engineer.
 
15 There is that element of arbitrariness and
 
16 subjectivity. The difficulty is, when you go to a
 
17 judge, convincing the judge, "well, we had to make a
 
18 choice at the time, your Honor, this happened to be
 
19 the sort of technology, the sort of approach that
 
20 the software designer was used to and preferred, and
 
21 that's why he or she did it.
 
22 "But can we say that in some absolute sense
 
23 it was the absolute best, or that the company spent
 
24 a lot of time trying to figure out among the
 
25 different alternatives what was the best or whether

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1 or not instead of coming up with a new version of
 
2 the interface they ought to just accept either an
 
3 open standard or some competitor's? No, we didn't
 
4 do that because that's not the way software is
 
5 typically designed."
 
6 MR. MELAMED: In the spirit of the
 
7 competitor collaboration guidelines, the test is not
 
8 whether it was the least restrictive alternative.
 
9 It is sort of ex ante, that, look, it wouldn't be a
 
10 terrible world, it seems to me, in which dominant
 
11 firms designing products that exclude rivals have to
 
12 ask the lawyer can I do this.
 
13 And the lawyer should say is there a good
 
14 reason why you are doing it that way, and if there
 
15 is a good reason, he says it is fine. And if there
 
16 is not, then maybe you ought to do it a different
 
17 way.
 
18 MR. RULE: What if the reason is I have come
 
19 up with a new innovation that creates value that I
 
20 would like to capture, and the problem is I want to
 
21 make sure that I use proprietary interface so I can
 
22 capture it, so other people can't basically capture
 
23 it by creating some sort of either peripheral
 
24 hardware or software that manages to free ride on
 
25 the efforts that I had? Is there a problem with

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1 that?
 
2 MR. MELAMED: Certainly appropriating the
 
3 benefits of innovation, it is a legitimate reason.
 
4 It depends on the facts.
 
5 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Let's talk about evidence
 
6 in courts, because we have seen instances in which
 
7 if jurisdictions show that they are quite open to
 
8 antitrust claims based on technological issues,
 
9 based on whether they provide a sufficient interface
 
10 and so forth, not surprisingly, like bees to honey,
 
11 the rent-seeking behavior, if you will, the, "well,
 
12 I want my product to interface on this, this is what
 
13 my product ought to be able to do with this product"
 
14 can become quite rampant.
 
15 Getting down to what are the indicia in any
 
16 objective sense that the policymakers can look to
 
17 and ultimately the courts can look to who are not
 
18 technology experts?
 
19 What are the factors we would look for if we
 
20 were going to bring a claim of technological tying?
 
21 MR. MELAMED: I don't know how to answer
 
22 that question other than to repeat what I just said.
 
23 MS. CREIGHTON: I guess I don't see the
 
24 problem there as being a lot -- certainly from a
 
25 counseling perspective, it is not a whole lot

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1 trickier in my experience than merger counseling.
 
2 You say "so why do you guys want to merge?"
 
3 If they have some plausible story that passes the
 
4 straight-face test, then you are a lot more
 
5 comfortable than one who says "the only reason I
 
6 want to do it is because it excludes my rival."
 
7 MR. BARNETT: Can I follow up with Susan?
 
8 What I heard Doug saying, he is not going to
 
9 balance, that in the spirit of the D.C. Circuit in
 
10 the Microsoft case, if you have a good reason, it
 
11 sounded like you were going to call that per se
 
12 lawful without balancing the potential exclusionary
 
13 effect of other products.
 
14 If I have that right, Susan, would you agree
 
15 with that approach or take a different approach?
 
16 MS. CREIGHTON: I would agree with that. I
 
17 actually think the court in Microsoft got it right
 
18 in the second decision. If you have a plausible
 
19 efficiency justification, then that would be the end
 
20 of the inquiry.
 
21 MR. PITOFSKY: Can I ask a question? I'm
 
22 with you up until that last point and with Doug,
 
23 really.
 
24 Suppose the efficiency is tiny and the
 
25 anticompetitive effect is substantial. Are you

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1 still not going to balance?
 
2 As long as you can find an efficiency of
 
3 some magnitude, that's the end of the case?
 
4 MS. CREIGHTON: This may actually be getting
 
5 into a can of worms. Certainly in terms of
 
6 understanding the efficiency justification, unlike
 
7 Rick, I would want to know whether that is actually
 
8 why the company did it, as opposed to a post hoc
 
9 justification.
 
10 I think if we are talking this little tiny
 
11 bit and great big anticompetitive effect, I bring a
 
12 certain skepticism to whether or not the efficiency
 
13 justification actually is something other than a
 
14 sort of post hoc rationalization.
 
15 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: You really get to part of
 
16 the point I was hoping we would get to, which is --
 
17 let me present it as a hypothetical.
 
18 Suppose we do an investigation and we find
 
19 all kinds of documents in which a company is saying
 
20 "I want to do this because I don't want any of these
 
21 other companies to be able to interface and I want
 
22 to keep them out."
 
23 So you get all the sort of bad language, bad
 
24 intent documents. But then in fact the innovation
 
25 has proven to be pretty successful for consumers and

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1 consumers like it and it has actually made things a
 
2 better mousetrap.
 
3 What do you do with that?
 
4 You said good reason, bad reason. So they
 
5 did it for a bad reason, but it turned out to be a
 
6 pretty good product.
 
7 MR. MELAMED: I wouldn't focus at least
 
8 materially what was in their mind, the subjective
 
9 motive, subjective intent.
 
10 I think those documents Susan is talking
 
11 about are very relevant because they can very likely
 
12 illuminate the underlying economic factors.
 
13 I would rely on the underlying truth of the
 
14 matter.
 
15 Let me add two things. In response to Bob,
 
16 I actually wouldn't think that just finding
 
17 something good to be said about the design is
 
18 enough. In other words, I would ask whether it was
 
19 really the essential way to design it.
 
20 Let me tell an anecdote about the Microsoft
 
21 case. In the Microsoft case, we had on the
 
22 documents that said Tidalwave and "we have to do
 
23 something to stop Netscape." And then we had all
 
24 the conduct.
 
25 I and others in the Division at the time

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1 said here is all the useful stuff we get from all of
 
2 our Chicago School defense brief writing over the
 
3 years.
 
4 And we served interrogatories on Microsoft
 
5 and said "why did you do it and where is the
 
6 compensation that came from that cost?" And they
 
7 didn't have any answers.
 
8 Maybe they could have made something up.
 
9 I'm not sure that the facts play out in quite the
 
10 stark way that your question suggests.
 
11 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Sure. That's the beauty
 
12 of hypotheticals.
 
13 I was about to say I don't even have to turn
 
14 around and I know who I'm going to next.
 
15 MR. RULE: Let me tell you the other side of
 
16 that story, which is actually one of my favorite
 
17 anecdotes too.
 
18 I won't necessarily disclose the context in
 
19 which this came up, and it wasn't Doug asking. By
 
20 the way, I should just say that I wasn't
 
21 representing Microsoft at the time those
 
22 interrogatories were served.
 
23 But one of the things -- and I think this
 
24 goes to the question that Debbie posed about what's
 
25 the evidence.

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1 The problem is -- and I don't think
 
2 Microsoft is that different from what I have seen in
 
3 other high-tech companies, where you are talking
 
4 about tens, scores, hundreds, thousands of software
 
5 engineers developing pretty complex products --
 
6 It is not really the sort of orderly process
 
7 that maybe a lot of us lawyers have in mind about
 
8 how the process works. It tends to be a lot of
 
9 people working in little collaborative groups over
 
10 time writing code, then putting it in a tree,
 
11 compiling it, testing it, going back and writing
 
12 other things.
 
13 There is not necessarily a grand scheme
 
14 every time something is done. So one of the
 
15 difficulties is that it is very hard to sort of
 
16 point to a company document that says "here is the
 
17 strategy, here is why we adopted this, and here is
 
18 why we didn't adopt that."
 
19 It is very difficult to think that you are
 
20 going to find that, at least in a lot of the clients
 
21 I have seen in the high-tech industry.
 
22 That brings me to the anecdote. And without
 
23 disclosing the context, one of the things that
 
24 somebody who I think is very sensible about
 
25 antitrust issues, indeed, is generally associated

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1 with the Chicago School, was very troubled by
 
2 Microsoft's tendency to essentially expend large
 
3 amounts of money to develop Web-browsing capability
 
4 within its operating system without having done a
 
5 cost-benefit analysis before it made those huge
 
6 investments.
 
7 This person just could not understand why it
 
8 was that Microsoft didn't have documents that laid
 
9 out sort of, "gee, spending $100 million was
 
10 worthwhile because we could generate this much in
 
11 return."
 
12 The fact was -- I don't think Microsoft is
 
13 that unusual in the real world today when you have a
 
14 very dynamic economy.
 
15 What happened was that the company felt --
 
16 and the Tidalwave document was a good example --
 
17 that the way computing was moving, it was moving to
 
18 the Internet, that that was going to be an extremely
 
19 important function of an operating system, and if
 
20 you were going to stay current, and if you were
 
21 going to stay attractive to consumers, you basically
 
22 had to have that functionality in your operating
 
23 system.
 
24 So they didn't take the time to quantify
 
25 what the costs and benefits were. They basically

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1 said, "we just have to make sure we have that
 
2 capability in our operating system."
 
3 I would argue that part of the problem with
 
4 the like-profit sacrifice test is that the
 
5 government, and to some extent the courts, took the
 
6 fact that Microsoft didn't sit down and do a
 
7 cost-benefit analysis as evidence that, "gee, the
 
8 only reason they must have done this was basically
 
9 to put Netscape out of the market."
 
10 I look at it -- and, again, it is just me --
 
11 but to me that evidence is equally consistent with
 
12 the notion that it is a little hard in some economic
 
13 settings to do a cost-benefit analysis.
 
14 It made sense to make those investments
 
15 because the product had to have that functionality
 
16 if it was going to be acceptable the way they saw
 
17 the market moving.
 
18 And they basically said "we don't want to
 
19 get out of the business, we want to stay in, so we
 
20 will make the investments that are necessary to do
 
21 it."
 
22 To me, that's evidence that that is an
 
23 efficiency and a justification for the conduct. But
 
24 the problem with I think some of the tests and the
 
25 evidentiary rules is the plaintiffs and the court

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1 could look at that same evidence and say, "no, no,
 
2 that's evidence of profit sacrifice because they
 
3 were willing to spend anything in order to get that
 
4 functionality in order to beat Netscape."
 
5 MR. MURIS: If I could make a historical
 
6 comment.
 
7 The context of this discussion about
 
8 high-tech is so much better than the context 10
 
9 years ago, which focused on what the evidence showed
 
10 to be a fallacious view of how network effects
 
11 made high-tech industries different. Path
 
12 dependency was said to lead to lock-in and
 
13 inefficient industries.
 
14 The claim was based on a couple of examples
 
15 that turned out to be fallacious, the Qwerty
 
16 keyboard and on Beta/VHS.
 
17 The context today here is much more
 
18 sympathetic to innovation and to high-tech. That is
 
19 tremendous improvement in a decade.
 
20 MR. SIDAK: Can I say something about the
 
21 counterfactual here?
 
22 We do have some experience with the issue of
 
23 a large incumbent in a network industry degrading
 
24 competitor access to the network. It is the
 
25 telephone industry. It has been subject to heavy

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1 regulation for at least a century.
 
2 The culture within an incumbent local
 
3 exchange carrier bears no resemblance to the culture
 
4 inside of Microsoft.
 
5 You would not go in to one of the former
 
6 Bell companies to look for lots of R&D going on.
 
7 I think the process of subjecting that
 
8 industry to the degree of regulatory scrutiny over
 
9 all technical aspects of network interconnection
 
10 invariably drains it of some of that mojo, if you
 
11 will, that we hope to see in the computer industry
 
12 and in other technologically dynamic industries.
 
13 MS. CREIGHTON: I guess I would have used
 
14 the telephone industry actually, though, as a
 
15 counterfactual for why not to have a per se rule.
 
16 That was, in fact, an industry where there
 
17 was some technological innovation whose sole purpose
 
18 was to foreclose competition. So I think --
 
19 MR. SIDAK: Of what sort? What
 
20 technological innovation are you thinking of?
 
21 MS. CREIGHTON: I'm going to get the
 
22 specific facts wrong. Maybe folks will remember the
 
23 MCI case better than I do.
 
24 As I recall, AT&T innovated in a way that
 
25 required you basically to have these huge boxes that

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1 basically would slow down your ability to
 
2 interconnect with the network. That was an
 
3 important part of that case, as I recall.
 
4 MR. SIDAK: I recall the interconnection
 
5 issues as being a little more pedestrian than
 
6 inferior access to the network.
 
7 Why don't we go on.
 
8 MR. BARNETT: Sure.
 
9 Given the scarce resource of time, why don't
 
10 we move on to our next topic, which has to do with
 
11 refusals to deal with a rival.
 
12 I guess this has some connection to the
 
13 telecommunications industry, at least, for those who
 
14 have viewed it as having such an application.
 
15 During the various hearings, there have been
 
16 a range of views presented. But one of the views
 
17 suggested that a unilateral unconditional refusal to
 
18 deal with a rival should not be viewed as an
 
19 exclusionary act, indeed, should be deemed to be
 
20 per se lawful under the antitrust laws.
 
21 Would anyone like to agree or disagree with
 
22 that statement, that proposition?
 
23 MR. EISENACH: I will start, and I will tie
 
24 it directly to the conversation we were just having.
 
25 If Gillette decides it doesn't want its

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1 razor to be compatible with Bic, independent of
 
2 technological tying, as it were, why can't it just
 
3 say no, in the same way that Verizon can just say
 
4 no?
 
5 I think the issue here goes very quickly to
 
6 the question of the cost of the alternative, or the
 
7 "catching the fire engine" problem.
 
8 Obviously, the European Union is dealing in
 
9 a much different way with what do you do when you
 
10 catch the Microsoft fire engine than the United
 
11 States did. That was always the problem.
 
12 What do you do when you catch the
 
13 technological tying fire engine, or what do you do
 
14 when you catch Verizon?
 
15 What we have done with the telephone
 
16 companies in the U.S. is impose a stultifying
 
17 regulatory regime which very clearly, and I think
 
18 unambiguously now in the economic literature has
 
19 been shown to have, resulted in the kind of
 
20 competition that Scalia talked about in Iowa
 
21 utilities, which is competition not at the point
 
22 where innovation occurs and not at the point where
 
23 costs can be reduced. And at the same time it has
 
24 dramatically reduced innovation and investment at
 
25 the core of the network where real competition now

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1 finally is developing in the U.S. about six or seven
 
2 years after we began removing the worst of the
 
3 regulatory regime.
 
4 I think the problem in both cases is that
 
5 the remedy probably is worse than the disease.
 
6 If I own the only well, I guess I feel like
 
7 you have to demonstrate to me that there is no other
 
8 well possible before I start thinking that the
 
9 benefits of regulating access to the well exceed the
 
10 costs.
 
11 MR. BARNETT: Following up on that, the
 
12 question is should it be per se lawful without
 
13 regard to whether or not there is another well.
 
14 And I guess a related question is are you
 
15 saying if we may compel some sort of dealing in
 
16 unique circumstances, should we do it through
 
17 antitrust laws or separately through regulation?
 
18 MR. EISENACH: I think the history of
 
19 innovation has shown there is almost always another
 
20 way, other than regulation, to skin that economic
 
21 cat.
 
22 And the flip side is that when that isn't
 
23 the case, the cure is often worse that the disease.
 
24 Again, I think the Europeans' experience with
 
25 Microsoft is as bad as our experience has been with

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1 trying to regulate telephone companies.
 
2 The Europeans' experience with Microsoft
 
3 shows that there is a worse way to do it, and they
 
4 found it.
 
5 MR. BARNETT: Bob?
 
6 MR. PITOFSKY: This is going too genially
 
7 here. I think I will stir things up.
 
8 Let me start by saying that mandated dealing
 
9 by a single firm, even a monopolist, with applicants
 
10 should be very rare. It just doesn't come up all
 
11 that often. But I'm not comfortable with never.
 
12 I think, like the discussion of Section 2, I
 
13 think a balancing test, of the kind put forward by
 
14 the Supreme Court in Aspen, is the way to go.
 
15 There was nothing good about denying the
 
16 four-mountain ticket in Aspen. And the evidence was
 
17 that consumers preferred it. So it was a
 
18 pro-consumer effect that was cut off for no good
 
19 reason.
 
20 The problem is -- and I know if I don't say
 
21 it right now, others will leap in -- what is the
 
22 remedy? Can you get to a remedy that makes sense
 
23 and doesn't use the same phrase I used earlier, do
 
24 more harm than good?
 
25 And if that's the case, then we have no

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1 right to impose on companies a remedy that we can't
 
2 describe and we can't enforce and they can't abide
 
3 by.
 
4 But I think the difficulties in getting to a
 
5 remedy have been exaggerated.
 
6 Take Aspen. They were licensing other
 
7 mountains in other parts of the west. Then all of a
 
8 sudden, they go over to Aspen and they cut somebody
 
9 off abruptly with no reason.
 
10 I don't think the remedy is very difficult.
 
11 You take whatever the arrangement was in the other
 
12 resort areas and apply it to Aspen.
 
13 There is a question if in the presence of a
 
14 regulatory agency, is it easier to impose a remedy.
 
15 And I remember Phil Aveeda making quite a point of
 
16 the fact that Otter Tail was an extreme case, but
 
17 the Federal Power Commission was available to handle
 
18 the details of the remedy.
 
19 Third, what the Europeans do is send the
 
20 parties into a room and say "negotiate, come up with
 
21 something, and if you don't, we will have mandatory
 
22 arbitration."
 
23 Imposing a remedy is very difficult. If it
 
24 is impossible, then the government shouldn't be in
 
25 it.

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1 The point about -- I have a well, and before
 
2 I think access should be mandated, I want to know
 
3 that there is no other well there. Absolutely
 
4 right. That's the point of "essential."
 
5 If it is not an essential facility, there is
 
6 no reason for the government to intervene.
 
7 But if it is, then the question is can you
 
8 have an essential facility doctrine, as I believe is
 
9 the case in most countries developing antitrust law
 
10 in the world, Europe, China and elsewhere, a narrow,
 
11 narrow, narrow, remedy?
 
12 Are we disserving antitrust purposes? I
 
13 don't think so. Certainly I think the lower
 
14 courts -- I think MCI is the best case for setting
 
15 up a whole series of conditions before you get
 
16 access to an essential facility -- sensibly take the
 
17 remedy question into account.
 
18 I do not think that unilateral refusal to
 
19 deal is per se legal. Close to it, but not there.
 
20 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Of course, I would add
 
21 that sometimes we do the negotiation thing in the
 
22 U.S. too.
 
23 Judge Kollar-Kotelly forced Rick Rule and I
 
24 into the same room for four straight weeks.
 
25 MR. RULE: It was very pleasurable.

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1 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Yes, I enjoyed it as
 
2 well, Rick.
 
3 We did come out with something. But I would
 
4 say that as I look at the implementation of that,
 
5 which we then stuck Tom with, has been difficult,
 
6 requiring Microsoft to license server protocols that
 
7 they had never done before. Whereas, in the Aspen
 
8 case, yes, they had a history.
 
9 But where it had never been done before
 
10 proved to be extremely challenging.
 
11 We haven't had the problems that the
 
12 Europeans had.
 
13 MR. BARNETT: Fair enough.
 
14 Doug?
 
15 MR. MELAMED: A couple thoughts. Answering
 
16 the liability question with the remedy question is a
 
17 mistake.
 
18 We prohibit murder even though we can't
 
19 resurrect the corpse. It may be the solution is not
 
20 to have equitable remedies where we try to regulate
 
21 the market but, rather, to have a deterrent in the
 
22 form of exposure to treble damage fines.
 
23 I think we ought to separate the issues of
 
24 if there is a disease versus is the cure going to be
 
25 worse.

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1 A couple thoughts on what the rule ought to
 
2 be. Trinko, by the way, wasn't really about
 
3 dealing. It was about divesting a very peculiar
 
4 circumstance there.
 
5 As a practical matter, we don't need to make
 
6 it a safe harbor or per se lawful because it will be
 
7 a very rare case, as experience has shown.
 
8 He has to have a benchmark. If you don't go
 
9 in and say you want it for nothing, you have to say
 
10 he wouldn't sell it to me at price X. The terms are
 
11 these.
 
12 It is going to be very hard for a plaintiff
 
13 to win a case without a contemporary discriminating
 
14 benchmark.
 
15 Having said that, we ought not to have a
 
16 per se lawful rule because when an AT&T refuses to
 
17 deal with a rival even though it deals with others
 
18 interconnecting into the market or when an Aspen
 
19 refuses to accept tickets sold at retail prices to a
 
20 competitor, there ought to be some room to say now
 
21 we know he has gone too far.
 
22 MR. RULE: Let me make two points. It seems
 
23 to me that one of the reasons -- and I obviously
 
24 will come to this -- why liability and remedy are, I
 
25 think, kind of unacceptable is, if you can't think

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1 of an equitable remedy, there may be reasons you
 
2 don't want to impose it.
 
3 But if you can't think of an equitable
 
4 remedy, which is to say a rule, it may suggest that
 
5 there is some at least fussiness around what you are
 
6 telling a defendant to do.
 
7 The problem with your analogy to murder is
 
8 it is easy to enunciate the rule to society, "don't
 
9 kill other people," and it may be that you can't
 
10 resurrect the dead, but you can certainly impose
 
11 punishments to deter future folks from engaging in
 
12 that conduct. That is a very clear rule.
 
13 MR. MELAMED: I have a rule. It is don't
 
14 refuse to deal when it wouldn't make sense.
 
15 MR. RULE: If you have a rule that says
 
16 don't refuse to deal without the when, I could
 
17 understand.
 
18 The problem is, it seems to me, once you
 
19 acknowledge that you have the when, if you have the
 
20 condition, and then if you add on to that what I
 
21 think both you and Bob have said is that it is a
 
22 very rare case that you would ever want to impose
 
23 some liability for that, it seems to me there is a
 
24 very strong argument for a rule of per se legality.
 
25 It is false, it seems to me, to say that,

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1 "gee, you can only have a per se rule of legality
 
2 when you know that in 100 percent of the
 
3 circumstances the activity is not going to harm
 
4 competition."
 
5 That's not the reason that you have a per se
 
6 rule. Because, you can't even say that in 100
 
7 percent of the cases of price fixing that there is
 
8 going to be harm to competition.
 
9 That's not the reason we have a per se rule.
 
10 We have it because of error costs.
 
11 It seems to me that in the area of refusals
 
12 to deal, particularly if you are talking about
 
13 unconditional unilateral refusals to deal, the
 
14 circumstances under which you would ever be
 
15 concerned about it are so limited and so rare that
 
16 that's precisely the kind of place you would want to
 
17 have a rule of per se legality, if for no other
 
18 reason than saving the courts and the enforcers
 
19 resources that are otherwise expended investigating
 
20 and potentially looking for the needle in the
 
21 worldwide haystack.
 
22 MR. BARNETT: Tim?
 
23 MR. MURIS: I like the somewhat Delphic
 
24 statement in your very good report that came out
 
25 recently about how it has no meaningful role in

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1 antitrust.
 
2 Let me also say a word about Aspen and ask
 
3 Doug a question. What the Supreme Court did, given
 
4 the posture of the case before it, made sense. But,
 
5 the reality of the case is a business dispute about
 
6 sharing the profits.
 
7 MR. MELAMED: It made no sense. I agree.
 
8 MR. MURIS: Suppose it came to the court
 
9 that way. Is that a legitimate business reason?
 
10 Of course, it was a forced bargaining
 
11 situation, and we know what often happens in forced
 
12 bargaining situations. You know how they resolve
 
13 the dispute? They merged.
 
14 Suppose that had been the context, that
 
15 Aspen said, "These guys are being unreasonable, and
 
16 we think we are not getting a big enough share of
 
17 the profits?"
 
18 MR. MELAMED: I haven't actually thought
 
19 through precisely how that would play out. The case
 
20 was presented in a very odd way.
 
21 MR. MURIS: And there obviously wasn't a
 
22 market.
 
23 MR. MELAMED: Fair enough. So it changes
 
24 the effects.
 
25 MR. SIDAK: Could I add a point here about

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1 price?
 
2 In sector-specific regulation, call it the
 
3 access pricing problem. There is no problem with
 
4 granting a competitor access to your facility if you
 
5 can agree on prices, terms and conditions that are
 
6 mutually acceptable.
 
7 The problem is the incumbent will always say
 
8 you are not compensating for the opportunity cost of
 
9 the asset.
 
10 So the access seeker then tries to invoke an
 
11 antitrust remedy or a regulatory remedy or an
 
12 arbitration remedy, in the hope of getting a price
 
13 that's closer to the incremental cost.
 
14 Is that a problem? Well, it depends on your
 
15 perspective.
 
16 If the network only exists because of a very
 
17 large expenditure of sunk costs, there has to be
 
18 some contribution to the recovery of those costs
 
19 beyond the incremental cost of the use of the
 
20 network.
 
21 That's what the whole decade of litigation
 
22 over the Telecom Act in 1996 was all about. They
 
23 get you into the question of regulating price, which
 
24 is fundamentally not something that a court can do.
 
25 It is not even clear that constitutionally

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1 they should be doing because the Supreme Court tells
 
2 us that price regulation is a legislative function.
 
3 MR. MELAMED: What he is not entitled to is
 
4 to refuse a price that is equitable for the purpose
 
5 of gaining additional market power in some adjacent
 
6 market.
 
7 I realize this is very difficult for a
 
8 factfinder to prove in the absence of
 
9 contemporaneous discrimination as a benchmark.
 
10 But what if we could stipulate that the
 
11 defendant refused to deal on a price equal to his
 
12 opportunity cost and did so as part of a longterm
 
13 strategy to preserve or gain market power in an
 
14 adjacent market?
 
15 MR. SIDAK: It is plausible. But basically
 
16 then you are talking about a kind of predation
 
17 strategy.
 
18 MR. MELAMED: Yes, one that made no economic
 
19 sense but for the extra market power.
 
20 MR. EISENACH: This is one where type 1 and
 
21 type 2 errors matter tremendously.
 
22 The reason you have per se rules is not
 
23 because you are 100 percent sure but because the
 
24 cost of error is so high.
 
25 You don't get a second well. That's the

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1 cost. The cost of regulating the telephone sector
 
2 in the U.S. was we didn't get a second network.
 
3 It is called cable and we now have the most
 
4 competitive telecom sector in the world as a result
 
5 of removing excessive regulation. And we are now
 
6 getting wireless. But that is all because the lack
 
7 of the regulatory remedy, taking away the regulatory
 
8 route to a free ride on the incumbent's network.
 
9 The problem in all this is I don't know how
 
10 you find the opportunity cost of digging the well.
 
11 Maybe he kept records of how long he was there with
 
12 the shovel.
 
13 But trying to find the opportunity cost of
 
14 the telephone network is a problem.
 
15 MR. PITOFSKY: I have been waiting to ask
 
16 this question for quite some time.
 
17 What is the empirical evidence, not the
 
18 theory, empirical evidence, that a mandatory
 
19 requirement that you deal or you disclose
 
20 information to rivals is going to lead to a
 
21 reduction in innovation or a reduction in people
 
22 coming in and digging a second well?
 
23 MR. SIDAK: In England, the cable industry
 
24 vigorously opposed greater unbundling obligations
 
25 placed on British Telecom, precisely because it

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1 destroyed their business model.
 
2 MR. PITOFSKY: What did they rely on?
 
3 MR. SIDAK: Their own wires.
 
4 MR. PITOFSKY: No. What empirical evidence
 
5 did they rely on that this remedy would do harm
 
6 because it would raise barriers to entry to new
 
7 people who would come into the market?
 
8 MR. SIDAK: They were in the market at that
 
9 point, and they were making decisions about
 
10 investment over time, sequential sunk investment.
 
11 So it is not really -- in their case, it
 
12 would not be a question of is there some third party
 
13 who will enter but, rather, will I currently, a
 
14 competitor of the incumbent firm, continue to invest
 
15 in expanding my network or will I simply stop
 
16 investing.
 
17 MR. PITOFSKY: I don't want to limit this to
 
18 telecom. I guess I'm trying to make a very general
 
19 point.
 
20 I am upset with the following process of
 
21 thinking. This is a very, very difficult issue and
 
22 the remedy is extremely difficult to work out and,
 
23 therefore, let's call it per se legal. I don't
 
24 think that's the way antitrust law should proceed.
 
25 MR. RULE: Bob, you have to add to that the

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1 question of its frequency and the question of in the
 
2 instances where folks have gone after it, whether
 
3 you think there have been greater incidents of false
 
4 positives versus false negatives and what the cost
 
5 is of going after it.
 
6 I think the frequency is important.
 
7 Whatever you want to say about the one well, there
 
8 aren't very many one-well situations in the world.
 
9 MR. PITOFSKY: I agree with you. I'm with
 
10 you.
 
11 I'm sorry. I should have elaborated on this
 
12 point.
 
13 I think you have to talk, you have to look
 
14 at free riders, false positives, false negatives.
 
15 But I want to do it on the basis of empirical data
 
16 and not on theoretical assumptions.
 
17 MS. CREIGHTON: I just wait to ask a
 
18 question. I don't know this. I thought Bill
 
19 Kolasky's comments, Doug's partner, were quite
 
20 interesting at the hearing on refusals to deal.
 
21 He was articulating how he thought a sort of
 
22 step-wise application of the Microsoft test would
 
23 work quite well here.
 
24 But he observed I think that in the cases
 
25 where there have been problems, either MCI, AT&T or

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1 Otter Tail, it was part of an overall course of
 
2 conduct, which I thought was an interesting
 
3 observation. I would also note in both those cases
 
4 there wasn't a regulatory overlay.
 
5 Again, I would just pose the question
 
6 whether or not that combination of factors calls for
 
7 sort of a potentially different inquiry, and then if
 
8 we look overseas, whether they are likely to find
 
9 that combination of factors more often than you
 
10 would here in the United States and how the
 
11 articulation of a rule of per se legality would
 
12 maybe not be helpful in advancing the analytical
 
13 debate worldwide about how those issues should be
 
14 addressed.
 
15 MR. RULE: Can I make a comment on that?
 
16 I would take the opposite view. To the
 
17 extent that the United States equivocates because of
 
18 penumbras and says we don't think we can have a
 
19 per se rule of legality, because there may be some
 
20 incident where there is a problem. And the two that
 
21 you mentioned and, frankly, the ones that sort of
 
22 classically I have always thought about, I would
 
23 argue frankly are as much a function of the
 
24 regulatory regime that was in place, as opposed to
 
25 anything that you would have seen in the absence of

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1 the regulatory regime.
 
2 I think that is kind of Jeff's point.
 
3 I think I will grant you that if you take a
 
4 position that unilateral unconditional refusals to
 
5 deal are per se lawful, that will be a somewhat
 
6 controversial position outside the United States.
 
7 But on the other hand, I would say that the
 
8 United States would be in a better position to make
 
9 certain arguments because I think there is a sound,
 
10 logical, and I think also empirical basis for taking
 
11 that position, and taking it and taking a stand on
 
12 it, and arguing and explaining why that's a
 
13 reasonable rule.
 
14 Once you start adding in the equivocation,
 
15 we may all -- Bill Baxter used to have this saying,
 
16 that if he got to make all the decisions, he would
 
17 be fine with basically everything being potentially
 
18 subject to antitrust regulation.
 
19 His concern was that he wasn't going to get
 
20 to make all the decisions.
 
21 The same thing is true in the United States.
 
22 In our hands, sort of an equivocal rule may be okay
 
23 because we are smart enough, sophisticated enough to
 
24 figure out how to work it.
 
25 I always worry if you have an equivocal rule

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1 like that in the hands of others whose incentives
 
2 may not be as pure, whose training and experience
 
3 may not be as exemplar as our heads of agencies,
 
4 that in effect they are going to abuse that
 
5 equivocation in a way that's very harmful to the
 
6 economy.
 
7 I think there is at least some argument that
 
8 they have already done that.
 
9 MS. CREIGHTON: I guess I was responding to
 
10 your point in rejoinder to Bob, which was the reason
 
11 for saying never, not seldom, was because it is
 
12 rare.
 
13 I'm just asking if then our articulation of
 
14 why our answer is never and not seldom doesn't
 
15 resonate with the experience of folks elsewhere,
 
16 whether that is maybe not the strongest basis on
 
17 which to articulate the rule.
 
18 MR. MELAMED: Let me say relating to that
 
19 the question, of course, is not is it rare but would
 
20 it be rare if we had the rule of per se legality?
 
21 MR. PITOFSKY: Would it be so rare if in
 
22 fact it became per se legal?
 
23 MR. RULE: I think you can ask the question
 
24 a little bit differently. Jeff's question to some
 
25 extent is the reasonable one.

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1 How many single wells are there, how many
 
2 truly essential assets are there that can't be
 
3 duplicated that we don't want to be implicated in
 
4 some way? That's really the issue, I think.
 
5 I don't think that you can look at the
 
6 economy and say there are a large number of
 
7 incidents of those kinds of assets.
 
8 I can say that there are a much larger
 
9 number of cases where plaintiffs have argued that
 
10 there are single wells when there really aren't.
 
11 That's the danger.
 
12 MR. PITOFSKY: You can distinguish those
 
13 cases on the record. You say that only one well can
 
14 be built here. If it is obvious there can be two,
 
15 you lose your case.
 
16 MR. RULE: But it is not costless to do
 
17 that.
 
18 MR. PITOFSKY: Of course it is not. We can
 
19 call everything per se legal and save a lot of
 
20 costs.
 
21 MR. RULE: That's not the point. The point
 
22 is that you could say that there is no such thing as
 
23 per se illegality because there are times where you
 
24 could prove that a price-fixing agreement doesn't
25 harm competition.

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1 We don't do that because we don't want to
 
2 expend the resources to try to distinguish those
 
3 situations.
 
4 I don't understand logically why the
 
5 converse doesn't apply as well with respect to
 
6 conduct that you expect to be so rare and the cost
 
7 of finding those that are actually problematic are
 
8 so high that under those circumstances you decide
 
9 you have a rule of per se legality, recognizing that
 
10 some harm may go unpunished.
 
11 MR. PITOFSKY: It won't be so rare when it
 
12 becomes per se legal.
 
13 Let me ask you a question. It is exam time.
 
14 I can't help it.
 
15 I gather that your approach would overrule
 
16 Aspen, overrule Otter Tail. My question is would
 
17 you also overrule Lorain Journal, which was a
 
18 refusal to deal?
 
19 MR. RULE: I'll be honest. I'm not a big
 
20 fan of Lorain Journal. I have said that on a number
 
21 of occasions.
 
22 Part of the problem I have with it -- it is
 
23 a different issue, to some extent. The problem I
 
24 have always had with Lorain Journal is it doesn't
 
25 look at the competitive impact that conduct had, in

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1 my opinion. It is sort of the precursor of a lot of
 
2 the unitary tests. I'm not a big fan of it.
 
3 MR. PITOFSKY: I am a great fan of Lorain
 
4 Journal. It is the most extreme case I know of
 
5 where there was no justification and there was a
 
6 significant anticompetitive effect. This side of
 
7 the scale had nothing on it.
 
8 MR. BARNETT: With that, I hope you won't
 
9 take this as a refusal to deal with the issue
 
10 further, but I will suggest that we move on to cheap
 
11 exclusion.
 
12 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: I will talk briefly about
 
13 cheap exclusion. Then we have two more important
 
14 topics to cover.
 
15 The Court of Appeals in Microsoft in 2001 in
 
16 upholding Microsoft's liability did so in part on
 
17 the basis of an act of deception that it found --
 
18 that the trial court found Microsoft engaged in.
 
19 The Commission in its Rambus case used
 
20 similar conduct in finding Section 2 liability.
 
21 Is there anyone here who does not agree that
 
22 misleading or deceptive conduct could be considered
 
23 to be exclusionary conduct under Section 2?
 
24 And if it can be, how would others draw the
 
25 line between situations that justify antitrust

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1 involvement and situations where you might say,
 
2 well, there is a contractual problem here or perhaps
 
3 a tort problem, but we don't see an antitrust
 
4 problem?
 
5 Doug, do you want to? Moving to another
 
6 case.
 
7 MR. MELAMED: I think that conduct that is
 
8 misleading or deceptive can be anticompetitive
 
9 conduct.
 
10 Microsoft Conwood -- and logic make that
 
11 clear. But it is not anticompetitive conduct
 
12 because it is susceptible of being labeled
 
13 misleading or deceptive.
 
14 Trinko made clear that conduct that is a
 
15 breach of contract and indeed conduct that violates
 
16 nonantitrust federal law, is not exclusionary or
 
17 anticompetitive conduct for antitrust purposes.
 
18 It seems to me that the Court in Trinko was
 
19 completely right in that. The issue is does it
 
20 violate and run afoul of some proper antitrust
 
21 standard. Yes, causation and all that have to be
 
22 satisfied.
 
23 One more brief thing, cheap exclusion.
 
24 Susan's paper I think on that is a wonderful,
 
25 insightful contribution to our understanding of the

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1 world. It is a very intelligent elaboration, it
 
2 seems to me, of the Chicago School insight that
 
3 predatory pricing is an unlikely strategy because it
 
4 is so costly to the defendant.
 
5 It points enforcers and plaintiffs in the
 
6 direction of conduct that is more likely to be
 
7 mischievous.
 
8 I don't think it is a concept that helps us
 
9 answer the question we have been talking about today
 
10 because as I understand the paper, it identifies a
 
11 category of conduct that one is cheaper and
 
12 therefore we should suspect the defendants might
 
13 want to engage in it. Two, it has no legitimate
 
14 purpose.
 
15 I think that's a subset of naked exclusion
 
16 and with the other elements, market power and all
 
17 that proven, seems trivial to say that's an
 
18 antitrust violation.
 
19 Labeling it deceptive doesn't really advance
 
20 the question of whether it is anticompetitive. That
 
21 depends on how it measures up against the
 
22 preexisting antitrust test.
 
23 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Tim?
 
24 MR. MURIS: Viewed another way, and this is
 
25 hardly a declaration against interest I'm making

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1 here -- cheap exclusion is an extraordinarily useful
 
2 way for the government to think about
 
3 monopolization. In Susan's phrase it means fishing
 
4 where the fish are.
 
5 If you look at the Bush administration's
 
6 record on Section 2, I think it is spectacular.
 
7 There are two settlements that are as important and
 
8 as large as any in history in terms of their
 
9 monetary relief to consumers, Unocal and BMS, where
 
10 the FTC worked with the states. By focusing on
 
11 fishing where the fish are, you are much more likely
 
12 to produce benefits for consumers and thus have the
 
13 record of the last several years.
 
14 So in that sense, which is different than
 
15 the previous discussion, it is where the government
 
16 ought to put its effort.
 
17 It is an extraordinarily important insight
 
18 because the history of government in private and
 
19 Section 2 enforcement has not been a happy history
 
20 at all. It has been a history mostly of mistakes.
 
21 The many studies that have looked at cases after the
 
22 fact have shown that the famous cases, ALCOA, United
 
23 Shoe, and on and on and on, with rare exceptions,
 
24 were government mistakes.
 
25 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Jim?

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1 MR. RILL: I think there is a risk here of
 
2 taking an interesting and provocative and I think
 
3 very logical notion of cheap exclusion and expanding
 
4 that notion across a variety of practices that may
 
5 or may not be exclusive at all.
 
6 It is one thing to suggest that
 
7 hypothetically someone with an essential patent,
 
8 truly essential patent, knowingly hides it under the
 
9 table and manipulates the standard process
 
10 deliberately to include that patent and then shows
 
11 up once the standard is adopted and says a-ha, guess
 
12 what I have, and I'm charging royalties of 50
 
13 percent of the sales price of the implemented
 
14 article.
 
15 That doesn't exist. I'm not involved in
 
16 Rambus. It doesn't exist very often in the real
 
17 world, particularly when you are talking about
 
18 innovative evolutions of highly technological
 
19 products in a moving process.
 
20 What is the exclusionary act? Does it
 
21 require that one engage in a continuing patent
 
22 search to determine whether the standard evolving is
 
23 something that relies on the patent? Or vice versa?
 
24 Does it require some kind of -- I think the
 
25 issue is related to the remedy here.

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1 What is the relationship of a remedy if one
 
2 is forced then to somehow license the patent to
 
3 those who want to exploit the standard? On what
 
4 terms?
 
5 I think it is no answer to say that the
 
6 notion of fair and reasonable terms suggests that
 
7 there has to be some solution ahead of time.
 
8 I think that the danger of adopting an
 
9 attractive notion such as cheap exclusion and
 
10 expanding it across a variety of practices tends to
 
11 produce possibly oversimplistic results that don't
 
12 fit in the real world and create serious dangers of
 
13 overenforcement and inefficiencies.
 
14 MR. SIDAK: I think the controversy looks a
 
15 lot like the access pricing problem in network
 
16 industries in the sense that the objective of the
 
17 party that is seeking access to the patented
 
18 technology is to try to get as low a royalty price
 
19 that it has to pay as possible.
 
20 It is the same generic problem of whether
 
21 the incumbent, the owner of the essential patent in
 
22 this case, is going to recoup quasi rents or not or
 
23 whether the quasi rents will be extracted by the
 
24 access seeker.
 
25 I think it is very, very similar to that

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1 problem.
 
2 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Even though it is in the
 
3 standard-setting context and they can choose a
 
4 different technology?
 
5 MR. SIDAK: I think it is a less sympathetic
 
6 set of facts than the typical network
 
7 interconnection problem.
 
8 It is, after all, a contractual
 
9 relationship. These are repeat-play situations.
 
10 So there is learning by doing, so to speak,
 
11 in terms of your negotiation with the community of
 
12 companies that are involved in the innovation giving
 
13 rise to this set of patents.
 
14 Also, I think one of the considerations that
 
15 is not given enough weight here is due diligence on
 
16 the part of the parties that find themselves later
 
17 on in the position of wanting access to the patented
 
18 technology that they think is being priced too high.
 
19 These are sophisticated companies. If they
 
20 were to buy or sell a manufacturing facility, they
 
21 would expect their lawyers to engage in due
 
22 diligence for the transaction.
 
23 Why do we think there should be any lesser
 
24 degree of due diligence on the part of parties
 
25 participating in standard-setting organizations?

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1 I think the whole characterization of these
 
2 controversies is such that there is too little
 
3 consideration given to the amount of precaution, the
 
4 investment and precaution by other members of the
 
5 standard-setting organization.
 
6 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: I think that's a good
 
7 point.
 
8 Of course, there are costs to each
 
9 individual member going out and getting that
 
10 information, and some of it may not even be
 
11 available, which I gather is why standard-setting
 
12 organizations sometimes put in place rules that say
 
13 everybody tell us.
 
14 MR. SIDAK: If you are in a high technology
 
15 industry investing in trying to resolve uncertainty
 
16 and plumb the unknown, that's part of what you
 
17 should be doing, just as what Rick was talking about
 
18 when Microsoft can't put a price tag on what it is
 
19 worth to try to be sure that they are around when
 
20 competition shifts to the Internet.
 
21 MR. BARNETT: What is the cost, the
 
22 downside, if you will, from a competition
 
23 perspective of permitting a standard-setting
 
24 organization to say rather than us being required to
 
25 go dig out the weeds, we know you have the answer

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1 and you tell us the answer?
 
2 Is there a downside from the competitive
 
3 process?
 
4 MR. SIDAK: Well, the parties certainly can
 
5 negotiate over what the degree of disclosure has to
 
6 be.
 
7 It seems to me that if the burden is always
 
8 then placed on some party to inform others, there is
 
9 a kind of moral hazard problem in that the others
 
10 don't invest enough in creating their own body of
 
11 information with which to verify the technology or
 
12 to explore other technologies that wouldn't put them
 
13 in a bind later on.
 
14 It seems to me that it sounds good ex ante.
 
15 But ex post, the problem is that somebody will
 
16 always come back and say there was more that you
 
17 could have done or disclosed.
 
18 It is sort of this problem am I my brother's
 
19 keeper, how much do I have to tell other companies
 
20 about what I'm thinking?
 
21 MR. RULE: I think this goes to the last
 
22 part of Debbie's initial question, which is I don't
 
23 know the facts.
 
24 So it may be that what Rambus did was
 
25 particularly heinous and completely duplicitous or

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1 not. I don't know. But I don't know that that
 
2 answers the question as to whether or not it should
 
3 be an antitrust offense.
 
4 For example, I could certainly imagine an
 
5 organization that was trying to come up with a
 
6 standard having all of its members post a bond or
 
7 enter into some sort of contract that says that they
 
8 have to make certain disclosures, and there are
 
9 certain penalties if they don't.
 
10 To the extent they violate that contract,
 
11 then there is a contractual remedy. I can also
 
12 imagine, with respect to a lot of things that I
 
13 think of when I hear cheap exclusion, that it is
 
14 fraud or force.
 
15 Fraud or force is very bad. Generally it is
 
16 hard to justify it. But there are also a myriad of
 
17 statutes, tort law, and other things that address
 
18 it.
 
19 It has never been clear to me why antitrust
 
20 needs to come along and sort of compound that.
 
21 Maybe those other statutes that directly go
 
22 to that sort of conduct, frankly, particularly since
 
23 that sort of conduct is generally going to be bad
 
24 regardless of the market power or potential market
 
25 power of the person exercising it, it seems to me

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1 that maybe leaving it to those other statutes is a
 
2 better way to go than trying to import it into
 
3 Section 2.
 
4 MR. EISENACH: Just to frame what you just
 
5 said, it is the equivalent of burglary with and
 
6 burglary without a gun or armed versus unarmed
 
7 robbery.
 
8 What we are saying is, the act performed
 
9 outside the context of an anticompetitive scheme
 
10 gets a penalty. The act performed in the context of
 
11 an anticompetitive scheme gets a triple penalty.
 
12 MS. CREIGHTON: I guess I would turn that
 
13 around and say in criminal antitrust, I don't think
 
14 we would say we will only apply the criminal
 
15 antitrust statutes unless we first find that the
 
16 conduct isn't reachable by mail and wire fraud.
 
17 I think it is a separate and independent
 
18 question. I think whether it is a tort, not all
 
19 torts are antitrust violations, and obviously most
 
20 antitrust violations aren't torts.
 
21 But I don't think we would want to say
 
22 because it is a tort that therefore something that
 
23 otherwise would be an antitrust violation therefore
 
24 on that ground alone should be immune.
 
25 MR. RULE: I think -- not disagreeing

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1 necessarily with what you are saying, but I will say
 
2 that I think the analogy to criminal law is wrong.
 
3 Because the only reason -- I think there is a good
 
4 basis for saying this --
 
5 The only reason that the conduct that is
 
6 also challenged as wire fraud or mail fraud is
 
7 challengeable is generally because the underlying
 
8 conduct violates the antitrust laws for various
 
9 reasons.
 
10 There are certain exceptions and certain
 
11 times that you can challenge it as an attempted wire
 
12 fraud, whereas, you couldn't challenge it under the
 
13 antitrust laws.
 
14 It is because the underlying act itself
 
15 would violate the antitrust law.
 
16 My only point is there are certain downsides
 
17 to Section 2 enforcement, including whether the
 
18 penalty -- I guess you could say that for a lot of
 
19 cheap exclusion, because it has no socially
 
20 redeeming value and we can always identify it
 
21 perfectly, who cares what the penalties are.
 
22 But to the extent that's not the case, and
 
23 to the extent there are other regimes that are
 
24 intended to impose punishments and they are optimal,
 
25 then adding antitrust on top of it, to me at least,

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1 arguably creates suboptimal enforcement because you
 
2 have too much enforcement.
 
3 MR. BARNETT: Okay. I want to move quickly
 
4 to the international setting and make sure that we
 
5 leave time for remedies as well, which I think a
 
6 number of folks think is a very important topic.
 
7 On the international fronts, let me ask
 
8 Bob -- I will start off with you, if that's okay --
 
9 whether there are particular areas that you are
 
10 aware of where there is not currently convergence
 
11 between the United States and other jurisdictions
 
12 around the world in terms of unilateral conduct
 
13 enforcement.
 
14 And a related question with respect to
 
15 those, presumably we should be trying to move
 
16 towards some convergence, would you rather see
 
17 convergence for its sake or only if it goes in one
 
18 direction, the right direction, if you follow?
 
19 MR. PITOFSKY: I can go on for a long time
 
20 about where divergence is occurring.
 
21 I just finished teaching a seminar on
 
22 comparative antitrust. I will just pick two.
 
23 Others will probably want to add different
 
24 examples. Dominant firm behavior is diverging, not
 
25 just between the United States and Europe but

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1 between the United States and many other countries.
 
2 Second, I'm not sure there ever was
 
3 convergence, but the United States' position that
 
4 only economics matters and no other factors should
 
5 be taken into account is practically unique in the
 
6 world.
 
7 I'm not sure we are wrong about that. But I
 
8 would simply point out that there are 104 countries,
 
9 and 103 of them don't seem to be going along with
 
10 that kind of approach.
 
11 Is convergence a good idea? Yes, I think it
 
12 is. I think we are going to get more. We have had
 
13 quite a bit already.
 
14 Just take EU and U.S. definition of relevant
 
15 market, attention to distribution arrangements, oh,
 
16 and worldwide, worldwide agreement that cartels do
 
17 no good, and they ought to be challenged in the most
 
18 vigorous, serious way.
 
19 So you do have convergence. I think
 
20 convergence is a good idea. We ought to achieve
 
21 more of it.
 
22 I hope I will have a chance to talk about
 
23 comity later on.
 
24 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Jim?
 
25 MR. RILL: I think we should not be too

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1 pessimistic and certainly not too humble about the
 
2 opportunities for convergence and the role the U.S.
 
3 should play.
 
4 There is an enormous track record with
 
5 respect to merger enforcement and cartel
 
6 enforcement.
 
7 And I think possibly we can see at least
 
8 through the discussion draft some move on the part
 
9 of the European Union, coming more under the
 
10 discussion draft, towards looking at an
 
11 effects-based analysis under Article 82.
 
12 I think the role of the United States is
 
13 critically important in its maturity and development
 
14 that it has contributed to antitrust.
 
15 I think sometimes we are criticized and more
 
16 often we criticize ourselves for saying convergence
 
17 means do it our way. That's not the case.
 
18 I think we do somehow, I think, get an
 
19 attack made on our credibility by those who say you
 
20 don't bring these kinds of cases, why should you
 
21 tell us not to bring these kinds of cases.
 
22 I don't think we tell the story that I think
 
23 Tim was talking about and Justice could say as well
 
24 that we have brought the right kind of cases. Some
 
25 might argue whether they are.

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1 We have a story to tell here. There is an
 
2 economic basis that needs to be explained and I
 
3 think there is an opportunity for progress there.
 
4 Without prolonging it, there are
 
5 organizations and institutions for that progress to
 
6 be made through the ICN and OECD through the
 
7 cooperation that has been developed. I think there
 
8 is much to be done in the area, and it shouldn't be
 
9 abandoned with respect to Section 2, Article 82 and
 
10 whatever is going on in the Far East.
 
11 MR. BARNETT: Rick, anything?
 
12 MR. RULE: The only thing I would say is if
 
13 given the choice between convergence and advocating
 
14 what you believe is the right principle, I would
 
15 frankly urge you always to adopt the second.
 
16 I think that ultimately convergence is
 
17 important, and the fact that there is divergence in
 
18 certain areas can be very costly and painful to some
 
19 companies. And I think that in terms of cost,
 
20 obviously convergence is a good thing.
 
21 The problem is if you compromise in terms of
 
22 your position, and I think that even though
 
23 obviously I have some disagreements with where U.S.
 
24 positions have evolved, the fact is they are backed
 
25 up by a lot of experience, and I think they are

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1 pretty sophisticated.
 
2 By and large, they are the most defensible
 
3 positions. I think it is a mistake if in the name
 
4 of convergence you move away from the right
 
5 principles.
 
6 If you advocate the principled position and
 
7 explain why it is the principled position, even if
 
8 people won't accept it today, they will accept it
 
9 later. The one example I will give is cartel
 
10 enforcement.
 
11 When I was in the Department of Justice, we
 
12 were ordered by the President to shut down an
 
13 investigation of airline price fixing over the
 
14 Atlantic by the British government, which called us
 
15 a banana republic for criminally enforcing antitrust
 
16 laws.
 
17 Well, guess what --
 
18 MR. MURIS: Actually, I was there. He said
 
19 they were acting like a banana republic.
 
20 MR. RULE: Yes. But they were calling us
 
21 other names.
 
22 But what the United States did was stick to
 
23 its guns, that cartel behavior is bad, severe
 
24 penalties are appropriate to deter the conduct, and
 
25 over the course of 25 years, it has actually brought

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1 the rest of the world around.
 
2 It is important to maintain the principled
 
3 position, and ultimately people will follow you.
 
4 MS. CREIGHTON: In that regard, I could be a
 
5 one-trick pony here. We don't have to call it cheap
 
6 exclusion. We could just call it naked exclusion.
 
7 If you think internationally there is some
 
8 benefit to culling out, that the agency should focus
 
9 on instances where they know there is competitive
 
10 effects and there is no cognizable efficiency
 
11 justification, that if they are going to have civil
 
12 nonmerger investigations, that's where they should
 
13 focus, just like we have told them in mergers, it's
 
14 good to focus on horizontal mergers, not vertical
 
15 mergers, it is good to focus on cartel behavior,
 
16 because it has a much less kind of chilling effect.
 
17 And I think I probably disagree with Jim a
 
18 little bit in that what Tim was saying was that if
 
19 you view naked exclusion as Doug had defined it, as
 
20 reducing the output of your rivals so that it
 
21 crosses both Sections 1 and 2, virtually all of the
 
22 FTC's real estate cases sort of going all the way
 
23 back for the last six or seven years, except for
 
24 Three Tenors, all of them have been instances where
 
25 it was naked exclusion.

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1 One can actually point to that record and
 
2 say it is actually quite common, it typically
 
3 involves manipulation of government or
 
4 quasi-government services, Orange Book cases, for
 
5 example.
 
6 That is really where they should be putting
 
7 their resource dollars, as opposed to focusing on
 
8 price bundling or refusals to deal with rivals.
 
9 MR. BARNETT: Doug?
 
10 MR. MELAMED: I agree with almost everything
 
11 that Susan said. But I don't agree with the
 
12 implicit characterization of Rambus as a case of
 
13 naked exclusion. I guess that is for the courts to
 
14 decide.
 
15 Maybe I'm transitioning to the next topic.
 
16 I want to say the following. I think with time
 
17 there will be some convergence. Europe doesn't have
 
18 the treble damages exposure that affects the
 
19 analysis of false positives and false negatives. I
 
20 think there will be increasing convergence.
 
21 In a way more serious than the problem of
 
22 different substantive rules in different
 
23 jurisdictions is the problem of overlapping
 
24 investigation of the same transaction by multiple
 
25 jurisdictions.

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1 It is a problem in the U.S. when the FCC,
 
2 the states, and the federal antitrust agencies have
 
3 investigated the same transaction. It is especially
 
4 a problem internationally with multiple
 
5 jurisdictions.
 
6 The problem is not just sort of that there
 
7 is a search by the complainant for the lowest
 
8 standard. That is true. It is also that there is a
 
9 search by the complainant for multiple reviews.
 
10 Multiple reviews ensure that we are going to
 
11 have a bias in the system in favor of false
 
12 positives because the second review can cure a false
 
13 negative but there is nothing that can cure a false
 
14 positive.
 
15 So I think one thing the United States ought
 
16 to do is to stand firm for the principle that
 
17 multiple agencies should not be looking at the same
 
18 transaction.
 
19 MR. MURIS: Let me make three points.
 
20 First, I agree with Susan about the
 
21 empirical significance of cheap exclusion. There
 
22 has been significant work regarding horizontal
 
23 activity in this administration. For example, at
 
24 the Justice Department, grand juries had fallen to a
 
25 very low level by the end of the last decade. The

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1 Justice Department has built that back up and done a
 
2 very good job. The FTC obviously did a lot with
 
3 regard to price fixing and other cases.
 
4 Second, in response to Bob's point about the
 
5 United States being unique or close to unique among
 
6 the developed economies, we are the only one with
 
7 flexible labor and credit markets, and that is to
 
8 our enormous benefit.
 
9 Finally, in response to Doug's point, with
 
10 which I agree, there is a difference between mergers
 
11 and dominance. Mergers are divisible in the sense
 
12 that you can have multiple reviews and it is
 
13 basically okay because you can sell off parts. But
 
14 in the dominance area, the most aggressive remedy
 
15 tends to dominate.
 
16 MR. MELAMED: I meant to say for the global
 
17 market situation I agree.
 
18 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Maybe it is a good time
 
19 to jump in and finish up with remedies.
 
20 MR. PITOFSKY: Can I say a word about that?
 
21 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Yes.
 
22 MR. PITOFSKY: I let it go because I wanted
 
23 to hear what everyone had to say.
 
24 My view -- I hope it is not too
 
25 pessimistic -- is that convergence is a long way

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1 off. It seems to be going a little bit the wrong
 
2 way right now. For example, the WTO has given up on
 
3 its working group seeking a way to achieve
 
4 convergence.
 
5 I commend the other groups that keep at it.
 
6 And I would keep at it even despite my view that it
 
7 is not in the cards for the foreseeable future.
 
8 But I think there is something that is in
 
9 the cards, and that is comity.
 
10 And please don't take what I say as
 
11 deference. I am utterly practical about this. We
 
12 will never get deference; one country says to the
 
13 other country "you do it and I will go along with
 
14 everything you say."
 
15 What you can have is enhanced comity. This
 
16 comes back to three or four countries examining the
 
17 same behavior, and for the second, third and fourth
 
18 country to say "look, we are going to wait and see,
 
19 we respect the way you do things, and we are going
 
20 to wait and see what you do, and if you do the right
 
21 thing, we will just accept your remedy and we will
 
22 go away."
 
23 Canada does it on a regular basis
 
24 constantly.
 
25 And I think there are a lot of people around

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1 who believe that it is a step in the right
 
2 direction.
 
3 Also, enhanced comity would require that you
 
4 do everything possible not to have inconsistent
 
5 judgments, not to say to a company do A and then
 
6 somebody else says not do A. There are a number of
 
7 things that can be done here.
 
8 I regard traditional "comity" up until now
 
9 as being not frivolous but a trivial matter. It
 
10 could be changed. It could be changed by treaty.
 
11 The United States and Europe would get together and
 
12 offer a program of enhanced comity.
 
13 I think it would migrate elsewhere. While
 
14 we are standing around waiting for convergence, I
 
15 see that as something useful to do.
 
16 MR. BARNETT: A quick follow-up.
 
17 If you are going to have this respect, if
 
18 you will, do you decide who goes first and who sits
 
19 back and watches?
 
20 MR. PITOFSKY: Tough one.
 
21 In the international bankruptcy field, they
 
22 have that problem. And the answer is that the
 
23 country that has the most connections with the
 
24 debtor institution takes the lead. The United
 
25 States and other countries have committed to

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1 deference; anything they say is okay with us.
 
2 Antitrust comity will be more complicated.
 
3 But we can find a way to decide which country has
 
4 the most connections with the transaction.
 
5 MR. RILL: The principles of traditional
 
6 comity are spelled out in the US-EU cooperation
 
7 agreement. Those are taken from a long history of
 
8 the development of traditional comity.
 
9 Those elements can lead those who wish to
 
10 adopt, if you will, a soft deference policy towards
 
11 a solution as to which country might go first.
 
12 Whether they can be applied with any degree
 
13 of comity remains to be seen. The principles are
 
14 there.
 
15 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Okay. We should move on
 
16 to remedy, which is an area that is extremely
 
17 important.
 
18 I think Doug's point, the D.C. Circuit in
 
19 Microsoft said yes, it may be hard six years later
 
20 after the conduct to find the right remedy but you
 
21 still need to bring the cases because that gives
 
22 instruction for companies in the future and may have
 
23 some deterrent value.
 
24 I agree with all that. But nonetheless, I
 
25 think the remedy issue is one that has been at least

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1 as vexing as even the liability issue in a number of
 
2 cases for us.
 
3 A couple questions I will throw out and
 
4 folks can jump in.
 
5 One thing that we looked at was that when we
 
6 had our panels on remedy, they generally agreed one
 
7 of the goals should be to restore competition in the
 
8 market.
 
9 Is that realistic, particularly in so many
 
10 markets we deal with today? They are hardly static.
 
11 You can't pin them down in time.
 
12 Is that a realistic goal? If so, how should
 
13 we look at doing it?
 
14 The other question I would throw out in the
 
15 interest of time now is if in fact we find that it
 
16 is very difficult to impose a remedy and, worse yet,
 
17 imposing a remedy may do more harm than good to the
 
18 market, then are we better off with doing nothing
 
19 or, for example, what Doug suggested, maybe having
 
20 civil penalties, maybe leaving it to treble damages,
 
21 as opposed to intervening with some sort of conduct
 
22 or structural remedy?
 
23 MR. SIDAK: I think that the damages
 
24 approach has a lot to commend it.
 
25 If you think about a big case like the

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1 Microsoft case, I think it is unfortunate at the
 
2 very beginning of the case there wasn't a clear
 
3 statement as to what the desired remedies were on
 
4 the part of the federal government.
 
5 The divestiture remedy was something that
 
6 was introduced publicly at least much later on.
 
7 The critical issue over which Microsoft and
 
8 the government disagreed the most was what is the
 
9 measure of harm to consumers, what is the consumer
 
10 welfare loss from this.
 
11 Economists would try to answer that question
 
12 by measuring damages. It seems to me answering the
 
13 liability question and getting to an alternative
 
14 kind of remedy collapses into a single exercise.
 
15 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: You should know in the
 
16 30,000 or something comments we received on the
 
17 settlement, there were a pretty good percentage of
 
18 people saying you didn't do your job because you
 
19 didn't get any civil penalties or damages against
 
20 Microsoft.
 
21 Of course, we had no authority to do it.
 
22 But the general public, when they were doing it
 
23 without profanity, agreed with you.
 
24 MR. SIDAK: But there was a prayer for other
 
25 injunctive relief as the court might grant.

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1 I don't know if the court would take that
 
2 and run with it and cook up some kind of
 
3 disgorgement remedy perhaps. But I don't believe it
 
4 was pursued by the Justice Department.
 
5 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Doug?
 
6 MR. MELAMED: I agree with your bottom line,
 
7 Greg. But Microsoft illustrates the limits, not the
 
8 case for money remedies.
 
9 The Microsoft case at its core was a case
 
10 about an investment by Microsoft in raising entry
 
11 barriers.
 
12 I don't know how you would prove who was
 
13 damaged by it. There was a prediction that the
 
14 market would behave less well in the future
 
15 sufficient to justify the liability determination.
 
16 If you really thought that the penalty for
 
17 that should be equal to the damages incurred by some
 
18 definable body, I'm not sure there would be much of
 
19 a penalty.
 
20 MR. SIDAK: That was the problem with the
 
21 back-of-the-envelope calculations about what would
 
22 be the profit-maximizing monopoly price for Windows
 
23 and how does it compare to the price that was
 
24 actually being charged.
 
25 To me, that's what was the stark question.

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1 Well, if the price that's being charged is so much
 
2 less than what the profit-maximizing price would be,
 
3 what is the big problem here, why the big case?
 
4 MR. EISENACH: Rick may know the number. I
 
5 don't off the top of my head.
 
6 I know Sun's damages were I think settled at
 
7 $4 billion. I don't know what all the totals were.
 
8 The conduct coming out of that case did
 
9 translate directly into civil damages on Microsoft.
 
10 They paid billions of dollars.
 
11 MR. RULE: They settled with quite a few
 
12 people.
 
13 MR. EISENACH: Netscape.
 
14 MR. RULE: Yes. They did pay. I'm not sure
 
15 what the number is now, but it may be exceeding
 
16 $10 billion. I don't know when you add it all up.
 
17 I guess the thing I would say is it is
 
18 important for the government to think about the
 
19 remedy before it brings the case. A lot of people
 
20 said that.
 
21 It may not be fair to the government to say
 
22 they hadn't given that a lot of thought. I don't
 
23 know. I defer to Doug as to whether or not they had
 
24 given it a lot of thought.
 
25 But it does seem to me that the government

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1 ought to have in clear mind what the remedy would
 
2 be, and if it can't visualize and articulate what
 
3 that remedy would be, maybe it shouldn't bring the
 
4 case.
 
5 Second point --
 
6 MR. SIDAK: Could you push that a little
 
7 farther? What should a court do if the government
 
8 doesn't articulate the remedy in its complaint?
 
9 MR. RULE: I think it is just the way the
 
10 rules work. A court is not going to throw you out
 
11 on that basis.
 
12 You could establish a rule that says that
 
13 the remedy ought to be articulated. What a
 
14 plaintiff and a court may say is we can't fully
 
15 understand what the appropriate remedy will be until
 
16 the factual record is built. So you would have some
 
17 issues there.
 
18 I think the government doesn't have that
 
19 problem, and they ought to think about their theory
 
20 in that way.
 
21 The second point I would make is, in a way,
 
22 Microsoft arguably was an easier case. It was an
 
23 easier case on remedy. I think it ultimately worked
 
24 out as a remedy because it was a maintenance case as
 
25 opposed to a monopoly acquisition case.

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1 And the core of that remedy was a set of
 
2 rules that really can be viewed largely as
 
3 prohibitions. And, frankly, as far as that part of
 
4 the decree has gone, it has worked pretty darn well.
 
5 The issues have come up in the Microsoft
 
6 decree really in two different parts, one that sort
 
7 of gets into the way the product is designed. But
 
8 that has generally been fairly manageable because of
 
9 the way the government ultimately focused in on what
 
10 the court found to be the problem.
 
11 The place where there was really the problem
 
12 was the protocol licensing provisions.
 
13 I would argue the reason that that was a
 
14 problem, without going into how it got there,
 
15 because it really wasn't part of the government's
 
16 case, and it sort of came in in the course of a
 
17 negotiation, and it was probably a part of the
 
18 remedy that was not very well thought out. It
 
19 didn't really have a basis in the factual record.
 
20 It has proven as a result to be kind of a
 
21 difficult one to implement. I think there is some
 
22 question about how efficacious it was.
 
23 But I think the strength of that decree is
 
24 that it enumerated certain practices that had to be
 
25 proscribed, and it has done a very good job of that.

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1 If you can have a decree like that in a
 
2 Section 2 case, it works.
 
3 When you start getting into structural
 
4 remedies, I can see one in a case where a monopoly
 
5 is created through acquisition so that you have at
 
6 least arguable natural demarcations where you could
 
7 divide a company.
 
8 But otherwise, it is very hard to have a
 
9 structural remedy. And in my view, that sort of
 
10 goes back to what Greg is saying. In most Section 2
 
11 cases, I think the government ought to think about
 
12 whether it can bring about an appropriate remedy.
 
13 And where it can't, it ought to recognize there is a
 
14 treble damage remedy available to the plaintiffs.
 
15 Plaintiffs in monopoly cases are not somehow
 
16 fooled. They know where there is a violation. They
 
17 can go into court. And there is an argument that
 
18 that is an overdeterrent. But they are entitled to
 
19 that.
 
20 The argument would be that it is a rare
 
21 Section 2 case that the federal government ought to
 
22 go after and by and large it ought to leave those
 
23 cases to private plaintiffs.
 
24 MR. MURIS: The remedy issue I think raises
 
25 the second major benefit of the cheap exclusion

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1 approach.
 
2 The first is by fishing where the fish are,
 
3 you are more likely to find problems. The second is
 
4 the remedies are generally easy.
 
5 The remedy that Chairman Majoras proposed in
 
6 the Unocal case wasn't hard at all. It saved an
 
7 enormous amount of money for consumers and it
 
8 involved gasoline, for which the Commission should
 
9 get a lot more credit than it gets.
 
10 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: We get none.
 
11 MR. MELAMED: The questions that we were
 
12 given beforehand, the first question on remedies,
 
13 asked what are the appropriate goals for a Section 2
 
14 remedy.
 
15 I think there are six of them. One is
 
16 general deterrence. Two and three, compensate
 
17 victims and disgorge profits from the wrongdoer.
 
18 Four and five, end the wrongful conduct and prevent
 
19 its recurrence. And the latter includes sometimes
 
20 fencing in, going beyond the literal conduct. And
 
21 six is restore competition in the injured market.
 
22 The first 4-1/2 of these, general
 
23 deterrence, compensate victims, disgorge profits,
 
24 end the wrongful conduct, prevent its recurrence,
 
25 don't raise difficult remedy questions.

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1 So what we are talking about here is the
 
2 scope of fencing-in remedies, which can be
 
3 problematic and restoring competition in the injured
 
4 market.
 
5 It seems to me nutty to say in effect that
 
6 the complaint should be dismissed if the plaintiff
 
7 cannot at the outset of the case articulate a
 
8 coherent remedy that falls into categories 5B and 6.
 
9 There are too many other reasons to bring a case to
 
10 be held up on account of an inability to satisfy
 
11 sensible injunctive remedy.
 
12 Maybe the answer is many don't have remedies
 
13 of those types.
 
14 Two more brief comments. On Microsoft,
 
15 there were billions of dollars paid largely to
 
16 existing rivals who claim to have been excluded
 
17 historically by the antibarrier conduct.
 
18 That didn't capture the theory of the case,
 
19 which was consumers and rivals that hadn't arrived
 
20 on the scene and consumers that would be injured in
 
21 the future. It is not a bad start.
 
22 On structural relief, the structural remedy
 
23 in the Microsoft case, entering it without a hearing
 
24 was one of the most breathtaking remedies, but
 
25 conceptually it wasn't a bad idea.

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1 If you assume, probably counterfactually,
 
2 that the ops company and the aps company could have
 
3 been divided like Siamese conjoined twins without
 
4 killing one of them without a lot of cost, then this
 
5 is a remedy perfectly consistent with the theory.
 
6 It preserves the market power of both
 
7 companies and changes -- it is a vertical
 
8 divestiture and changes the anticompetitive
 
9 behavior.
 
10 Suppose Office and Windows had been two
 
11 separate companies? How would we feel about a
 
12 merger? Might we be very concerned about that?
 
13 I'm not saying it made sense in fact. I
 
14 don't think you can say mechanically or
 
15 formulaically structural remedies are appropriate
 
16 when you have an illegal horizontal aggregation
 
17 because they might make the most sense.
 
18 MR. BARNETT: You sort of blew by your first
 
19 4-1/2 goals. Can I probe a little bit on that?
 
20 Take your bundled discount, some of the
 
21 pricing conduct we talked about before. That puts
 
22 the court in a position of prohibiting the conduct
 
23 which I thought was within your first 4-1/2,
 
24 prohibiting conduct relating to pricing.
 
25 You view that as a simple, straightforward

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1 proposition?
 
2 MR. MELAMED: I agree. There may be
 
3 instances where it gets difficult. Predatory
 
4 pricing --
 
5 MR. BARNETT: I didn't give you that
 
6 example.
 
7 MR. MELAMED: I understand. What you are
 
8 doing it seems to me is sneaking in the remedy
 
9 question an uncertainty about the liability test.
 
10 Let's take predatory pricing. I don't think
 
11 we would want to have a remedy that said, defendant,
 
12 don't sell your widgets for less than $4. But we
 
13 might say don't sell it for less than whatever we
 
14 think the appropriate cost measure is and in effect
 
15 incorporate into an injunction the substantive
 
16 standard.
 
17 I think when it comes to a simple sin no
 
18 more remedy, the difficulties in most cases are
 
19 going to mirror difficulties in articulating the
 
20 liability rule. They are not difficulties of
 
21 remedy. They are not inherent in a remedial scheme.
 
22 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: I was surprised to hear
 
23 you say government should primarily stay out of
 
24 Section 2 and leave it to the private lawyers, and
 
25 maybe your view is that is typically business to

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1 business cases.
 
2 I understand. But several of the panelists
 
3 noted that it was the private treble damage actions
 
4 that really had the impact in terms of chilling
 
5 certain types of aggressive behavior and really not
 
6 the government actions.
 
7 So someone suggested because it is tough to
 
8 identify actionable Section 2 behavior, we should in
 
9 fact take away the treble damage aspect. I know if
 
10 you did that, I would also have a question, should
 
11 you give the government civil penalty authority as
 
12 opposed to a disgorgement situation in the equitable
 
13 realm?
 
14 MR. RULE: I will say that my comments
 
15 before were premised on the assumption that you guys
 
16 can't do something about the treble damage remedy.
 
17 I think it would exist. The other
 
18 qualification which should be implicit in what I
 
19 said before but I want to make it clear, when I say
 
20 it should be left to private suits, I mean for
 
21 damages, not injunctive relief.
 
22 Because as you know, I think, in my view, to
 
23 the extent that there are injunctive remedies
 
24 available to a plaintiff, it probably should be
 
25 limited to the federal government because there are

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1 too many problems when you expand that.
 
2 But having said that, look, I think there
 
3 are definite problems with the treble damage remedy.
 
4 Twenty years ago, what the Department of
 
5 Justice suggested was limiting treble damages to
 
6 suits by suppliers or purchasers, and suits by
 
7 others who claimed to have been harmed because of
 
8 lost profits or exclusion from the marketplace would
 
9 be limited to their actual damages. The argument
 
10 being that it is not like there is some question of
 
11 detecting the illegal behavior because you know you
 
12 are subject to it, so there is no particular reason
 
13 to give anybody more than compensation for their
 
14 injury.
 
15 For that reason, I still believe that
 
16 probably single damages for competitors who are
 
17 harmed by that conduct is probably sufficient.
 
18 But do I think that you guys can bring that
 
19 about? Do I think Congress is prepared to bring
 
20 that about? No.
 
21 I think in light of that, that's why I say
 
22 since that is going to exist anyway, you may as well
 
23 leave most of these cases to the private sector.
 
24 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Any other final comments?
 
25 Any other final comments on anything?

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1 We can do like the McLaughlin Group and go
 
2 down the line.
 
3 MR. RULE: You have to give us a one to ten
 
4 question.
 
5 MR. BARNETT: The benefits of the hungry
 
6 stomach.
 
7 MR. EISENACH: I can't resist saying one
 
8 thing about essential facilities and remedies.
 
9 The guy who dug the well -- or the guy in
 
10 Steve Jobs case who created the iPod -- may be the
 
11 ninth or 10th guy who tried to dig that well. The
 
12 first nine didn't make it.
 
13 The probability of a regulatory agency
 
14 appropriately compensating the 10th guy who finally
 
15 made it to the bottom of the well and got water for
 
16 the risk he took is so close to zero to me it just
 
17 trumps the case.
 
18 MR. SIDAK: A free option problem.
 
19 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: Any last words?
 
20 Thank you so much, panelists. This has
 
21 really been tremendous.
 
22 We thank you for your participation and for
 
23 taking four hours out of what I know are your busy
 
24 schedules.
 
25 MR. BARNETT: I agree. I actually, given

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1 the reputation of the members of this panel, had
 
2 very high expectation. I'm gratified to say they
 
3 were exceeded.
 
4 Thank you.
 
5 (Applause.)
 
6 CHAIRMAN MAJORAS: I should probably say
 
7 this for Pat and Gail. This concludes our Section 2
 
8 hearings.
 
9 (Whereupon, the hearing was concluded.)
 
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25  

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1 CERTIFICATION OF REPORTER
 
2 DOCKET/FILE NUMBER: P062106
 
3 CASE TITLE: SECTION 2 HEARING
 
4 DATE: MAY 8, 2007
 
5
 
6 I HEREBY CERTIFY that the transcript
 
7 contained herein is a full and accurate transcript
 
8 of the notes taken by me at the hearing on the above
 
9 cause before the FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION to the
 
10 best of my knowledge and belief.
 
11
 
12 DATED: 5/15/2007
 
13
 
14
 
15
 
16 BRENDA SMONSKEY
 
17
 
18 CERTIFICATION OF PROOFREADER
 
19
 
20 I HEREBY CERTIFY that I proofread the
 
21 transcript for accuracy in spelling, hyphenation,
 
22 punctuation and format.
 
23
 
24
 
25 DIANE QUADE  

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Updated January 2, 2024