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Expert Analysis Group Publications

The analysis and conclusions expressed in the papers are solely those of the authors and do not represent the views of the Department of Justice.


Russell Pittman (with Jianhong Wu, Zhaoxia Kang, and Louis S. Thompson), “Enhancing Railway Competition in China: Structural and Regulatory Options”, Journal of Transport Economics & Policy, forthcoming 2024.

Nathaniel Mark (with Michael Dickstein and Kate Ho), “Market Segmentation and Competition in Health Insurance,” Journal of Political Economy, 132, forthcoming 2024.


Yin Jia Qiu (with Masayuki Sawada and Gloria Sheu), “Win/Loss Data and Consumer Switching Costs: Measuring Diversion Ratios and the Impact of Mergers,” Journal of Industrial Economics, forthcoming.


Susan Athey, Russell Pittman, and Fan Zhang, “The Year in Review: Economics at the Antitrust Division”, Review of Industrial Organization 61 (2022), 439-447

Yin Jia Qiu, "The Matthew Effect, Research Productivity, and the Dynamic Allocation of NIH Grants" RAND Journal of Economics, 54 (2023), 135-164.

Drew Vollmer, "Bundling with Resale," Journal of Industrial Economics, 70:4 (2022), 918-938.

Levi Marks, “The Abatement Cost of Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Production,” Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, 9:2 (March 2022), 165-198.


Brian Clark, Jeffrey S. Lien, and Jeffrey M. Wilder, "The Year in Review: Economics at the Antitrust Division, 2020–2021," Review of Industrial Organization 59 (2021), 1-13.

Jacob Burgdorf, “Do Ridesharing Services Increase Alcohol Consumption?” (with Conor Lennon and Keith Teltser), Journal of Health Economics, 77 (May 2021), 102451.

Craig T. Peters and Jeffrey M. Wilder, “Ten Years of the HMG: A Perspective from the Department of Justice,” Review of Industrial Organization 58 (2021), 13-31.

Russell Pittman, “Restructuring the Chinese Freight Railway: Two Scenarios” (with Shana Cui and Jian Zhao), Asia and the Global Economy 1 (2021).

Danial Asmat, “Collusion Along the Learning Curve: Theory and Evidence from the Semiconductor Industry,” Journal of Industrial Economics, 69 (2021), 83-108.


Jacob Burgdorf, “The Strategic Impact of Voluntary vs. Mandatory Vertical Restraints and Termination Restrictions on Exclusion of Rivals,” Journal of Regulatory Economics (2020).

Ronald Drennan, Helen C. Knudsen, W. Tom Whalen, and Jeffrey Wilder, “The Year in Review:  Economics at the Antitrust Division 2019-2020,” Review of Industrial Organization 57 (2020), 815-825.

Russell Pittman, “On the Economics of Restructuring World Railways, with a Focus on Russia,” Man and the Economy 7 (2020).

Russell Pittman, “Railways and Railways Regulation in the United States:  Surely You Don’t Want Jones Back?”  In Matthias Finger and Juan Montero, eds., Handbook on Railway Regulation:  Concepts and Practice, Edward Elgar, 2020.

Russell Pittman, “The Effectiveness of EC Policies to Move Freight from Road to Rail: Evidence from CEE Grain Markets” (with Monika Jandová, Marcin Król, Larysa Nekrasenko, and Tomáš Paleta), Research in Transportation Business & Management, 37 (December 2020).

Joseph Podwol (with Nathan Miller), “Forward Contracts, Market Structure, and the Welfare Effects of Mergers,” Journal of Industrial Economics, 68 (2020), 364-407.

Alexander Raskovich, “Does Vertical Integration Spur Investment? Casting Actors to Discover Stars in the Hollywood Studio Era” (with F. Andrew Hanssen), Journal of Law & Economics 61 (2020), 631-666.


Eric Lewis, “Patchwork Policies, Spillovers, and the Search for Oil and Gas,” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 11 (2019), 380-405.

Russell Pittman, “The Response of State-Owned Enterprises to Import Competition: Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms” (with Jing-Lin Duanmu), Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics 90 (2019), 577-613.

Gloria Sheu, “Extended Gravity” (joint with Eduardo Morales and Andrés Zahler), Review of Economic Studies 86 (2019), 2668-2712.


Russell Pittman, “Does Market Competition Dampen Environmental Performance? Evidence from China” (with Jing-Lin Duanmu and Maoliang Bu), Strategic Management Journal, 39 (2018), 3006-3030.

Russell Pittman, Charles Taragin, Steven Tschantz, and Gregory Werden, “Economic Models at the Antitrust Division” (with Luke Froeb), Review of Industrial Economics 53 (2018), 637-651.

Russell Pittman, “Policy in the Deregulated and Newly Competitive Railroad Industry: A Global Analysis” (with Curtis Grimm), in James Peoples and John Bitzan, eds., Transportation Policy and Economic Regulation, 2018, 105-127.

Ruth Raubitschek, “Dynamic and Integrative Capabilities for Profiting from Innovation in Digital Platform-Based Ecosystems” (with Constance E. Helfat), Research Policy 47, (October 2018) 1391-1399.

Zhongmin Wang, “The Long-Run Effects of Housing Location on Travel Behavior: Evidence from China's housing reform” (with Josh Linn and Lunyu Xie), China Economic Review 49 (2018), 114-140.

Zhongmin Wang, “Egregiousness and Boycott Intensity: Evidence from the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill” (with Alvin Lee and Michael Polonsky), Management Science 64:1 (2018).

Gregory Werden, The 1968 Merger Guidelines: In Praise of Committing to Restraint, Review of Industrial Organization 53 (2018), 445-452.

Gregory Werden, “Hertz-Dollar Thrifty: Fixing a Merger to Avoid Litigation” (with Michael Doane, Luke Froeb, and David Zimmer), in Lawrence J. White and John Kwoka, eds., The Antitrust Revolution (7th ed., 2018).


Luke Froeb, “Can Mergers Increase Output? Evidence from the Lodging Industry” (with Arturs Kalnins and Steven Tschantz), RAND Journal of Economics 48:1 (2017), 178-202.

John Griffin, “Risk Premia and Ambiguity in an Experimental Market Featuring a Long-Lived Asset,” Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance 15 (2017), 21-27.

Dimitry Mezhvinsky, “Effects of a Management–Labor Context and Team Play on Ultimatum Game Outcomes” (with Hal Arkes and John Kagel), Southern Economic Journal 83 (2017), 993-1011.

Deborah Minehart, “Reimagining Innovation Theory: Suzanne Scotchmer and The Ideas Model” (with Nisvan Erkal and Stephen Maurer), in Stephen Maurer, ed., On the Shoulders of Giants: Colleagues Remember Suzanne Scotchmer’s Contributions to Economics, Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Russell Pittman, “The Underappreciated Connection Between Rail Restructuring Strategies and Financing,” Review of Network Economics, 16 (2017), 161-170.

Russell Pittman, “The Strange Career of Independent Voting Trusts in U.S. Rail Mergers,” Journal of Competition Law & Economics 13 (2017), 89-102.

Gloria Sheu, “Upward Pricing Pressure as a Predictor of Merger Price Effects” (with Nathan Miller, Marc Remer, and Conor Ryan), International Journal of Industrial Organization 52 (2017), 216-247.

Gloria Sheu, “Pass-Through in a Concentrated Industry: Empirical Evidence and Regulatory Implications” (with Nathan Miller and Matthew Osborne), RAND Journal of Economics 48 (2017), 69-93.

Zhongmin Wang, “Firm Visibility and Voluntary Environmental Behavior: Evidence from Hydraulic Fracturing,” Land Economics 93:4 (2017), 654-666.


Randy C. Chugh, Nathan G. Goldstein, Eric K. Lewis, Jeffrey S. Lien, Deborah Minehart, and Nancy L. Rose, “Economics at the Antitrust Division 2015-2016: Household Appliances, Oil Field Services, and Airport Slots.” Review of Industrial Organization 49:4 (2016), 535-556.

Luke Froeb, “Adversarial Decision Making: Choosing Between Models Constructed by Interested Parties” (with Bernhard Ganglmair and Steven Tschantz), Journal of Law and Economics 59:3 (2016), 527-548.

Ari D. Gerstle, Michael Waldman, “Mergers in Durable-Goods Industries: A Re-Examination of Market Power and Welfare Effects,” Research in Economics 70:4 (2016), 677-692.

Russell Pittman, “Changes in the Role of U.S. Railroads as Haulers of Coal and Crude: Causes and Consequences,” Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports, (2016), 5-9.

Joseph Podwol, “Nonstandard Bidder Behavior in Real-World Auctions” (with Henry Schneider), European Economic Review 83 (2016), 198-212.

Zhongmin Wang, “Empirical Evidence on Competition and Revenue in an All-Pay Contest” (with Minbo Xu), Review of Industrial Organization 49(3) (2016) 429-448.

Zhongmin Wang, “Selling a Dollar for More Than a Dollar? Evidence from Online Penny Auctions” (with Minbo Xu), Information Economics and Policy 36 (2016): 53-68.

Gregory Werden, “The Hypothetical Monopolist Test in Sysco: A Litigation Muddle Needing Analytic Clarity,” 12 Journal of Competition Law & Economics 341 (2016)


Russell Pittman, “Railways Restructuring and Ukrainian Economic Reform,” Man and the Economy 2 (2015), 87-107.


Russell Pittman, “The Economics of Railways Restructuring in South Korea,” (with Sunghee Choi), KOTI Journal of Transport Research 21:2 (2014), 75-104.

Russell Pittman, “Which Direction for South Korean Electricity Policy?” Korean Energy Economic Review 13 (2014), 145-178.

Joseph Podwol, “Search Costs and Equilibrium Price Dispersion in Auction Markets” (with Matthew Backus and Henry Schneider), European Economic Review 74 (2014), 173-192.

Gloria Sheu, “Bias in Reduced-Form Estimates of Pass-Through” (joint with Alexander MacKay, Nathan Miller, and Marc Remer), Economics Letters, 123(2), May 2014, p. 200-202

Gloria Sheu, “Price, Quality, and Variety: Measuring the Gains from Trade in Differentiated Products,” AEJ: Applied Economics, 6(4), October 2014, p. 66-89


Wayne Dunham, “Framing the Right Suspects: Measuring Media Bias,” Journal of Media Economics, 26, (2013).

Russell Pittman, “The Proposed Merger of AT&T and T-Mobile: Economies as an Antitrust Defense Applied” (with Yan Li), Journal of Competition Law & Economics 9 (2013), 49-63.

Gloria Sheu, “Using Cost Pass-Through to Calibrate Demand” (joint with Nathan H. Miller and Marc Remer), Economics Letters, 118(3), March 2013, p. 451-454

Gregory Werden, “The Economics of FTC v. Lundbeck: Why Drug Mergers May Not Raise Prices,” 9 Journal of Competition Law & Economics 89 (2013)

Gregory Werden, Merger Strategies and Antitrust Concerns, in Oxford Handbook in Managerial Economics 537 (Christopher R. Thomas & William F. Shughart II, eds., 2013) (with Luke Froeb)


Gregory Werden, “Patent Hold‑Up and Antitrust: How a Well‑Intentioned Legal Rule Could Retard Innovation,” 60 Journal of Industrial Economics 249 (2012) (with Bernhard Ganglmair and Luke Froeb)


Patrick Greenlee, “Comment on Muris and Smith: ‘Antitrust and Bundled Discounts: An Experimental Analysis’” (with David Reitman and David S. Sibley), Antitrust Law Journal 77: 669-681 (2011).

Russell Pittman, Infrastructure Reform in China, editor of special issue of Utilities Policy 19:3 (2011)

“Editor’s Introduction: Infrastructure Reform in China”, pp. 123-124

“Risk-Averse Restructuring of Freight Railways in China,” pp. 152-160

Gregory Werden, “The Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Market for Corporate Control: Comment,” 167 Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 168 (2011)

Gregory Werden, “Behavioral Antitrust and Merger Control,” 167 Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 126 (2011) (with Luke Froeb and Mikhael Shor)

Fan Zhang, “Dynamic Contract Breach,”Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization, vol. 27, no. 3, 2011.


Russell Pittman, “Against the Stand-Alone-Cost Test in U.S. Freight Rail Regulation,” Journal of Regulatory Economics 38 (2010), 313-326.

Russell Pittman, “Electricity Restructuring in China: How Competitive Will Generation Markets Be?” (with Vanessa Yanhua Zhang), Singapore Economic Review 55 (2010), 377-400.


Russell Pittman, “Competition Issues in Restructuring Ports and Railways, Including Brief Consideration of these Sectors in India,” International Journal of Regulation and Governance, 9:2 (December 2009).

Russell Pittman, “Railway Mergers and Railway Alliances: Competition Issues and Lessons for Other Network Industries,” Competition and Regulation in Network Industries 10 (2009), 259-278.

Russell Pittman, Electricity Reform in South East Europe, special issue of Utilities Policy, 17:1 (March 2009), co-edited with Lindsay Stirton and Kathryn Wright.

“Prospects for integration and liberalisation in South East Europe’s Electricity Market,” pp. 1-3, co-authored with Lindsay Stirton and Kathryn Wright.

“Electricity Reform in Romania”, pp. 114-24,co-authored with Oana Diaconu and Gheorghe Oprescu.

“Electricity Reform in Serbia”, pp. 125-33, co-authored with Dragana Kragulj, Sandra Jednak, and Milica Bulajic.

“Organization and Reforms of the Electricity Sector in Slovenia,” pp. 134-43, co-authored with Nevenka Hrovatin and Jelena Zoric.

Dean Williamson, “Organization, Control and the Single Entity Defense in Antitrust,” Journal of Competition Law & Economics, 2009.


Wayne Dunham, “Cold Case Files: The Athenian Grain Merchants, 386 BC,” CATO Journal 28 (2008)

Patrick Greenlee, “An Antitrust Analysis of Bundled Loyalty Discounts” (with David Reitman and David S. Sibley), International Journal of Industrial Organization 26: 1132-1152 (2008)

Russell Pittman, “Make or Buy on the Russian Railway? Coase, Williamson, and Tsar Nicholas III,” Economic Change and Restructuring 40 (2008), 207-221.

Russell Pittman, “Competition in Freight Railways: ‘Above-the-Rail’ Operators in Central Europe and Russia” (with Oana Diaconu, Emanual Šip, Anna Tomová, and Jerzy Wronka), Journal of Competition Law and Economics 3 (2008), 673-687.

Gregory Werden, “Assessing the Effects of Antitrust Enforcement in the United States,” 156 De Economist 433 (2008)

Gregory Werden, “Post-Merger Product Repositioning,” 56 Journal of Industrial Economics 49 (2008) (with Amit Gandhi, Luke Froeb & Steven Tschantz)


Russell Pittman, “The Restructuring of the Romanian Power Sector” (with Oana Diaconu and Gheorghe Oprescu), Romanian Journal of European Affairs 7 (2007), 57-67.

Russell Pittman, “Railroad Restructuring in Russia and Central and Eastern Europe: One Solution for All Problems?” (with Guido Friebel, Sergei Guriev, Elizabeta Sheviakhova, and Anna Tomova), Transport Reviews 27 (May 2007), 251-71.

Russell Pittman, “Restructuring the Russian Electricity Sector: Re-Creating California?”, Energy Policy 35 (March 2007), 1872-1883.

Alexander Raskovich, “Ordered Bargaining,” International Journal of Industrial Organization 25 (2007), pp.1126-1143

Alexander Raskovich, “Retail Buyer Power Through Steering,” Economics Letters 96 (2007), pp.221-225

Alexander Raskovich, “Competition or Collusion? Negotiating Discounts Off Posted Prices,” International Journal of Industrial Organization 25 (2007), pp.341-354

W. Tom Whalen, “A Panel Data Analysis of Code-Sharing, Antitrust Immunity, and Open Skies Treaties in International Aviation Markets” Review of Industrial Organization, 2007


Wayne Dunham, “The Determination of Antitrust Liability in U.S. v. Microsoft: The Empirical Evidence the Department of Justice Used to Prove its Case,” Journal of Competition Law and Economics, 2 (2006).

Patrick Greenlee and Alexander Raskovich, “Partial Vertical Ownership” European Economic Review 50: 1017-1041 (2006)

Craig Peters, “Evaluating the Performance of Merger Simulation: Evidence from the U.S. Airline Industry,” Journal of Law and Economics, 2006

Gregory Werden, “Identifying Exclusionary Conduct under Section 2: The ‘No Economic Sense’ Test,” 73 Antitrust Law Journal 413 (2006)


Patrick Greenlee, “Endogenous Formation of Competitive Research Sharing Joint Ventures,” 53 Journal of Industrial Economics (2005)

Russell Pittman, “Structural Separation to Create Competition? The Case of Freight Railways,” Review of Network Economics 4 (2005).

Gregory Werden, “Pass-Through Rates and the Price Effects of Mergers,” 23 International Journal of Industrial Organization 703 (2005) (with Luke Froeb and Steven Tschantz)


Russell Pittman, “Russian Railroad Reform and the Problem of Non-Discriminatory Access to Infrastructure,” Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics 75 (2004), 167-192.

Russell Pittman, “Chinese Railway Reform and Competition: Lessons from the Experience in Other Countries,” Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 38 (2004), 305-328.


Wayne Dunham, “Moral Hazard and the Market for Used Automobiles,” 23 Review of Industrial Organization, 65 (2003).

Russell Pittman, "Reform in the Rail and Electricity Sectors in Russia: Restructuring, Competition, and the Ministry for Antimonopoly Policy,”Acta Œconomica 53 (2003), 339-362.

Russell Pittman, “Vertical Restructuring (or Not) of the Infrastructure Sectors of Transition Economies,” Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade 3 (2003), 5-26.

Russell Pittman,“Reform of the Regie Autonomes: Should Romania Follow the New Orthodoxy of Vertical Separation?” (“Reforma Regiilor Autonome: Trebuie România s| adopte nous ortodoxie a separ|rilor pe vertical|?”) (in Romanian) Œconomica 12 (2003), 159-182.

Alexander Raskovich, “Pivotal Buyers and Bargaining Position,” Journal of Industrial Economics 51 (2003), pp. 405-426

Tor Winston, “If at First You Don't Succeed: Profits, Prices, and Market Structure in a Model of Quality with Unknowable Consumer Heterogeneity” (with Kala Krishna), International Economic Review, 2003.


Deborah Minehart, “Effective Siting of Waste Treatment Facilities,” with Zvika Neeman, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 2002, 43, 303-324.

Russell Pittman, “Restructure Romania’s Railways Horizontally, Not Vertically” (“Restructurarea c|ilor ferate române -- pe orizontal|, nu pe vertical|”) (in Romanian), Œconomica 11 (2002), 289-297.


Deborah Minehart, “A Theory of Buyer-Seller Networks” (with Rachel Kranton) , American Economic Review, June 2001, 91(3), 485-508

Russell Pittman, “Privatization and Regulatory Reform in Brazil: The Case of Freight Railways” (with Antonio Estache and Andrea Goldstein), Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade 1:2 (2001), 203-236.

Russell Pittman, “Options for Creating Competition in the Rail Sector” (in Russian), ECO (Journal of the Institute of Economics and the Organization of Industrial Production, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch), August 2001, and Competition and Markets (St. Petersburg), fall 2001.

Gregory Werden, “Microsoft’s Pricing of Windows: A Reply to Reddy, Evans, Nichols, and Schmalensee,” 18 Review of Industrial Organization 269 (2001)

Gregory Werden, “Microsoft’s Pricing of Windows and the Economics of Derived Demand Monopoly,” 18 Review of Industrial Organization 257 (2001)


Deborah Minehart, “Networks versus Vertical Integration” (with Rachel Kranton), RAND Journal of Economics (2000)

Deborah Minehart, “Competition for Goods in Buyer-Seller Networks” (with Rachel Kranton), Review of Economic Design, September 2000, 5(3), 301-331

Ruth Raubitschek, “Product Sequencing: Co-Evolution of Knowledge, Capabilities and Products” (with Constance E. Helfat), Strategic Management Journal, 21, (October-November 2000): 961-979

Gregory Werden, “Market Monitoring by Regional Transmission Organizations: What Role Should They Play in Detecting and Mitigating Market Power?” Electricity Journal, October 2000, at 26

Gregory Werden, “Market Delineation under the Merger Guidelines: Monopoly Cases and Alternative Approaches,” 16 Review of Industrial Organization 211 (2000)

Gregory Werden, Symposium on the Use of Simulation in Applied Industrial Organization, in 7 International Journal of the Economics of Business 133 (2000) (co-edited with Luke Froeb)

“Introduction” (with Luke Froeb)

“Expert Report in United States v. Interstate Bakeries Corp. and Continental Baking Co.”

“Lost Profits from Patent Infringement: The Simulation Approach” (with Luke Froeb and James Langenfeld)

W. Tom Whalen, “The Price Effects of International Airline Alliances” (with Jan Brueckner), Journal of Law and Economics, volume XLIII(2), October 2000

Dean Williamson, "Markets for Contracts: Experiments Exploring the Compatibility of Games and Markets for Games" (with Charles R. Plott), Economic Theory 16 (2000) 3: 639 660.


Patrick Greenlee, “Product Market Objectives and the Formation of Research Joint Ventures” (with Bruno Cassiman), 20 Managerial and Decision Economics 115 (1999).

Deborah Minehart, “Ex Post Regret and the Decentralized Sharing of Information” (with Suzanne Scotchmer), Games and Economic Behavior, 1999, Vol. 27, 114-131.

Deborah Minehart, “Loss Aversion in a Savings Model” (with David Bowman and Matthew Rabin), Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 1999, Vol. 38, 155-178.

Deborah Minehart, “Termination and Coordination in Partnerships” (with Zvika Neeman), Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, Summer 1999, 8(2).

Gregory Werden, “The Effects of Assumed Demand Form on Simulated Postmerger Equilibria,” 15 Review of Industrial Organization 205 (1999) (with Philip Crooke, Luke Froeb & Steven Tschantz)

Gregory Werden, “Quantity Accretion: Mirror Image of Price Erosion from Patent Infringement,” 81 Journal of the Patent and Trademark Office Society 479 (1999) (with Wayne Beavers and Luke Froeb)


Russell Pittman, "Competition Law in Central and Eastern Europe: Five Years Later," Antitrust Bulletin 43:1 (1998), 179-228.

Gregory Werden, “The Entry‑Inducing Effects of Horizontal Mergers: An Exploratory Analysis,” 46 Journal of Industrial Economics 525 (1998) (with Luke Froeb)

Gregory Werden, “A Robust Test for Consumer Welfare Enhancing Mergers Among Sellers of a Homogeneous Product,” 58 Economics Letters 367 (1998) (with Luke Froeb)


Wayne Dunham, “Are Automobile Safety Regulations Worth the Price? Evidence from Used Car Markets,” 35 Economic Inquiry, 579 (1997).

Deborah Minehart, “A Note on the Generic Finiteness of the Set of Equilibria in an Exchange Economy with Constrained Endowments,” Mathematical Social Sciences, 34(1), August 1997, 75-80.


Alexander Raskovich, “You Shall Have No Other Gods Besides Me: A Legal-Economic Analysis of the Rise of Yahweh,” Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 152 (1996), pp. 449-471

Ruth Raubitschek, "High Cost Domestic Joint Ventures and International Competition: Do Domestic Firms Gain?" (with Barbara J. Spencer), International Economic Review, 37 (May 1996): 315-340.

Gregory Werden, “A Robust Test for Consumer Welfare Enhancing Mergers Among Sellers of Differentiated Products,” 44 Journal of Industrial Economics 409 (1996)

Gregory Werden, “The Use of the Logit Model in Applied Industrial Organization,” 3 International Journal of the Economics of Business 85 (1996) (with Luke Froeb and Timothy Tardiff)


Russell Pittman, “Competition Policies for Natural Monopolies in a Developing Market Economy” (with Janusz Ordover and Paul Clyde), Economics of Transition 2:3 (September 1994).


Russell Pittman, “Antitrust and the Political Process,” in D.B. Audretsch and J.J. Siegfried, eds., Empirical Studies in Industrial Organization: Essays in Honor of Leonard W. Weiss (Boston: Kluwer, 1992).


Russell Pittman, “Specific Investments, Contracts, and Opportunism: The Evolution of Railroad Sidetrack Agreements,” Journal of Law and Economics 34:2 (pt. 2) (October 1991), 565‑589.


Russell Pittman, “Railroads and Competition: The Santa Fe/Southern Pacific Merger Proposal,” Journal of Industrial Economics 34:1 (September 1990), 25‑46.

Russell Pittman, “The Divergence of SIC Industries from Antitrust Markets: Indications from Justice Department Merger Cases” (with Gregory J. Werden), Economics Letters 33 (1990), 283‑286.


Russell Pittman, “Predatory Investment: U.S. v. IBM,” International Journal of Industrial Organization 2:4 (December 1984), 341‑365.


Russell Pittman, “Multilateral Productivity Comparisons with Undesirable Outputs,” Economic Journal 93:372 (December 1983), 883‑891.


Russell Pittman, “Issues in Pollution Control: Interplant Cost Differences and Economies of Scale,”Land Economics 57:1 (February 1981), 1‑17.


Russell Pittman, “Market Structure and Campaign Contributions,” Public Choice 31 (Fall 1977), 37‑52.


Russell Pittman, “The Effects of Industry Concentration and Regulation on Contributions in Three 1972 U.S. Senate Campaigns,” Public Choice 27 (Fall 1976), 71-80.


Russell Pittman, “Introduction to STB Economists’ Round Table on the Stand-Alone-Cost Test and its Future,” Journal of Transportation Law, Logistics & Policy 90:1 (2023), 89-94.


Russell Pittman (with Chris Sagers), “A Proposed Pro-Labor Step for Antitrust”, Competition Policy International, February 9, 2021.


Russell Pittman, “A Note on Antitrust, Labor, and ‘No Cold Call’ Agreements in Silicon Valley,” Competition Policy International, December 16, 2020.


Gregory Werden (with Luke Froeb), "Why Patent Hold-Up Does Not Violate Antitrust Law" 27 Texas Intellectual Property Law Journal 27 (2019), 1-29.


Russell Pittman, “Three Economist’s Tools for Antitrust Analysis: A Non-Technical Introduction,” in Boris Begović and Dušan Popović, eds., Competition Authorities in South Eastern Europe: Building Institutions in Emerging Markets, Springer Verlag, Contributions in Economics, 2018, 155-172.

Gregory Werden, Establishment of the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice, 92 St. John’s Law Review 92 (2018), 419-430.

Gregory Werden, “Increased Margins and Merger Assessment: No Need to Fret” (with Luke Froeb), Journal of European Competition Law & Practice 9 (2018), 519-422

Gregory Werden, “Don’t Panic: A Guide to Claims of Increasing Concentration” (with Luke Froeb), Antitrust, Fall 2018.

Gregory Werden, "How Chief Justice White Hampered Development of Limiting Principles for Section 2 of the Sherman Act and What Can Be Done About It Now," Ohio State Business Law Journal 12 (2018), 63-97.


Gregory Werden, “Cross-Market Balancing of Competitive Effects: What Is the Law, and What Should It Be?,” Journal of Corporation Law 43 (2017).

Gregory Werden, “Individual Accountability under the Sherman Act, 1890-1950,” Antitrust, Spring 2017.


Gregory Werden, “Two Missed Opportunities with the Competitor Collaboration Guidelines, Antitrust, Summer 2016.

Gregory Werden, “The Relevant Market Concept in Antitrust Law,” in Douglas Ginsburg and Joshua Wright, eds., Global Antitrust Economics: Current Issues in Antitrust Law and Economics, 2016.


Gregory Werden, Inconvenient Truths on Merger Retrospective Studies, 3 Journal of Antitrust Enforcement 287 (2015)

Gregory Werden, United States v. Bazaarvoice: The Role of Customer Testimony in Clayton Act Merger Challenges, 24 Competition–The Journal of the Antitrust and Unfair Competition Section of the State Bar of California 103 (2015)


Gregory Werden, “Predicting Competitive Effects from Prescription Drug Mergers: How Standard Economic Analysis Can Go Wrong,” 59 Antitrust Bulletin 2014

Gregory Werden, The Relevant Market: Possible and Productive, Antitrust Law Journal Online (Apr. 2014)

Gregory Werden, “Antitrust’s Rule of Reason: Only Competition Matters,” 79 Antitrust Law Journal 713 (2014)


Gregory Werden, Antitrust Needs the Relevant Market, in 2012 Fordham Competition Law Institute 235 (Barry Hawk ed., 2013)

Gregory Werden, Market Definition in Antitrust, in 2012 Fordham Competition Law Institute 257 (Barry Hawk ed., 2013) (roundtable with others)

Gregory Werden, “Cartel Deterrence through Criminal Enforcement: A Rejoinder to Lande and Davis,” 58 Antitrust Bulletin 191 (2013)

Gregory Werden, “Why (Ever) Define Markets? An Answer to Professor Kaplow,” 78 Antitrust Law Journal 719 (2013)


Russell Pittman, “Collective Dominance and its Abuse under the Russian Competition Law” (with Svetlana Avdasheva and Nadezhda Goreyko), World Competition 35 (2012), 245-268.


Patrick Greenlee, “Comment on Muris and Smith: ‘Antitrust and Bundled Discounts: An Experimental Analysis’” (with David Reitman and David S. Sibley), Antitrust Law Journal 77: 669-681 (2011).

Russell Pittman, “Antitrust Remedies in a Systems Setting,” Antitrust Bulletin 56:1 (2011), 27-35.

Gregory Werden, “Deterrence and Detection of Cartels: Using All the Tools and Sanctions,” 56 Antitrust Bulletin 207 (2011) (with Scott Hammond and Belinda Barnett)

Gregory Werden, “Recidivism Eliminated: Cartel Enforcement in the United States since 1999,” CPI Antitrust Chronicle, Oct. 2011 (1) (with Scott Hammond and Belinda Barnett)

Gregory Werden, “Choosing among Tools for Assessing Unilateral Merger Effects,” 7 European Competition Journal 155 (2011) (with Luke Froeb)

Gregory Werden, “American Needle and the Application of the Sherman Act to Professional Sports Leagues,” 18 Villanova Sports and Entertainment Law Journal 395 (2011)


Russell Pittman, “The Economics of Railroad ‘Captive Shipper’ Legislation,” Administrative Law Review 62 (2010), 919-936; earlier version published in Journal of Transportation Law, Logistics and Policy 77 (2010), 221-234.

Gregory Werden, “Forward-Looking Merger Analysis and the Superfluous Potential Competition Doctrine,” 77 Antitrust Law Journal 109 (2010) (with Kristen Limarzi)

Gregory Werden, “When Does a Joint Venture Act as a Single Economic Entity?” CPI Antitrust Journal, March 2010 (2)

Dean Williamson, “Antitrust, Innovation, and Uncertain Property Rights: Some Practical Considerations.” Duke Law & Technology Review (2010).


Gregory Werden, “Economic Reasoning in Merger Cases and How Courts Should Evaluate It,” 5 European Competition Journal 701 (2009)

Gregory Werden, “Should the Agencies Issue New Merger Guidelines? Learning from Experience,” 16 George Mason Law Review 839 (2009)

Gregory Werden, “Remedies for Exclusionary Conduct Should Protect and Preserve the Competitive Process,” 76 Antitrust Law Journal 65 (2009)

Gregory Werden, “Sanctioning Cartel Activity: Let the Punishment Fit the Crime,” 5 European Competition Journal 19 (2009)


Patrick Greenlee, “Assessing the Anticompetitive Effects of Multiproduct Pricing” (with Dennis W. Carlton and Michael Waldman), Antitrust Bulletin 53: 587-622 (2008).

Gregory Werden, “Unilateral Competitive Effects and the Test for Merger Control,” 4 European Competition Journal 95 (2008)

Gregory Werden, “Perceptions of the Future of Bank Merger Antitrust: Local Areas Will Remain Relevant Markets,” 13 Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law 581 (2008)


Russell Pittman, “Consumer Surplus as the Appropriate Standard for Antitrust Enforcement,” Competition Law International 3 (Autumn 2007), 205-224.

Gregory Werden, “Monopsony and the Sherman Act: Consumer Welfare in a New Light,” 74 Antitrust Law Journal (2007)

Gregory Werden, “Unilateral Competitive Effects of Horizontal Mergers: Markets, Models, and Modes of Analysis,” 14 Competition & Consumer Law Journal 217 (2007) (with Deirdre Hay)


Gregory Werden, “The ‘No Economic Sense’ Test for Exclusionary Conduct,” 31 Journal of Corporation Law 93 (2006)


Patrick Greenlee, “Distinguishing Competitive and Exclusionary Uses of Loyalty Discounts” (with David Reitman), Antitrust Bulletin 50: 441-463 (2005).

Russell Pittman, “High Domestic Prices that Subsidize Low Export Prices under Romania’s Competition Law,” European Competition Law Review 26 (April 2005), 236-241.

Gregory Werden, “Beyond Critical Loss: Tailored Application of the Hypothetical Monopolist Test,” 4 Competition Law Journal 69 (2005)

Gregory Werden, “Bringing Australian Merger Control into the Twenty-First Century by Incorporating Unilateral Effects,” 13 Competition & Consumer Law Journal 119 (2005) (with Deirdre Hay)

Gregory Werden, “The Effects of Merger Efficiencies on Consumers of Differentiated Products,” 1 European Competition Journal 245 (2005) (with Luke Froeb and Steven Tschantz)


Russell Pittman, “Abuse-of-Dominance Provisions of Central and Eastern European Competition Laws: Have Fears of Over-Enforcement Been Borne Out?” World Competition 27 (2004), 245-257.

Gregory Werden, “Economic Evidence on the Existence of Collusion: Reconciling Antitrust Law with Oligopoly Theory,” 71 Antitrust Law Journal 719 (2004)


Gregory Werden, “The 1982 Merger Guidelines and the Ascent of the Hypothetical Monopolist Paradigm,” 71 Antitrust Law Journal 253 (2003)


Gregory Werden, “The Antitrust Logit Model for Predicting Unilateral Competitive Effects,” 70 Antitrust Law Journal 257 (2002) (with Luke Froeb)

Gregory Werden, “Assigning Market Shares,” 70 Antitrust Law Journal 67 (2002)


Gregory Werden, “Merger Policy for the 21st Century: Charles D. Weller’s Guidelines Are Not Up To The Task,” 33 University of West Los Angeles Law Review 57 (2001)

Gregory Werden, “Network Effects and Conditions of Entry: Lessons from the Microsoft Case,” 69 Antitrust Law Journal 87 (2001)


Gregory Werden, “Economic Analysis of Lost Profits from Patent Infringement With and Without Noninfringing Substitutes,” 27 American Intellectual Property Law Association Quarterly Journal (1999) (with Luke Froeb and Wayne Beavers)


Russell Pittman, “Competition Law in Central and Eastern Europe: Five Years Later,” Antitrust Bulletin 43:1 (1998), 179-228.

Gregory Werden, “Antitrust Analysis of Joint Ventures: An Overview,” 66 Antitrust Law Journal 701 (1998)

Gregory Werden, “Demand Elasticities in Antitrust Analysis,” 66 Antitrust Law Journal 363 (1998)


Gregory Werden, “Simulating the Effects of Differentiated Products Mergers: A Practical Alternative to Structural Merger Policy,” 5 George Mason Law Review 363 (1997)


Gregory Werden, “A Quality-Signaling Rationale for Aftermarket Tying,” 64 Antitrust Law Journal 387 (1996) (with Marius Schwartz)


Russell Pittman, “Some Critical Provisions in the Antimonopoly Laws of Central and Eastern Europe,” International Lawyer 26:2 (Summer 1992), 485‑503.

Russell Pittman, “Merger Law in Central and Eastern Europe,” American University Journal of International Law & Policy 7:3 (Spring 1992), 649‑666.

Updated July 5, 2023