In order to rebut the general presumption against the extraterritoriality of U.S. criminal laws, Congress made clear that §§ 1831 and 1832 are meant to apply to specified conduct occurring outside the United States. To ensure that there is some nexus, §§ 1831 and 1832 apply to conduct occurring outside the United States if: (1) the offender is a citizen or permanent resident alien of the United States, or an organization organized under the laws of the United States or a State or political subdivision thereof; or (2) an act in furtherance of the offense was committed in the United States. 18 U.S.C. § 1837.
[cited in JM 9-59.100]