An immunized witness who refuses to testify may also be held in criminal contempt. If appropriate, the court may invoke the criminal contempt provisions of 18 U.S.C. 401 or Rule 42 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure. Under the former, the court may impose a fine of $1,000 or imprisonment for not more than six months, but not both. Summary punishment under Rule 42(a) is limited to six months, whereas punishment for contempt under Rule 42(b)--which requires notice and a hearing--is unlimited.
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